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World Trade Indicators 2008 http: //www. worldbank. org/wti 2008 Ravindra A. Yatawara May 18 World Trade Indicators 2008 http: //www. worldbank. org/wti 2008 Ravindra A. Yatawara May 18 th - May 19 th to 2009 Geneva, Switzerland

Structure of WTI database: organizing for users TRADE POLICY EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS/ INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT Structure of WTI database: organizing for users TRADE POLICY EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS/ INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT TRADE OUTCOME TRADE FACILITATION

TRADE FACILITATION What gets measured, get managed Logistics Performance Index (LPI) Trading Across Borders- TRADE FACILITATION What gets measured, get managed Logistics Performance Index (LPI) Trading Across Borders- DB Others Indicators- e. g. Liner Shipping Connectivity Index

§Thick borders imply high trade costs that: constrain access to regional and global markets, §Thick borders imply high trade costs that: constrain access to regional and global markets, and lower competitiveness of firms and their scope to exploit scale and diversify §In Context of Global Economic Crisis §Trade Facilitation Reform seen as key to penetrating shrinking export markets

The Challenge The Challenge

www. worldbank. org/lpi Ranking and component Logistics business environment and institutions Performance data Available www. worldbank. org/lpi Ranking and component Logistics business environment and institutions Performance data Available as rankings, maps, scorecards Contact: [email protected] org

Partnership with the private sector Built on 5, 500 country assessments by more than Partnership with the private sector Built on 5, 500 country assessments by more than 800 logistics professionals worldwide: Assessments from professionals outside the country, trading with it Assessment of domestic business environment and institutions and time and cost data Questionnaire designed with input from trade and logistics professionals Primary data gathered for 150 countries

The survey uses an anonymous, webbased questionnaire asking respondents to evaluate their country of The survey uses an anonymous, webbased questionnaire asking respondents to evaluate their country of residence and eight countries they are dealing with on several logistics dimensions

International LPI – 150 countries - Score (1 -5, best) - Qualitative - Based International LPI – 150 countries - Score (1 -5, best) - Qualitative - Based on respondents evaluating 8 countries they deal with

The (International) LPI measures SEVEN dimensions of country performance Efficiency of the clearance process The (International) LPI measures SEVEN dimensions of country performance Efficiency of the clearance process Quality of transport and IT infrastructure Ease of arranging competitively priced shipments Logistics competence and quality of logistics services Tracking and tracing Domestic logistics costs Timeliness

DOMESTIC LPI - 100 countries 1) Performance – Quantitative 2) Environment & Institutions- Qualitative DOMESTIC LPI - 100 countries 1) Performance – Quantitative 2) Environment & Institutions- Qualitative

 PERFORMANCE DATA FOR INDONESIA Rate of physical inspection (%) _0. 12 Customs clearance PERFORMANCE DATA FOR INDONESIA Rate of physical inspection (%) _0. 12 Customs clearance (days) 1. 58 Lead time export, median case (days) 2. 54 Lead time import, best case (days) 1. 91 Lead time import, median case (days) 3. 88 Number of border agencies exports 2. 73 Number of border agencies imports 2. 73 Possibility of a review procedure (%) 0. 38 Typical charge for a 40 -foot export container or a semitrailer (US$) 266. 00 Typical charge for a 40 -foot import container or a semitrailer (US$) 244. 44

ENVIRONMENT & INSTITUTIONS 5 choices from very high to very low Reported as share ENVIRONMENT & INSTITUTIONS 5 choices from very high to very low Reported as share that chose Very high/high 1) logistic operational environment 2) quality of infrastructure 3) efficiency and effectiveness of processes 4) level of competence of professions 5) 3 Year evolution of business env, customs 6) Incidence of informal payments, crime

LPI Ranking presents performance scores of all countries on the LPI index, as well LPI Ranking presents performance scores of all countries on the LPI index, as well as on the seven key dimensions, in a sortable format

LPI Ranks TOP 10 COUNTRIES UPPER MIDDLE INCOME LOW INCOME Country LPI Rank South LPI Ranks TOP 10 COUNTRIES UPPER MIDDLE INCOME LOW INCOME Country LPI Rank South Africa Malaysia Chile Turkey Hungary Czech Republic Poland Latvia Argentina Estonia 24 27 32 34 35 38 40 42 45 47 Country China Thailand Indonesia Jordan Bulgaria Peru Tunisia Brazil Philippines El Salvador LPI Rank 30 31 43 52 55 59 60 61 65 66 Country India Vietnam Sao Tome and Principe Guinea Sudan Mauritania Pakistan Kenya Gambia, The Cambodia LPI Rank 39 53 57 62 64 67 68 76 77 81

