Скачать презентацию XXXIV Westward Expansion A Territorial Claims to Mississippi Скачать презентацию XXXIV Westward Expansion A Territorial Claims to Mississippi

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XXXIV. Westward Expansion A. Territorial Claims to Mississippi west 1. Native American Claims 2. XXXIV. Westward Expansion A. Territorial Claims to Mississippi west 1. Native American Claims 2. U S claims to Louisiana Territory 3. Spanish Claims by 1815 a. Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, California & west Colorado 4. Russian Claims to Alaska and Northern California a. gave up claims in 1842 5. Britain and U. S. claim Oregon 1818 -1827 B. American intrusion 1. Economic motivation a. fur trade in Oregon and coastal area b. Spanish restricted trade with her colonies i. 1821 neglect led to loss of Spanish control ii. New Mexicans encourage trade Americans iii. Santa Fe Trail from St. Louis (gateway to west)

 c. New England traders sailed round continent i. Far East trade ii. California c. New England traders sailed round continent i. Far East trade ii. California a. Cow hides b. openings for craftsmen and merchants 2. Moral Mission a. democratize and civilize the continent (world) b. Manifest Destiny 1845 Democratic Review John L. O'Sullivan C. Texas 1. Border a. Adams Onís Treaty of 1819 b. Mexican independence questioned treaty c. Southerners looking for cotton growing land d. Scarcely populated with Comanche trouble 2. American Immigrants a. Moses Austin, 1820 for mining concession

 b. Mexico offers territory for colonization c. Steven takes up father’s charge first b. Mexico offers territory for colonization c. Steven takes up father’s charge first Impresario i. 12. 5¢ per acre in Texas 1/10 of price in U. S. ii. farmers given 177 acres, ranchers 4, 428 acres iii. allowed to own slaves, outlawed in Mexico iv. Mexico fortified border with Comanche & U. S. d. Political turmoil in Mexico during 1820 s and 1830 s i. Constitution of 1824 very liberal ii. Federal government with much autonomy for each state iii. elected officials and passed some laws e. 1829, Mexico worried about increased American immigration i. forbade slavery - Texans force indentured servitude ii. immigration law, to slow or stop immigration from U. S. iii. 15, 000 Americans in Texas only 5, 000 Mexicans by 1830 iv. Antonio López de Santa Ana repeals constitution

 3. Texas Rebellion a. Steven Austin negotiated for Texas statehood but imprisoned b. 3. Texas Rebellion a. Steven Austin negotiated for Texas statehood but imprisoned b. demand Independence or return to 1824 Constitution c. Santa Ana launches military campaign i. Alamo-Jim Bowie, David Crockett & Col. William B. Travis ii. Goliad iii. "remember Goliad, remember the Alamo" d. Sam Houston leads Santa Ana on wild chase e. Mexico over extended reluctant conscripts f. Houston surprises Santa Ana at San Jacinto g. Santa Ana signs treaty 4/21/1836 h. Texan Independence 4. Texans seek annexation to United States a. President Jackson refused to Annex the area i. area unstable ii. Spain or England may view this as threat a. Spain fought Mexican independence

 b. England had business interests & ties with Mexico b. Northerners did not b. England had business interests & ties with Mexico b. Northerners did not want another slave state i. 13 free states & 13 slave states D. Manifest Destiny of 1. U. S. and Britain want California for stronger claim to Oregon a. Britain got California as security for loan b. U. S. ready for access to the Pacific Ocean i. Commodore Thomas Catsby Jones ii. 1842 believes U. S. and Mexico at war iii. invades Monterey, Governor in L. A. iv. realized mistake and surrenders Monterey 2. Presidential election of 1844 a. Whigs oppose annexation of Texas because of slavery b. Democrats support annexation on grounds of Manifest Destiny i. James K. Polk won election over Henry Clay (Whig) ii. John Tyler annexes Texas with joint resolution instead of treaty iii. Texas had option of dividing into five states

 3. Polk espoused Manifest Destiny a. control of Oregon to 54040' line b. 3. Polk espoused Manifest Destiny a. control of Oregon to 54040' line b. 490 line as compromise i. 1842 -400 Americans in Oregon ii. 1845 -5, 000 U. S. possession by population c. Fur trade declining and British loose interest d. British agree to 490 parallel but keep Vancouver Is. 1846 E. Prelude to War 1. Diplomatic ties with Mexico severed after annexation of Texas a. Mexicans convinced, Revolution a U. S. plot to gain Texas b. Texas boundaries never settled i. dispute over Rio Grande and Nueces Rivers 2. Polk seeks territorial gains a. Polk orders Gen. Zachary Taylor to Rio Grande b. Polk hopes to buy territory, CA & N. M. c. Mexico refuses to receive John L. Slidell

 3. Mexico sends patrols north, ordered not to engage 4. Taylor ordered to 3. Mexico sends patrols north, ordered not to engage 4. Taylor ordered to provoke war a. builds fort in disputed territory and send out patrols b. eventually two men fail to return c. President tells congress of incident d. Abraham Lincoln, a Whig calls for spot resolution e. Congress declares war, May 11, 1846 F. The Mexican American War 1. Four pronged attack a. Taylor went overland south to Mexico City b. Gen. Winfield Scott to Veracruz then on to Mexico City c. Col. Stephen Kearney to Santa Fe, N. M. then to CA d. Forth column within Northern California i. 1842 -45 1, 500 Americans in northern CA ii. John Sutter iii. Thomas Larkin and Bear Flag revolt 2. Santa Ana surrenders to Scott little resistance

 3. California a. Los Angeles, Gillespe, San Pasquel 12/6/46 b. Capitulation of Cahuenga, 3. California a. Los Angeles, Gillespe, San Pasquel 12/6/46 b. Capitulation of Cahuenga, 1/13/1847 4. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 2/2/1849 a. U. S. gained most of southwest b. assured all Mexicans their property rights c. Mexican citizens offered American citizenship d. Children guaranteed education in native language 5. Cost to U. S. a. 13, 000 Americans died in conflict, primarily from disease b. U. S. spent $97 million on campaign and $15 for land taken G. American Migration to West 1. 1840 -1870 large migration of Americans west by two routes

 a. sea route around horn or via isthmus of Panama $500 -$700 b. a. sea route around horn or via isthmus of Panama $500 -$700 b. overland route, 1/3 price 2. price kept poor from going, primarily middle class 3. 1849 -1852 exception to migration patterns a. 1/24/48 James Wilson Marshall gold Sutter's Mill b. CA grows from 14, 000 to 100, 000 by '52 c. primarily single men, most from U. S. d. skipped over large amounts of west 4. Race relations in west a. The slavery question b. Foreign Miners Tax 1850 -1851, 1852 i. all foreigners ii. Taiping Rebellion against Manchu, 1851 c. Indian removal and exploitation i. Indian workers ii. Indian land reservations 1851 -52

 iii. Los Angeles slave market? iv. Indian survival d. Mexican community in south iii. Los Angeles slave market? iv. Indian survival d. Mexican community in south i. Mexican race relations, broken patterns ii. gold rush immigrants iii. bandits and gamblers iv. land act of 1851, 1854 & 1859, lost land theory v. politics and cattle 5. Few women in California 6. Merchants exploiting the boom a. the mining economy b. Cities, Denver & San Francisco