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WRITTEN EXPRESSION QUESTIONS WRITTEN EXPRESSION QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS WITH THE FORM OF THE VERB BASE FORM PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE walk hear PROBLEMS WITH THE FORM OF THE VERB BASE FORM PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE walk hear cook sing come begin walk(s) hear(s) cook(s) sing(s) come(s) begin(s) walked heard cooked sung came begun walking hearing cooking singing coming beginning walked heard cooked sang came began

AFTER HAVE, USE THE PAST PARTICIPLE They had walk* to school. (Should be had AFTER HAVE, USE THE PAST PARTICIPLE They had walk* to school. (Should be had walked) We have see* the show. (Should be have seen) He has took* the test. (Should be has taken) Having ate*, he went to school. (Should be Having eaten) My friend sung* in the choir. (Should be sang or has sung)

AFTER BE, USE THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE OR THE PAST PARTICIPLE We are do* our AFTER BE, USE THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE OR THE PAST PARTICIPLE We are do* our homework. (should be are doing) The homework was do* early. (should be was done) Tom is take* the book. (should be is taking) The book was take* by Tom. (should be was taken)

AFTER WILL, WOULD, OR OTHER MODALS, USE THE BASE FORM OF THE VERBS FORMS AFTER WILL, WOULD, OR OTHER MODALS, USE THE BASE FORM OF THE VERBS FORMS AFTER MODALS MODAL (will, would, shall, should, can, BASE FORM + OF THE VERB could, may, might, must) The boat will leaving* at 3: 00. (should be will leave) The doctor may arrives* soon. (should be may arrive)

PROBLEMS WITH THE USE OF THE VERB SKILL 20: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PROBLEMS WITH THE USE OF THE VERB SKILL 20: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT He took* the money when he wants* it. • He took the money when he wanted it. • He takes the money when he wants it. • I know that he took the money yesterday.

SKILL 20: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT Carrie Chapman Catt SKILL 20: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT Carrie Chapman Catt organized the (A) League of Women Voters after (B) successfully campaign for the (C) constitutional amendment that gave (D) women the right to vote.

SKILL 20: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT Carrie Chapman Catt SKILL 20: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT Carrie Chapman Catt organized the (A) League of Women Voters after (B) successfully campaign for the (C) constitutional amendment that gave (D) women the right to vote.

SKILL 21: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS • We moved to New SKILL 21: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS • We moved to New York in 1980. • We had left there by 1990. • We have lived in San Francisco since 1999. • She got a job two years ago. • She started working last week. • She has worked very hard lately.

SKILL 21: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS In 1776 to 1800, the SKILL 21: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS In 1776 to 1800, the population of the U. S. (A) (B) continued to rise, reaching five million (C) (D) citizens by the turn of the century.

SKILL 21: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS In 1776 to 1800, the SKILL 21: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS In 1776 to 1800, the population of the U. S. (A) (B) continued to rise, reaching five million (C) (D) citizens by the turn of the century. ( from…to. . )

PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE VERBS USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE PASSIVE The portrait was PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE VERBS USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE PASSIVE The portrait was painting* by a famous artist. (should be was painted) The project will finished* by Tim. (should be will be finished)

PROBLEMS WITH NOUNS USE THE CORRECT SINGULAR OR PLURAL NOUN On the table there PROBLEMS WITH NOUNS USE THE CORRECT SINGULAR OR PLURAL NOUN On the table there were many dish* (dishes) The lab assistant finished every tests*. (test) KEY WORDS FOR SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS For Singular Nouns each every For Plural Nouns two both single many one a several various

SKILL 24: DISTINGUISH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS • Countable nouns are individual objects, people, SKILL 24: DISTINGUISH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS • Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted. For example: books, Italians, pictures, stations, men. A countable noun can be both singular - a friend, a house, etc. - or plural - a few apples, lots of trees, etc. • Uncountable nouns are materials, concepts, information, etc. which are not individual objects and can not be counted. For example: information, water, understanding, wood, cheese, etc. Uncountable nouns are always singular.