 “Logistics gap” across income groups “Logistics gap” across income groups

Global Perspective –Domestic LPI Customs Rate of clearance physical (days) inspection Time export import Global Perspective –Domestic LPI Customs Rate of clearance physical (days) inspection Time export import (days) East Asia & Pacific 2. 1 18% 2. 5 5. 7 Europe & Central Asia 1. 2 8% 1. 7 4. 5 Latin America & Caribbean 2 14% 2. 7 5. 7 Middle East & North Africa 2. 2 14% 2. 1 7. 2 2 27% 4. 4 7. 2 Sub-Saharan Africa 3. 3 29% 4. 8 13. 3 High income: OECD 0. 9 3% 1. 8 4. 6 South Asia

Key messages n n Trade logistics performance is only as good as the weakest Key messages n n Trade logistics performance is only as good as the weakest link Predictability and reliability are as important as cost and speed The LPI can assess your country’s bottlenecks and opportunities for reform – and where, if necessary, to direct “aid for trade” The LPI can mobilize broad constituencies for reform

Key Policy Implications POLICY IMPLICATIONS Expand the traditional reform agenda beyond customs reform and Key Policy Implications POLICY IMPLICATIONS Expand the traditional reform agenda beyond customs reform and infrastructure development Improve the quality of logistics services and increase border agency coordination Embark on comprehensive reform—processes, services, and infrastructure—with broad public and private support LPI as an preliminary indicator – Pursue Trade and Transport Facilitation Audits (TTFA) Develop National Logistics Strategies

LPI 2009 - LAUNCHED May 12, 2009 Improvement in survey design More explicit description LPI 2009 - LAUNCHED May 12, 2009 Improvement in survey design More explicit description of time to export/import New module on customs Domestic Logistics costs replaced with Implementation of Cargo Security Requirements Results out end June /early July 2009

Trade Facilitation Indicator: DOING BUSINESS (DB) DB 2010 : Out Sept 2009 Trade Facilitation Indicator: DOING BUSINESS (DB) DB 2010 : Out Sept 2009

Doing Business: Quantitative measure of regulations for Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Doing Business: Quantitative measure of regulations for Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Employing workers Registering property Getting credit Protecting investors Paying taxes Trading across borders Enforcing contracts Closing a business Source: World Bank Doing Business

Top 30 on the Ease of Doing Business - 2009 1. Singapore 16. Saudi Top 30 on the Ease of Doing Business - 2009 1. Singapore 16. Saudi Arabia 2. New Zealand 17. Sweden 3. United States 18. Bahrain 4. Hong Kong, China 19. Belgium 5. Denmark 20. Malaysia 6. United Kingdom 21. Switzerland 7. Ireland 22. Estonia 8. Canada 23. Korea 9. Australia 24. Mauritius 10. Norway 25. Germany 11. Iceland 26. Netherlands 12. Japan 27. Austria 13. Thailand 28. Lithuania 14. Finland 29. Latvia 15. Georgia 30. Israel Source: World Bank Doing Business

Top Reformers in 2007/2008 Source: World Bank Doing Business Top Reformers in 2007/2008 Source: World Bank Doing Business

Top reformers by indicator Source: World Bank Doing Business Top reformers by indicator Source: World Bank Doing Business

Highlights of Doing Business 2009 239 reforms in 113 countries. Highest recorded in 6 Highlights of Doing Business 2009 239 reforms in 113 countries. Highest recorded in 6 years of Doing Business Eastern Europe and Central Asia – 62 reforms in 23 of the 25 countries, 25% of the total recorded worldwide. Fastest reforming region. – 4 of top 10 reformers from Eastern Europe and Central Asia Africa – 28 of 46 countries completing 58 reforms, highest rate of reform recorded in the region. – 3 of top 10 reformers from Africa 1000 reforms recorded over past 6 reports, 174 informed by Doing Business Source: World Bank Doing Business

Most popular reforms in 2007/2008 Source: World Bank Doing Business Most popular reforms in 2007/2008 Source: World Bank Doing Business

Doing Business Subcategory TRADING ACROSS BORDERS Doing Business Subcategory TRADING ACROSS BORDERS

