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World History 6 million B. C. to Present
Prehistory refers to the period before humans learned how to read and write. Prehistory ended about 5500 years ago in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and continues today in remote parts of the world. In *prehistoric times, people lived as nomads.
Charles Darwin concluded that species evolved over long periods due to natural selection. His theory of *evolution suggested that organisms evolved to fit their environment. Abraham Maslow was a psychologist who observed that humans will always want more than what they have.
Lucy Don Johanson is an *archaeologist who changed many ideas about *evolution when he discovered the oldest hominid in the fossil record. Johanson’s find was nicknamed “Lucy” after a popular song by the Beatles. Lucy’s brain was about *33% of the size of a human brain, but her knees could lock. This enabled Lucy to stand up straight.
The Fertile Crescent includes a narrow strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. We call this land “Mesopotamia” because it is a Greek term that means “between the rivers. ” Many civilizations have flourished in Mesopotamia. The first were the Sumerians, who were replaced in turn by the Assyrians and the Babylonians. The land between the river is now part of Iraq, a nation once ruled by a dictator named Saddam Hussein.
• The Sumerians began to settle in the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers about 5500 years ago. They learned that by planting seeds and plowing their land, they were able to grow crops. The Sumerians learned to domesticate, or tame animals, to help them plow their land. They used Irrigation, or a system of watering crops, in order to make their land more *productive. The Sumerians invented the wheel, which made it possible to pull heavy loads.
• The Assyrians lived in the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers upstream from the Babylonians. About 2300 years ago, the *illiterate Assyrians managed to conquer almost all of Mesopotamia and build an empire that extended as far as Egypt.
• Non-Christians often use the term CE in place of AD. CE refers to the Common Era or the Christian Era. Years before one are noted as BCE, which can mean either Before the Common Era or Before the Christian Era.
The Middle Ages is the period between Ancient and Modern history. The early period of the Middle Ages is known as the “Dark Ages” because the great civilizations of Greece and Rome had fallen. Life during this *era was *difficult and few people expected conditions to improve. Feudalism was the system of loyalties and protection during the Middle Ages. Peasants moved onto large manors as the Roman Empire crumbled. The lord of the manor protected the peasants, but often forced them to become serfs. A serf was similar to a slave. Serfs could, in theory, purchase their freedom, but few serfs were able to afford to leave their manor.
The Bubonic Plague was a great sickness that claimed close to 50% of the people of Europe. The plague began in China where it killed about 35 million Asians. Rats aboard European ships that traded in China carried the disease back to Europe. Fleas that fed on the blood of the rats transferred the disease to the European people. The Byzantine Empire was centered around the city of Constantinople, a city named for Constantine, a Roman emperor who moved there 1700 years ago. The leaders of the Byzantine Empire considered themselves the *successors to the Romans, but in time the Roman influence gradually disappeared.
Justinian’s Code of Laws • The emperor simplified the complexity of Roman laws. • Employed a committee to study and decipher complex Roman laws and use them as a foundation for Justinian’s Code. • The code consists of twelve books with over four thousand laws. • Political impact: influenced European laws • Legal impact: the code differentiates between civil and criminal law
Crusades Western Europe stagnated after the fall of Rome; in fact many historians refer to that period as the “dark ages. ” The lights were on the Arab world because the Arabs were expert *traders who were very interested in learning about other cultures. They made great advances in mathematics, medicine and physical science. They also replaced the clumsy Roman numerals with the Arabic numerals we use today.
Urban was able to persuade the knights of Western Europe to join the First Crusade. Urban appealed to the knight’s religious convictions. Further, Urban explained that Muslim Turks were robbing and torturing Christian pilgrims journeying to the Holy Land. The Crusade offered the knights a chance for wealth and glory. Finally, Pope Urban suggested the knights fight Muslims instead of fighting one another. These appeals encouraged the knights of Western Europe to take up the “War of the Cross” and join the First Crusade. ” Saladin was a Kurdish military leader who launched a jihad, or holy war to recapture Jerusalem after the second Crusade. Saladin recaptured Jerusalem *100 years after Pope Urban called the first Crusade. The Christians responded by launching a third Crusade led by King Richard the “Lion-Hearted” of England.