Uncountable Nouns accommodation advice baggage bread equipment furniture garbage information knowledge luggage money news Uncountable Nouns accommodation advice baggage bread equipment furniture garbage information knowledge luggage money news pasta progress research travel work

KEY WORDS FOR COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS For Countable Nouns many number few For KEY WORDS FOR COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS For Countable Nouns many number few For Uncountable Nouns much amount little fewer less

SKILL 25: DISTINGUISH THE PERSON FROM THE THING • Ralph Nader is an authorization* SKILL 25: DISTINGUISH THE PERSON FROM THE THING • Ralph Nader is an authorization* in the field of consumer affairs. (should be authority) • There are many job opportunities in accountant*. (should be accounting)

DISTINGUISH THE PERSON FROM THE THING Noun (thing) Endings Noun (person) Endings -ism -nce DISTINGUISH THE PERSON FROM THE THING Noun (thing) Endings Noun (person) Endings -ism -nce -ness -ion -ment -age -ship -er -or -ist -ian : socialism : excellence : sadness : information : government : marriage : friendship : employer : actor : tourist : musician

PROBLEMS WITH PRONOUNS Pronouns are words, such as he, she, or it, that take PROBLEMS WITH PRONOUNS Pronouns are words, such as he, she, or it, that take the place of nouns. When you see a pronoun in written expression questions on the TOEFL test, you need to check that it serves the correct function in the sentence (as a subject or object, for example) and that it agrees with the noun it is replacing.

SKILL 26: DISTINGUISH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS • They lent me their book. ADJECTIVE SKILL 26: DISTINGUISH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS • They lent me their book. ADJECTIVE • They lent me theirs. PRONOUN Each morning they read theirs* newspapers. (should be their) Could you give me your*? (should be yours)

DISTINGUISH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS my your his her its DISTINGUISH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS my your his her its our their mine yours his hers ours theirs must be accompanied cannot be accompanied by a noun

SKILL 27: CHECK PRONOUN REFERENCE FOR AGREEMENT • The boys will cause trouble if SKILL 27: CHECK PRONOUN REFERENCE FOR AGREEMENT • The boys will cause trouble if you let him*. (should be them) • Everyone must give their* name. (should be his or her)

PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Adjective Endings -ent -ant -ful -ic -less -ive -ous PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Adjective Endings -ent -ant -ful -ic -less -ive -ous -al -able -ible : excellent : important : careful : economic : careless : expensive : dangerous : natural : capable : possible Adverb Endings -ly : recently

USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY Adjectives have only one job: they describe nouns USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY Adjectives have only one job: they describe nouns or pronouns. She is a beautiful woman. adj. She Pronoun is beautiful. adj. Noun

USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY Adverbs do three different things. They describe verbs, USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY Adverbs do three different things. They describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. She sings beautifully verb adv. She is a beautifully dressed woman. adv. Adj. Noun She is a truly beautifully dressed woman. adv. Adj. noun

SKILL 28: USE ADJECTIVES AFTER LINKING VERBS She spoke nicely VERB ADV She looks SKILL 28: USE ADJECTIVES AFTER LINKING VERBS She spoke nicely VERB ADV She looks nice SUB ADJ. Linking verbs: appear feel be look become prove He seems unusually nice. S Adv. seem smell taste Adj.

SKILL 29: POSITION ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY The information important* is on the first SKILL 29: POSITION ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY The information important* is on the first page. NOUN ADJ. He has taken recently* an English course ADV. OBJECT An adverb that describes a verb cannot come between the verb and its object. Recently he has taken an English course. He has recently taken an English course. He has taken an English course recently.

MORE PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES SKILL 30: RECOGNIZE –LY ADJECTIVES -LY ADJECTIVES costly early friendly MORE PROBLEMS WITH ADJECTIVES SKILL 30: RECOGNIZE –LY ADJECTIVES -LY ADJECTIVES costly early friendly kindly likely lively lonely manly daily hourly monthly nightly quarterly weekly yearly lovely northerly easterly southerly westerly

SKILL 31: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY The snake on the rock was alive. The SKILL 31: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY The snake on the rock was alive. The alive* snake was lying on the rock. (should be live) PREDICATE ADJECTIVES FORMS USED IN FRONT OF A PREDICATE ADJECTIVES NOUN alike alive alone afraid asleep like, similar live, living lone frightened sleeping A predicate adjective appears after a linking verb such as be. It cannot appear directly in front of the noun that it describes.