Doing Business -Trading Across Borders (rank 1 – 181, worst) Based on: 1) Number Doing Business -Trading Across Borders (rank 1 – 181, worst) Based on: 1) Number of documents for import/export 2) Time (in days) for import/export 3) Cost (US $ per container) to import/export A higher rank is associated with a more favorable environment for trading across borders. Source: World Bank Doing Business

Documents required to export and import Bank documents Customs clearance documents Port and terminal Documents required to export and import Bank documents Customs clearance documents Port and terminal handling documents Transport documents Time required to export and import Obtaining all the documents Inland transport Customs clearance and inspections Port and terminal handling Does not include ocean transport time Cost required to export and import (US $ per container) Obtaining all the documents Inland transport Customs clearance and inspections Port and terminal handling Official costs only, no bribes or tariffs Source: World Bank Doing Business

DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 countries (rank) Country 2008 Singapore 1 Hong DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 countries (rank) Country 2008 Singapore 1 Hong Kong, China 2 Denmark 3 Finland 4 Estonia 5 Sweden 6 Norway 7 Panama 8 Israel 9 Thailand 10 Source: WTI 2008

DB – Trading Across Borders: Bottom 10 countries (rank) Country 2008 Zimbabwe 162 Eritrea DB – Trading Across Borders: Bottom 10 countries (rank) Country 2008 Zimbabwe 162 Eritrea 163 Venezuela, RB 164 Lao PDR 165 Mali 166 Malawi 167 Rwanda 168 Niger 169 Burundi 170 Uzbekistan 171 Source: WTI 2008

DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 Improvements Country 2008 2007 Senegal 60 139 DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 Improvements Country 2008 2007 Senegal 60 139 Thailand 10 51 Djibouti 35 71 Kiribati 69 102 Cambodia 122 144 Iceland 34 53 Madagascar 109 127 Saudi Arabia 16 33 Colombia 96 112 Syrian Arab Republic 111 127 Source: WTI 2008

DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 Slippages Country 2008 2007 India 90 81 DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 Slippages Country 2008 2007 India 90 81 Lesotho 141 132 Mexico 87 78 Jordan 74 64 Moldova 135 125 Oman 119 109 South Africa 147 137 Tunisia 38 28 Ukraine 131 121 Australia 45 34 Source: WTI 2008

Speeding trade – improving reforms across regions Source: World Bank Doing Business Speeding trade – improving reforms across regions Source: World Bank Doing Business

Region or Economy Documents for export (number) Time for export (days) Cost to export Region or Economy Documents for export (number) Time for export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) East Asia & Pacific 6. 7 23. 3 902. 3 Eastern Europe & Central Asia 7. 1 29. 7 1, 649. 10 Latin America & Caribbean 6. 9 19. 7 1, 229. 80 Middle East & North Africa 6. 5 23. 3 1, 024. 40 OECD 4. 5 10. 7 1, 069. 10 South Asia 8. 5 33 1, 339. 10 7. 8 34. 7 1, 878. 80 Sub-Saharan

Complementarities LPI/DB LPI DB Source of data As many respondents as Few by country Complementarities LPI/DB LPI DB Source of data As many respondents as Few by country possible Concept Performance outcomes Analytic breakdown in component procedures Questionnaire Short online Detailed Several indices of performance Metric of red tape applicable to trade operations (time export, import Significance Comparisons and overlaps • Limited correlation (at least with stringent tests: rank, partial) of main indicators (LPI and DB time X/M) • Different concepts of time to import and export, with huge discrepancies

Scatter plot of LPI AND DB (rank)- 2006 Source: WTI 2008 Scatter plot of LPI AND DB (rank)- 2006 Source: WTI 2008

Other Trade Facilitation Indicators: UNCTAD Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (0 -100, best) Computed average Other Trade Facilitation Indicators: UNCTAD Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (0 -100, best) Computed average index which combines the available information about a country’s maritime transport. For comparison purpose, maximum value of the LSCI is set to 100. Calculated as the un-weighted average of five components: ships, TEUs, companies, services, and maximum vessel size. Each one of the five components is indexed to assume a maximum value of 100 in 2004. Average of the five indexed components is again indexed so that its maximum value for 2004 is 100. Source: UNCTAD Transport Newsletter

UNCTAD Liner Connectivity Index Top 10 countries (highest indexes) Country 2008 China 137. 4 UNCTAD Liner Connectivity Index Top 10 countries (highest indexes) Country 2008 China 137. 4 Hong Kong, China 108. 8 Singapore 94. 47 Germany 89. 27 Netherlands 87. 57 United States 82. 45 United Kingdom 77. 99 Belgium 77. 98 Malaysia 77. 6 Korea, Rep. 76. 4 Source: WTI 2008

