- Количество слайдов: 17
Zionism – Part I The Creation of the State of Israel
Let’s Get Practical!: Definitions Chalutzim – Hebrew word meaning pioneers p Aliyah – Hebrew word literally meaning “to go up. ” It is used to mean returning to (immigrating to) Israel. p Plural - Aliyot p
Let’s Get Practical!: The Aliyot I p p p 1 st Aliyah – 1880 -1902 n Hovevei Tzion and Bilu n Plantations funded by Philanthropists 2 nd Aliyah – 1900 -WWI n Organized by Zionist Movement n Immigration of workers, development of communal settlements 3 rd Aliyah – 1919 -1923 n Mostly Eastern European and Russian Jews
Let’s Get Practical!: The Aliyot II p 4 th Aliyah n n n p 1924 -1929 Mostly Polish Jews, many of whom could not immigrate to America Arab violence picks up near end of period 5 th Aliyah n n 1929 – 1939 British White Paper limits immigration at end of period.
Let’s Get Practical!: Modern Hebrew p Eliezer Ben Yehuda n n n Born in 1858 in Lithuania Palestine in 1881 Father of Modern Hebrew Adapted language p Created dictionary p
Setting the Scene: The Balfour Declaration
Setting the Scene: Palestinian Mandate p p June 24, 1922 UN sets up Mandate n n Part of Treaty of Versaille Approves Balfour Dec. Gt. Britain responsible for administration, help estb. Jewish state, safeguard civil and religious rights of all Jewish agency estb.
Setting the Scene: Mandate for Palestine p The Mandatory shall be responsible for placing the country under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the development of selfgoverning institutions, and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine…
Setting the Scene: Arabs p Prior to WWI area controlled by Turkey n n n p Majority of residents Arab Peasants farmed land belonging to few wealthy families Standard of living very low amongst majority of Arabs Concerns n n Growing nationalism Fear of changes brought by Jews
Setting the Scene: Jews p Always been some Jews in Palestine n p Prior to Zionism, hand full of very religious Jews With Zionism n n n Large waves of immigration Improve land & hire Arabs initially Promise of Jewish homeland
Arab Attacks 1922 – Supreme Moslem Council p Mufti – Haj Amin al-Husseini p August 15, 1929 – Hebron Massacre p n n p July – Jews planning attacks on Moslem shrines Nation-wide pogrom British investigate and find on side of Arabs
White Paper of 1939 p Attempt to Clarify the British Position, in light of Peel Commission n n Never meant Jewish home land at Arab expense. New state in 10 years - Arabs & Jews share governmental authority. Limits Jewish immigration to no more than 1/3 of Arab population. No more transfer of land from Arabs to Jews
Statehood: Resolution on Palestine p February 14, 1947 n p British announces intention to return mandate to UN November 29, 1947 n UN approves partition plan
Statehood: UN Partition Plan
Statehood: May 14, 1948 p 8: 00 a. m. n p Mid-Afternoon, n p British lower the Union Jack in Jerusalem Arabs attack Jews 4: 00 p. m. n David Ben-Gurion reads the Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel
Statehood: Law of Return July 5, 1950 p Every Jew has the right to immigrate to the country. p An immigrant’s visa shall be granted to every Jew who has expressed his desire to settle in Israel p
Next Week p Read pages 634 -699.