Renaissance The word Renaissance means rebirth. The Italian Renaissance, which spread to the rest of Europe occurred between 1350 and 1550. The rebirth was of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds.
The Renaissance was also an age when the power of the church declined, and society recovered from the plagues and instability of the Middle Ages. Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature it their work so viewers would see the reality of what they were portraying.
Reformation • • Erasmus and Christian Humanism The Protestant Reformation, begun by Martin Luther in the early sixteenth century, divided the western Church into Catholic and Protestant groups. Italian humanism spread to northern Europe creating a Movement called Christian Humanism. They believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves. They wanted to improve the Catholic Church. Religion and Reformation People were calling for reform in part because of corruption in the Catholic Church. Many Church officials used their offices to advance their careers and wealth, and many local priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties. Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg. He believed human deeds were powerless to affect God and that salvation was through faith alone. The idea of justification (being made right before God) by faith alone is the Protestant Reformation’s chief teaching. For all Protestants, the Bible, not the Church, became the only source of religious truth.
• • The widespread selling of indulgences upset Luther. Angered by the practice, in 1517 Luther sent a list of 95 Theses to his Church superiors. In 1520, Luther called the German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German Church. Luther wanted to keep only baptism and communion and called for the clergy to marry. The Church excommunicated Luther in 1521. He was summoned to appear before the imperial Diet (legislative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire in the city of Worms. Luther refused. The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw in the empire. His books were to be burned and Luther delivered to the emperor. Luther’s local ruler protected him. Luther’s religious movement soon became a revolution. It gained support from many German rulers. Luther set up new services to replace the Mass, featuring Bible readings, preaching the word of God, and song. His doctrine became known as Lutheranism, the first Protestant faith. Calvin and Calvinism John Calvin fled Catholic France for Switzerland after he converted to Protestantism. He placed a new emphasis on the all-powerful nature of God. This led him to the important idea of predestination, which meant that God in an “eternal decree” had determined in advance who would be saved and who would be damned. The Reformation in England Not religion but politics brought about the English Reformation. Henry VIII wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, who he thought could not give him a male heir. The pope was unwilling to annul his marriage and Henry turned to England’s church courts. The archbishop of Canterbury ruled that Henry’s marriage to Catherine was null and void.
• Henry the married Anne Boleyn, who was crowned queen and who gave birth to a girl. The daughter later would become Queen Elizabeth I • At Henry’s request, in 1534 Parliament moved to break England’s Catholic Church away from the pope in Rome. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 ruled that the king controlled religious doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline. The king was the head of the new Church of England. Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded. • Henry dissolved the monasteries and sold their land possessions to the wealthy. This gave him more money and supporters. Henry stayed close to Catholic teachings but his nine-year-old son Edmund VI succeeded him and the Church moved in a more Protestant directions. • Henry’s daughter Mary came to the throne in 1553. She wanted to return England to Catholicism. She earned the name Bloody Mary by having 300 Protestants burned as heretics. By the end of her reign, England was more Protestant than ever.
The Catholic Reformation • The Catholic Church revitalized in the sixteenth century for three chief reasons: the Jesuits, reform of the papacy and the Council of Trent. • A Spanish nobleman named Ignatius of Loyola founded the Society of Jesus, known as Jesuits. The pope recognized Loyola and his followers as a religious order in 1540. Jesuits took a special vow of Obedience to the Pope. They used education to spread their message. • In 1545 a group of cardinals, archbishops, abbots, and theologians met in Trent. The council met off and on there for 18 years. Its final decrees reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs. Both faith and works were needed for salvation. The seven sacraments, the Catholic view of communion, and clerical celibacy were upheld. Belief in purgatory and the use of indulgences was strengthened though the selling of indulgences was forbidden. • After the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church had a clear body of doctrine and was unified under the Pope. It had a renewed spirit of confidence.