 Total Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Ratio of total freight Total Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Ratio of total freight charges and insurance costs to the net value of merchandise goods imports. Calculated at the origin of US ports and is reported as a percentage of import value. Includes all shipment through air, maritime and land freights but excludes domestic transportation costs between cities. Source: US International Trade Commission

Total Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Top 10 countries - Lowest Total Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Top 10 countries - Lowest Frequent Charges Country 2006 Singapore 4. 19 Netherlands 4. 18 Germany 4. 1 Sweden 4. 08 Austria 4. 06 Japan 4. 02 Switzerland 4. 02 Hong Kong, China 4 United Kingdom 3. 99 Canada 3. 92 Source: WTI 2008

Total Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Bottom 10 countries – Highest Total Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Bottom 10 countries – Highest Frequent Charges Country 2006 Guyana 2. 05 Chad 1. 98 Niger 1. 97 Sierra Leone 1. 95 Djibouti 1. 94 Tajikistan 1. 93 Myanmar 1. 86 Rwanda 1. 77 Timor-Leste 1. 71 Afghanistan 1. 21 Source: WTI 2008

 Air Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Ratio of total air Air Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Ratio of total air freight charges and insurance costs to the net value of merchandise goods imports. Calculated at the origin of US gateways, and is reported as a percentage of import value. Average Air Freight Rate reflects the costs of transport from the US main ports to the foreign coutnries at the US customs procedure. Source: US Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau. Us Imports of Merchandise

Air Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Top 10 countries - Lowest Air Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Top 10 countries - Lowest Frequent Charges Country 2007 Angola 0. 107 Botswana 0. 111 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0. 123 Cuba 0. 272 Ireland 0. 301 Central African Republic 0. 388 Djibouti 0. 454 Qatar 0. 469 Bhutan 0. 487 Niger 0. 491 Source: WTI 2008

Air Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Bottom 10 countries - Highest Air Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Bottom 10 countries - Highest Frequent Charges Country 2007 Burundi 27. 41 Marshall Islands 43. 03 Samoa 47. 06 Faeroe Islands 57. 35 Solomon Islands 60. 94 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 62. 49 Tonga 69. 53 Fiji 72. 47 Maldives 92. 14 Palau 143. 8 Source: WTI 2008

Air Freight Cost from US (US$) Reflects the DHL international United States outbound worldwide Air Freight Cost from US (US$) Reflects the DHL international United States outbound worldwide priority express rate for a 1 pound rate packages in current US dollars. Additional service charges, shipment value protection, and other surcharges are excluded. Source: DHL Published Tariff Guide on Domestic and Internaitonal Shipping Services

Air Freight Costs from US (US $) Top countries – Lowest costs Country 2008 Air Freight Costs from US (US $) Top countries – Lowest costs Country 2008 Canada 44. 55 Mexico 47. 35 Hong Kong, China 53. 7 Singapore 53. 7 Taiwan, China 53. 7 Japan 54. 75 Belgium 55. 15 France 55. 15 Source: WTI 2008

Air Freight Costs from US (US $) Bottom 10 countries – Highest costs Country Air Freight Costs from US (US $) Bottom 10 countries – Highest costs Country 2008 Somalia 115 South Africa 115 Sudan 115 Swaziland 115 Tanzania 115 Togo 115 Tunisia 115 Uganda 115 Zambia 115 Zimbabwe 115 Source: WTI 2008

 Pump Price of Diesel Fuel (US $ per Liter) Reflects the prices at Pump Price of Diesel Fuel (US $ per Liter) Reflects the prices at the pump for the most widely sold diesel fuel within the country. Prices have been converted from the local currency to US dollars. Source: International Fuel prices 2005 or World Bank WDI database

UNCTAD Liner Connectivity Index Top 10 countries (lowest prices) Country 2006 Turkmenistan 0. 02 UNCTAD Liner Connectivity Index Top 10 countries (lowest prices) Country 2006 Turkmenistan 0. 02 Venezuela, RB 0. 03 Iran, Islamic Rep. 0. 09 Libya 0. 13 Saudi Arabia 0. 16 Kuwait 0. 22 Egypt, Arab Rep. 0. 3 Yemen, Rep. 0. 3 Oman 0. 31 Algeria 0. 32 Source: WTI 2008

 Electricity Cost for Industry (US $ per kilowatt hour) Based on the information Electricity Cost for Industry (US $ per kilowatt hour) Based on the information posted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy on the industry electricity prices per kilowatt-hour from 1997 to 2005 (in US Dollars). The per kilowatt-hour prices are based on the energy end-use prices including taxes, and are converted into US Dollars using the average exchange rate for the given years. Source: International Energy Agency for all years, and the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy for some additional countries in 2004.

