- Количество слайдов: 17
Yom Kippur War 1973 Adriana Lilla Annika Roberts Steven Soo Mitchell Linegar Jin Mei Mc. Mahon
Timeline Part 1 • Oct. 6, 1973 – Egypt and Syria launch a coordinated attack on Israeli positions along the Suez Canal and in the Golan Heights. Egyptian troops cross the canal, secure a beachhead in the eastern portion of the Sinai Desert, breaching Israel’s Bar-Lev line. Syrian troops defeat Israeli forces on Mt. Hermon in northern Israel. • Oct. 7, 1973 – Syria captures most of the southern portion of the Golan Heights. • Oct. 8, 1973 – Israel launches its first counterattack against Egypt, which is unsuccessful. The Soviet Union supplies additional arms to Syria and Egypt. • Oct. 9, 1973 – Against orders, reserve Maj. Gen. Ariel Sharon launches a counterattack against Egyptian forces in the canal area. Sharon’s actions lead to moves for his dismissal. • Oct. 9, 1973 – U. S. Jewish leader Max Fisher urges President Richard Nixon in a meeting at the White House to “please send the Israelis what they need. ” That night, Nixon tells Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir that “all your aircraft and tank losses will be replaced. ” * Oct. 10, 1973 – Washington authorizes an airlift of military supplies to Israel after the Soviet Union sends additional arms to Egypt. Israel successfully attacks Egyptian troops that had moved out of range of their protective surface- to-air-missile umbrella. Israel has recaptured most of the territory in the southern Golan.
Timeline Part 2 • Oct. 11, 1973 – Israel attacks Syria from its positions on the Golan Heights. The Soviet Union’s ambassador to the United States, Anatoly Dobrynin, tells U. S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger that Soviet airborne forces are on the alert to defend Damascus. Kissinger warns Dobrynin that if the Soviet forces sent troops to the Middle East, the United States would as well. • Oct. 12 -13, 1973 – The United States sends additional arms shipments to Israel. • Oct. 14, 1973 – In one of the largest tank-to-tank battles ever fought, Israel is estimated to have lost 10 tanks, the Egyptians anywhere from 250 to 300. Iraq and Jordan send troops to the Golan, in response to appeals for assistance from Syria. • Oct. 16, 1973 – The first Israeli troops cross the Suez Canal. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat asks the Soviet Union to convene the United Nations and seek a cease-fire. • Oct. 17, 1973 – Ten Arab member-nations of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries announce they will cut oil production until Israel withdraws from Arab territory captured during the 1967 Six-Day War and the rights of the Palestinian people were ``restored. ” The embargo was not completely lifted until March 1974. • Oct. 20, 1973 – Israeli forces reach within 10 miles of Damascus.
Timeline Part 3 • Oct. 21, 1973 – Israeli forces, led by reserve Maj. Gen. Avraham Adan, encircle the Egyptian Third Army. Forces led by Sharon take up positions less than 40 miles from Cairo. • Oct. 22, 1973 – Israel overtakes all Syrian positions on Mt. Hermon. The United Nations adopts Security Council Resolution 338, which calls for an immediate cease-fire, the implementation of Security Resolution 242, which called for an exchange of land for peace and negotiations between the “parties concerned” aimed at establishing a “just and durable peace. ’’ • Oct. 23, 1973 –Fighting continues despite the cease-fire. The United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 339, which restated the group’s call an immediate cease-fire and called for the dispatch of U. N. observers to the area. * Oct. 24, 1973– A second cease-fire is put into effect, but fighting continues between Egypt and Israel. As a result, the Soviet Union threatens the United States that it will send troops to support the Egyptians. The United States puts its nuclear forces on a higher alert. The Soviet Union withdraws its threat the following day. • Oct. 28, 1973– Israeli and Egyptian military leaders meet to implement the cease-fire at Kilometer 101 marker in the Sinai. It is the first meeting between military representatives of the two countries in 25 years. Israel has lost roughly 2, 500 soldiers, Syria 3, 500. Egyptian casualties are unknown.