John Calvin • Predestination- God chooses who goes to heaven. – You can’t get there by doing good works • Our moral lives reveal if were chosen by God • Work ethics that honor God. • Calvinist: Live in closed society
Martin Luther • Faith saves people – Not good works – Catholic Church= salvation by following Church • Ultimate authority for Christians= Bible – Catholics= Pope • Nobody is more important in God’s eyes • Protestant Church
Exploration The desire for wealth was a large part of European expansion. Merchants, adventurers, and government officials hoped to find precious metals in and expand trade with the East, especially trade in spices. Another motive was religious, the desire to spread the catholic faith to native peoples. Adventure and glory comprised another motive for European expansion. “God, Glory and Gold”, then were the motives.
The Slave Trade In the 15 th century the primary market for African slaves was Southwest Asia where they were used principally as domestic servants. The demand for slaves rose dramatically with the European voyages to the Americas and the planting of sugar cane there. Plantations, large agricultural estates, were set up on the eastern coast of Brazil and on islands in the Caribbean to grow sugar cane. Growing cane is labor intensive. The small native population, much of which had died from European diseases could not provide the labor. African slaves were imported to meet the need.
Enlightenment The thinkers of the Enlightenment believed that people could understand the laws that governed the universe. One of the first thinkers of the Enlightenment was Galileo, an Italian scientist who proved Copernicus’ theory that the Earth traveled around the sun. The church imprisoned Galileo for heresy and forbid printers to publish Galileo’s writings.
The Enlightenment was a movement of thinkers who believed that everything in nature could be explained by science. Others argued that God controlled the universe in a metaphysical manner, and that it would be impossible for humans to comprehend our environment.
French Revolution The French Revolution began in 1789 with the storming of the Bastille. The Bastille was a prison where the King’s army stored weapons. Louis remained king until 1793, although France was actually run by the National Assembly. Louis’ reign ended in 1793 as he and his family were executed for a multitude of crimes.
The era following the execution of King Louis XVI and his family was known as the “Reign of Terror. ” Several men contended for power, and those who lost power struggles were often beheaded. The French Revolutionaries intended to remake almost every part of life. The days of the week were renamed and a new calendar that marked 1789 as the Year One replaced the Christian calendar. Churches were sometimes closed and the clergy was often created cruelly.
Napoleon Bonaparte • Napoleon was a French general born on Corsica, an island in the Mediterranean Sea between France and Italy. In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of France and began a military takeover of Europe. The nations of Europe formed a “coalition, ” or alliance to defeat Napoleon. In 1812, the coalition, led by England, defeated Napoleon and exiled him to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean. Two years later, Napoleon formed an army and marched into Paris. He controlled France a second time, but only for about one hundred days. Napoleon was soundly defeated in the Battle of Waterloo and again forced to exile.
Wars of Religion • • • The French Wars of Religion Calvinism and Catholicism had become militant religions by 1560. Their struggle for converts and against each other was the main cause of Europe’s sixteenth century Religious wars. The monarchy was strongly Catholic. They were opposed to the Ultra. Catholics and Huguenots. He converted to Catholicism because he realized that a Protestant would not have the support of French Catholics. He issued the Edict of Nantes in 1589. It recognized Catholicism as France’s official religion, but gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to have all political privileges, such as holding office. Philip II and Militant Catholicism – King Philip II of Spain was the greatest supporter of militant Catholicism. He ruled from 1556 to 1598, and his reign began a period of cultural and political greatness for Spain. The England of Elizabeth – Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of England in 1558. – During her reign, England became the leader to the Protestant nations and laid the foundation for becoming a world empire.
