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WWI 1914 -1918 WWI 1914 -1918

The Origins of WWI w Militarism- aggressive preparation for war Ex: building an army The Origins of WWI w Militarism- aggressive preparation for war Ex: building an army or armed forces Conscription- military draft

The Origins of WWI w Alliances- being “friends” with certain countries; w An agreement The Origins of WWI w Alliances- being “friends” with certain countries; w An agreement between two or more countries to work together for the benefit of each country. w Ex: Triple Entente, Triple Alliance

The Origins of WWI w Imperialism- act of a stronger nation taking over the The Origins of WWI w Imperialism- act of a stronger nation taking over the politics and economy of a weaker territory w Ex: U. S. annexing Hawaii

The Origins of WWI w Nationalism- Intense and blind patriotism towards your country Ex: The Origins of WWI w Nationalism- Intense and blind patriotism towards your country Ex: wanting to keep your culture, language, and religion

Kings, Kaisers, and Czars w George V – King of England w Nicholas II Kings, Kaisers, and Czars w George V – King of England w Nicholas II – Czar of Russia w Wilhelm II – Kaiser of Germany w They were cousins

Nicholas II, Czar of all the Russias, and King George V, King of all Nicholas II, Czar of all the Russias, and King George V, King of all of England, Ireland, Scotland, the Dominions of the British Empire, and the protectorate of India. With a common grandmother, Queen Victoria, the two men shared a common bond, a brotherhood that threatened their other cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Vittorio Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy. Seeing that Germany was not going to Vittorio Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy. Seeing that Germany was not going to win the war, Italy switched sides in late 1917 and joined the allies. This ensured them a place at the bargaining table at the Treaty of Versailles, where Orlando jockeyed to gain German lands.

Alliances (see map) w Central Powers (aka: triple alliance) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Alliances (see map) w Central Powers (aka: triple alliance) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (side switcher) w Allied Powers (aka: triple entente) pronunciation= ontont – Great Britain, France, and Russia

Franz Ferdinand = Archduke of Austria He was assassinated and WWI started! Franz Ferdinand = Archduke of Austria He was assassinated and WWI started!

World War I (1914 -1918) U. S. Position w USA declares Neutrality or they World War I (1914 -1918) U. S. Position w USA declares Neutrality or they are an Isolationist = “we’re staying out of the war”

Trench Warfare w Style of fighting for WWI – Soldiers lived and fought in Trench Warfare w Style of fighting for WWI – Soldiers lived and fought in the trenches and they hated it !!

Conditions in the trenches : Rats in their millions infested trenches (900). Gorging themselves Conditions in the trenches : Rats in their millions infested trenches (900). Gorging themselves on human remains (grotesquely disfiguring them by eating their eyes and liver) they could grow to the size of a cat.

No Man’s Land, Flander’s Field, 1919 No Man’s Land, Flander’s Field, 1919

America enters the war = 1917 Three Reasons: Unrestricted Submarine (U-Boat) Warfare 1. Lusitania- America enters the war = 1917 Three Reasons: Unrestricted Submarine (U-Boat) Warfare 1. Lusitania- British passenger ship attacked and sunk by Germans 2. Sussex- sunk by Germans 3. Zimmerman Note (1917) • A direct threat against USA security

John J. Pershing w Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), led a welltrained John J. Pershing w Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), led a welltrained American force

Alvin York w American soldier during WWI reportedly killed 25 Germans & captured 132 Alvin York w American soldier during WWI reportedly killed 25 Germans & captured 132 prisoners w Awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor

Battle of Argonne Forest. w. Allies made slow, but steady progress under Pershing’s direction Battle of Argonne Forest. w. Allies made slow, but steady progress under Pershing’s direction w. Allied powers broke through the Central Powers’ fortification.

w The war ended 9 months after USA joined w Treaty of Versailles = w The war ended 9 months after USA joined w Treaty of Versailles = ends WWI & blames Germany for everything

WW I Facts w President Woodrow Wilson supported joining the war because he wanted WW I Facts w President Woodrow Wilson supported joining the war because he wanted to make the world a safe democracy w African-Americans migrated north for jobs & racial tension increased ! THE GREAT MIGRATION! w German immigration was limited because of WWI w After WWI Americans begin buying on credit. w Women join labor force…increase for women’s suffrage

big 4 Wilson Forced to Compromise • Although Wilson claimed that he was not big 4 Wilson Forced to Compromise • Although Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages. • Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 Points so he could negotiate for the League of Nations. David Lloyd George Vitorio Orlando Great Britain Italy George Clemeneau Woodrow Wilson France U. S.

Impact of U. S. joining WWI w The Selective Service Act- gov’t draft to Impact of U. S. joining WWI w The Selective Service Act- gov’t draft to provide more fighting power w Espionage & Sedition Acts- banned public criticism of the government policy and involvement in the war. w War Industries Board- encourage efficient business practices.

Economic Effects of U. S. joining WWI w Liberty Bonds- method of funding the Economic Effects of U. S. joining WWI w Liberty Bonds- method of funding the war by public borrowing w National War Labor Board- gov’t agency to settle labor disputes and prevent disruption of war production w War Contracts- government contracts filled by private industries to produce war material

14 Point Plan w By President Woodrow Wilson – Wilson’s “peace plan” to end 14 Point Plan w By President Woodrow Wilson – Wilson’s “peace plan” to end all wars w Goal = world peace w House approves but Senate rejects – Example of checks and balances – Henry Cabot Lodge = reason why Senate rejected the plan. Why?

v. One of Wilson’s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations v. The v. One of Wilson’s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations v. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. v. Collective Security of larger nations to keep world peace.

w w w w 1. No more secret agreements ( w w w w 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at"). 2. Free navigation of all seas. 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries. 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers. 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia should be left to develop her own political set-up. 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war. 8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy's borders are to "along clearly recognisable lines of nationality. " 10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria. Hungary. 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states. 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non. Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves. 13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea. 14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states.

LEAGUE OF NATIONS w w w Wanted by President Woodrow Wilson Supposed to be LEAGUE OF NATIONS w w w Wanted by President Woodrow Wilson Supposed to be a World Police Force Many Countries Joined It USA DOES NOT JOIN IT IT FAILS!!

league cartoon • Without the assistance of the United States the League of Nations league cartoon • Without the assistance of the United States the League of Nations was doomed to fail.

 • Return to a peacetime industry and economy • War boosted American economy • Return to a peacetime industry and economy • War boosted American economy and industry. • United States became a world power, largest creditor and wealthy nation. • Soldiers were heroes but found that jobs were scarce. • African American soldiers, despite their service returned to find continued discrimination. • The Lost Generation of men who were killed in WWI.