Electricity Cost for Industry (US $ per kilowatt hour) Top 10 countries (Lowest cost) Electricity Cost for Industry (US $ per kilowatt hour) Top 10 countries (Lowest cost) Country 2007 Kazakhstan 0. 03 Russian Federation 0. 04 Norway 0. 05 France 0. 06 Taiwan, China 0. 06 United States 0. 06 New Zealand 0. 07 Korea, Rep. 0. 07 Finland 0. 08 Poland 0. 08 Source: WTI 2008

Telephones (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants (%) Total number of fixed telephone mainlines Telephones (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants (%) Total number of fixed telephone mainlines connecting a subscriber to the telephone exchange equipment and cellular mobile phone subscribers to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, measured per 1000 people. Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database

Telephones (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants (%) - Top 10 countries (highest numbers) Telephones (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants (%) - Top 10 countries (highest numbers) Country 2007 Hong Kong, China 208 United Arab Emirates 206 Macao, China 203 Estonia 185 Germany 183 Qatar 180 Luxembourg 178 Switzerland 174 United Kingdom 173 Iceland 172 Source: WTI 2008

 Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Average cost of Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Average cost of a peak rate 3 -minute with the fixed line call from the country to the United States, in current US Dollars. Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database

Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Top 10 countries (Lowest Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Top 10 countries (Lowest cost) Country 2005 Switzerland 0. 32 Afghanistan 0. 39 Mexico 0. 83 Suriname 1. 33 Poland 1. 35 Lithuania 1. 55 Mauritius 1. 59 Japan 1. 63 Morocco 1. 69 Gabon 2. 77 Source: WTI 2008

Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants (%) Number of self-contained computers designed for individuals users, Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants (%) Number of self-contained computers designed for individuals users, measured per 1000 people. Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database

Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants (%) – Top 10 countries (Highest numbers) Country 2006 Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants (%) – Top 10 countries (Highest numbers) Country 2006 Canada 94. 3 Netherlands 91. 2 Switzerland 88. 6 Sweden 88. 1 San Marino 85. 5 United States 80. 3 United Kingdom 80. 2 Denmark 72. 9 Singapore 72. 3 Luxembourg 68 Source: WTI 2008

Internet Users per 100 inhabitants (%) Number of people with access to the worldwide Internet Users per 100 inhabitants (%) Number of people with access to the worldwide network through a dial-up, leased, or broadband connection, measured per 1000 people. Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database

Internet Users per 100 inhabitants (%) – Top 10 countries (highest numbers) Country 2007 Internet Users per 100 inhabitants (%) – Top 10 countries (highest numbers) Country 2007 Barbados 95. 3 Greenland 91. 6 Netherlands 91. 6 Andorra 87. 6 Canada 84. 9 Norway 80. 7 New Zealand 79. 5 Sweden 76. 5 Bermuda 75 Japan 73. 6 Source: WTI 2008

Secondary School Enrollment (%, gross) Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the Secondary School Enrollment (%, gross) Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level fo education shown. Source: World Bank WDI database

Secondary School Enrollment (%, gross) – Top 10 countries (Highest ratios) Country 2006 Australia Secondary School Enrollment (%, gross) – Top 10 countries (Highest ratios) Country 2006 Australia 150 New Zealand 120 Denmark 120 Spain 119 Netherlands 118 France 114 Norway 113 Finland 112 Ireland 112 Iceland 110 Source: WTI 2008

Tertiary School Enrollment (%, gross) Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the Tertiary School Enrollment (%, gross) Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level fo education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: World Bank WDI database

Tertiary School Enrollment (%, gross) – Top 10 countries (Highest ratios) Country 2006 Greece Tertiary School Enrollment (%, gross) – Top 10 countries (Highest ratios) Country 2006 Greece 94. 9 Finland 93. 2 Korea, Rep. 91 Cuba 87. 9 Slovenia 83 United States 81. 8 Denmark 79. 9 New Zealand 79. 7 Sweden 79 Norway 77. 5 Source: WTI 2008