• Religion, politics and territory all played a role in the Thirty Years War, called the “last of the Religious Wars. ” The war began in the Holy roman Empire in 1618. All major European countries but England became involved. – The most important struggle was between France and Spain. – The Peace of Westphalia ended the war in 1648. France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe. • Revolutions in England – The English Civil war was a struggle between Parliament and the King to determine the power of each in governing England. • Religion was an issue as well. Puritans disagreed with the king’s defense of the Church of England, wanting it to be more Protestant. Many Puritans served in the House of Commons.
• Civil war broke out in 1642 between the supporters of the king (Cavaliers) and those of Parliament (Roundheads). Parliament won because of the New Model Army and Oliver Cromwell. • Cromwell soon dismissed Parliament and set up a military dictatorship. He ruled until his death in 1658. Parliament then restored the monarchy, and Charles II took the throne. Parliament kept much of the power it had gained and restored the Church of England as the state religion. • Parliament did not want James II Catholic son to assume throne. A group of English noblemen invited the Dutch leader, William (husband of James daughter Mary) to invade England. William and Mary raised an army and marched into England. James and his family fled. England underwent its Glorious Revolution. The issue was who would be monarch. • William and Mary accepted the throne in 1689 along with a Bill of Rights, which set forth Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes. In addition, standing armies could be raised only with Parliament’s consent. The rights of citizens to bear arms and to a jury trial were also part of the document. The document laid the ground for an unlimited or a Constitutional monarchy. • The Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritans, not Catholics, the right to free public worship
• Imperialism- the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination. – Example: Ruling over colonies or an “inferior land” • Nationalism: a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a nation. – Example: Nazi Germany after WWI • Europeans during Industrial Revolution
• The need for raw materials and markets for manufactured goods leads to need for expansion. – Example: Colonies – Developed nations began using these colonies to produce only those goods needed for making products. • Result is less food crops for locals.
POSITIVE • New roads & railroads link parts of India • Telegraph & postal systems unite people • Irrigation systems improve farming • New laws mean justice for all classes • British schools offer education • Customs that threaten human rights are ended NEGATIVE • Indian resources go to Britain • British made goods replace local goods • Farms grow cash crops rather than food crops; Indians go hungry • Top jobs go to British • Indians are treated as inferiors • Britain tries to replace Indian culture with western ways POSITIVE • European medicine & improved nutrition increased life span of Africans. This caused an increase in population. NEGATIVE • European domination led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social • Modern transportation & relationships • African peoples communications; were treated a s telegraphs, railroads, steamships, and telephones inferior. Forced to work long hours for • A small minority received low pay. improved education and • Europeans divided up economic opportunities. Africa ignoring tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. These divisions have led to ongoing tribal clashes
WWI • Causes • Background Info
Russian Revolution • ERD
World War II Leaders © 2012, TESCCC World History Unit 8 A, Lesson 3
Franklin D. Roosevelt © 2012, TESCCC • President of the United States • Diagnosed with polio at 39 • Elected to serve four terms • Signed the declaration of war against Japan on Dec. 8, 1941 • Signed a declaration of war against Germany on December 11, 1941
Winston Churchill • Prime Minister of Great Britain • In 1940 he was appointed prime minister and resolved to lead the people toward “victory at all costs; . . . for without victory there is no survival. ” © 2012, TESCCC
Joseph Stalin • Communist dictator serving as Premier of the Soviet Union • Aligned with the Allies during World War II © 2012, TESCCC
Benito Mussolini • Worked as a journalist and political organizer • Became the fascist dictator of Italy in 1922 and led the country during World War II © 2012, TESCCC
Adolf Hitler • Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II © 2012, TESCCC
Hideki Tojo • Prime Minister of Japan during most of World War II © 2012, TESCCC
Harry Truman • U. S. Vice President to Franklin D. Roosevelt • Becomes U. S. President on April 12, 1945 after Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage • Made the decision to use the atomic bombs on Japan © 2012, TESCCC