SKILL 32: USE –ED AND –ING ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY The woman cleans the car. VERB SKILL 32: USE –ED AND –ING ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY The woman cleans the car. VERB The cleaning woman worked on the car. ADJECTIVE The woman put the cleaned car back in the garage. ADJECTIVE The cleaning* car…(should be cleaned) The cleaned* woman… (should be cleaning)

-ED AND –ING ADJECTIVES TYPE MEANING USE EXAMPLE -ING active It does the action -ED AND –ING ADJECTIVES TYPE MEANING USE EXAMPLE -ING active It does the action of the verb. …the happily playing children… (the children play. ) -ED passive It receives the action of the verb. . . the frequently played record… (Someone plays the record. )

PROBLEMS WITH ARTICLES COUNTABLE SINGULAR NOUNS COUNTABLE PLURAL NOUNS UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS INDEFINITE (general) a PROBLEMS WITH ARTICLES COUNTABLE SINGULAR NOUNS COUNTABLE PLURAL NOUNS UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS INDEFINITE (general) a dollar an apple _____dollars _____apples ____money ____juice DEFINITE (Specific) the dollar the apple the dollars the apples the money the juice

SKILL 33: USE ARTICLES WITH SINGULAR NOUNS • I have money. needed) (uncountable- no SKILL 33: USE ARTICLES WITH SINGULAR NOUNS • I have money. needed) (uncountable- no article • I have books. article needed) (countable plural- no • I have a book. article needed) (countable singular-

DISTINGUISH A AND AN A A is used in front of a singular noun DISTINGUISH A AND AN A A is used in front of a singular noun with a consonant sound. Ex: a book, a man, a page AN An is used in front of a singular noun with a vowel sound. Ex: an orange, an illness, an automobile Be careful of nouns beginning with H or U. They may have a vowel or consonant sound.

MAKE ARTICLES AGREE WITH NOUNS He saw a* new movies. - He saw a MAKE ARTICLES AGREE WITH NOUNS He saw a* new movies. - He saw a new movie. (singular) - He saw new movies. (plural) AGREEMENT OF ARTICLES WITH NOUNS You should never use a or an with a plural noun.

DISTINGUISH SPECIFIC AND GENERAL IDEAS Tom will bring the book tomorrow. (There is one DISTINGUISH SPECIFIC AND GENERAL IDEAS Tom will bring the book tomorrow. (There is one specific book that Tom will bring tomorrow. ) Tom will bring a book tomorrow. (Tom will bring any one book). SPECIFIC AND GENERAL IDEAS ARTICLE MEANING USES A or AN general idea Use when there are many, and you do not know which one it is. Use when there are many, and you do not care which one it is. THE specific idea Use when it is the only one. Use when there are many, and you know which one it is.

PROBLEMS WITH PREPOSITIONS • Prepositions in a literal way The boy ran up the PROBLEMS WITH PREPOSITIONS • Prepositions in a literal way The boy ran up the hill. (The boy went in the direction up rather than down) • In the idiomatic use I call up my friend. (to call up someone means to telephone someone) He succeeded in passing the course.

SKILL 34: RECOGNIZE WHEN PREPOSITIONS HAVE BEEN OMITTED • Can you wait* me after SKILL 34: RECOGNIZE WHEN PREPOSITIONS HAVE BEEN OMITTED • Can you wait* me after the game? (wait for me) • I plan* attending the meeting. (plan on attending)

PROBLEM WITH USAGE United States paper money is all like (A) in that it PROBLEM WITH USAGE United States paper money is all like (A) in that it is all printed with the face of a (B) (C) famous person such as Washington, (D) Lincoln, or Franklin.

PROBLEM WITH USAGE United States paper money is all like (A) in that it PROBLEM WITH USAGE United States paper money is all like (A) in that it is all printed with the face of a (B) (C) famous person such as Washington, (D) Lincoln, or Franklin. Answer: alike

References Phillips, Deborah. 2001. Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test. New York: Addison-Wesley References Phillips, Deborah. 2001. Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc. and Any sources from the internet and books