Arab/Palestinian Points of Contention • Sadat and the rest of the Arab world were upset about their losing streak against the Israelis. • The end objective was not so much to have a proper war but to gain some momentum in order to force Israelis into negotiations over land. • The Palestinians remained refugees
Jewish Points of Contention • Where the Arabs wanted to negotiate for their lost lands, Israel appeared unwilling to negotiate, believing that the new borders were beneficial to its national security. • Appeared to want de facto annexation of occupied territories; populated them with Jewish settlers. • Wanted to improve international image, and so played the victim. Even after it learned of the impending Arab attack, they decided against a preemptive attack. It worked!
Key Players: Anwar Sadat ● Egypt • Succeeded Nasser • Goal: "de-Nasserise" Egypt • Disillusioned with the Soviets • Felt that he had to go to war in order to persuade Israel to make peace on terms acceptable to Arabs. Intended the war to be no more than a military operation to show Egypt's strength. Wanted to reclaim the Sinai and the Suez Canal.
Key Players Henry Kissinger ● USA • Sought a cease-fire, backed by the Soviet Union • Oct. 20 th: drafted cease-fire with Moscow that was accepted two days later. • Shuttle diplomacy. • The beginning of warming relations between America and Egypt.
Key Players: America • 4 diplomatic goals: o o maintain support of Israel o preserve Arab relations (because of oil) o • negotiate quick end to the war prevent Soviet Union from entering war 'Operation Nickel Grass' was an airlift operation to aid Israel in the war. Resulted in the Arab oil embargo on the United States, but allowed Israel to turn the tide of the war.
Key Players: Soviet Union • Gave political support to Arabs. • Soviet Union resupplied Arab states with ammunition and weapons. • When America did the same, increased supply to tanks and planes. • Threatened troop intervention in order to aid the Egyptian Third Army; there is various debate about whether or not they would have actually sent in troops, because of the increasing potential for a superpower confrontation. • Collaborated with America for cease-fire in order to protect
Key Battles: The Sinai • Egyptians prepared assault across the canal and deployed five divisions totaling 100, 000 soldiers, 1, 350 tanks and 2, 000 guns and heavy mortars for the onslaught. Facing them were 450 soldiers of the Jerusalem Brigade. • Israeli armored forces launched counterattacks from October 6 to 8, but they were inadequately supported. • Egyptians used Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) to negate Israeli air-force; however, this dependency restricted Egyptian troop movements. • Israel built up supplies and counterattacked Egypt (Operation Gazelle) on October 15. They managed to cross the Suez Canal to the north of the Great Bitter Lake. • During intense fighting, the IDF focused on reclaiming the area around along the Suez Canal up until the cease-fire.
Key Battles: Golan Heights • Given priority by the Israeli High Command. • Famous for tank battles - 800 Syrian tanks to 180 Israeli tanks. • Fighting was intense and extremely violent. The Syrians attacked with precision, Israel only just holding them back. • By October 9, only six Israeli tanks remained in action. 15 repaired tanks whose crews included injured men arrived to support it. The Syrians thought Israeli reinforcements were arriving and retreated, exhausted from three days of fighting. • The arriving Israeli reserve forces were able to contain the Syrian advance. Beginning October 8, the Israelis began pushing the Syrians back towards the prewar ceasefire lines. • Israel then continued to advance into Syria, pushing back Syrian troops almost to Damascus.
Outcomes of the War Israel: Arab Countries: • Military Victory • Political Victory • Tactical gains • Oil weapon (powerfully positioned • Dignity restored troops) • 8500 deaths, 20000 • Aura of invincibility wounded gone General: • 3000 deaths, 8000 • Israelis and Arabs met at a peace conference in wounded Geneva in December 1973, their first face to face meeting in 25 years • Kissinger’s role was in equilibrium to both sides
Sources • http: //www. jta. org/news/article/1998/09/2 0/4829/Timelineof. Yom. Kipp • http: //www. palestinefacts. org/pf_1967 to 1991_yk war_result. php • The Arab Israeli Conflict by T. G. Fraser • Wikipedia