Albert Einstein • Photograph taken in 1947 • Alerts Roosevelt about Germany’s quest to develop nuclear weapons • Member of the Manhattan Project (research and development of nuclear weapons for the United States) © 2012, TESCCC
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: US & the Western Democracies GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] « Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] « Arms Race [nuclear escalation] « Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” « Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine  1. Civil War in Greece. 2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4. The U. S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  1. “European Recovery Program. ” 2. Secretary of State, George Marshall 3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4. $12. 5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (194849)
The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap? ” } The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. } Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) v United States v Luxemburg v Belgium v Netherlands v Britain v Norway v Canada v Portugal v Denmark v 1952: Greece & v France v Iceland v Italy Turkey v 1955: West Germany v 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't De-Stalinization invite us to come Program to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956
Korean and Vietnam War
Korean War • Korea divided at the end of WWII – North surrendered to Soviets – South Surrendered to the United States • Most occupying troops are removed from the peninsula by 1949 • North Korea receiving military aid from the Soviets
Korean War • June 25, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea • Truman’s policy of containment tested – Convinced this was very similar to what had happened with Hitler and the other axis powers during WWII – Pledges the US to help South Korea • Initially just air and naval cover and then ground troops after Mac. Arthur assesses the situation
United Nations Intervention • South Korea asks the United Nations for help – Taken to the Security Council – Why would you expect any action against North Korea to be voted down in the Security Council? – Soviets were absent from the meeting • Boycotting because of the Nationalists China being given the Chinese seat in the United Nations
United Nations Intervention • 15 nations pledge to send troops to help the South Koreans under the leadership of Douglas Macarthur • Forces enter the conflict amidst continued North Korean success
The War • Pusan the only South Korean area left • Mac. Arthur plans a surprise attack to try and defeat the North Koreans at Inchon
China Gets Involved • October 1950 China enters the war on behalf of the N. Koreans • Now a war between the US and China • Mac. Arthur’s forces are outnumbered and are pushed back into S. Korea and lose the capital of Seoul • Mac. Arthur begins to call for nuclear strikes against Chinese targets
Mac. Arthur Dismissed • Truman completely against escalation – Want to stay out of world wars, not start them • Mac. Arthur takes his case to Congress and the press trying to force Truman’s hand • Truman relieves Mac. Arthur of command
Peace Agreement • Ceasefire signed after 2 more years of fighting • UN troops are able to beat the N. Koreans back to near the 38 th parallel • Almost no change in the border but 5 million lives were lost during the war
Aftermath of the War • • • South Korea NORTH KOREA • Robust economic Poor growth thanks to US Shortages of food and stimulus aid energy • Democratic Communist Dictators constitution with free elections now in place Kim Jung Il current dictator • One of the fastest growing economies in Heavily militarized the world • Focuses on industry and exports
French Surrender • The French admit defeat before the US commits • Geneva Peace Conference determines the country will be split at the 17 th parallel – Communist Ho Chi Minh to the North – US and France support Ngo Dinh Diem in the South in an anti-communist government
Americans In Vietnam • 185, 000 plus troops deployed to Vietnam • Best trained and equipped force in the world – Guerilla warfare in unfamiliar terrain • Problems Faced – South Vietnamese Government becoming more unpopular – US support for the war is failing – Terrain unfamiliar
American Withdraw • Becomes clear that there is no decisive victory in sight for the war • Richard Nixon begins the withdraw – Plan of Vietnamization where the South Vietnamese slowly took over for the American soldiers who were leaving – Hoped the South Vietnamese government would hold – Authorized bombings of Laos and Cambodia to try and destroy Vietcong supply routes and hideouts
• U. S. begins withdrawal in 1973, gone by 1975 • North Vietcong take over country • 2. 7 million Americans served, 58, 220 Killed and 75, 000 disabled • Today 400, 000 US tourist visit per year • Still communist, but little Marxist influence and Free Market Economy.
CHINESE COMMUNIST REVOLUTION TIMELINE
1916 - Nationalist Party has trouble controlling warlords and loses power. 1917 - Chinese fight in WWI declaring war on Germany in hopes of impressing the Europeans and regaining economic influence in their country. Instead, the Treaty Of Versailles rewards Japan with Germany’s holdings in China. 1919 - World War I ends.
1921 - Communist Party formed - Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) Karl Marx leads Communist party which is influenced by _____ and Vladimir Lenin _______. Their goal was to take over the government and create a centralized government to regulate the agricultural output, education, and society. Mao believed the peasants were most important and sought to distribute land equally to all.
1927 –_________- Jiang Jieshi Shanghai Massacre and the Nationalists kill thousands of Communists. New National Republic of China is formed and officially recognized by Europeans. 1930 - Civil War - Nationalist Party does nothing to reform and better China. No land reforms or open elections took place and peasants remained unhappy. Communists regain strength and begin war against the Nationalists. Manchuria 1931 - Japan invades _____ (north of China)
1934 –________- Nationalist The Long March forces chase Communists over 6, 000 miles through China. For one year, the Communists fled always staying one step ahead of the Nationalists. Over 100, 000 people began the journey but only about 30, 000 survived.
1937 - Japan invades China and forces Nationalists to unite with Communists. Both groups battle Japan throughout WWII (1939 -1945) However, the Communists begin to gain power and influence throughout China, especially with the peasants. 1945 - Civil War continues - After WWII ends, the Communists and Nationalists continue civil war for control of China.
1949 - With the wide and mass support of the peasants and workers, Mao Zedong defeats Jiang Jieshi and creates the Peoples Republic __________ of China ____. The Nationalists flee mainland China to Taiwan, creating Two Chinas. Communists create a one-party state led by Mao Zedong Begin Reforms: 1. All resources are directed toward political, social, and economic growth 2. Improved medical supplies and hospitals 3. Schools built 4. Regulation of all media (press, writing, speech, etc. )
ZIONISM • movement to create a Jewish state (country) in the Arab lands of Palestine in the Middle East region.
ANTI-SEMITISM • prejudice (dislike for a group of people) • discrimination (unfair treatment of a group of people) • Dislike, unfair treatment, and hostility toward Jews (people belonging to the Jewish ethnic group and believing in Judaism)
STATE OF ISRAEL • In 1947, the United Nations approved the partition of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. • On May 14, 1948 the state of Israel declared independence and this was followed by a war with the surrounding Arab states, which refused to accept the UN plan.
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US • Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression • Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa • Stop the spread of communism –“Domino Effect”
Eisenhower Doctrine • The Eisenhower Doctrine was announced President Eisenhower with his Secretary of State John Dulles in a speech to Congress on January 5, 1957. • It required Congress to yield its war-making power to the president so that the president could take immediate military action. • It created a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country. • The doctrine was made in response to the possibility of war, threatened as a result of the USSR’s attempt to use the Suez War as a pretext to enter Egypt. – The British and French withdrawals from their former colonies created a power vacuum that communists were trying to fill.
Senator Joe Mc. Carthy (1908 -1957) • Mc. Carthy, a Republican senator from Wisconsin, did the most to whip up anticommunism during the ‘ 50 s. • On February 9, 1950, he gave a speech claiming to have a list of 205 Communists in the State Department. • No one in the press actually saw the names on the list. • Mc. Carthy continued to repeat his groundless charges, changing the number from speech to speech. • During this time, one state required pro wrestlers to take a loyalty oath before stepping into the ring. • In Indiana, a group of anti-communists indicted Robin Hood (and its vaguely socialistic message that the book's hero had a right to rob from the rich and give to the poor) and forced librarians to pull the book from the shelves. • Baseball's Cincinnati Reds renamed themselves the "Redlegs. " Cincinnati Redlegs primary logo in use from 1954 -1959
Arms Race • Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949. • Cold War tensions increased in the USSR when the US exploded its first hydrogen bomb in 1952. It was 1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
Space Race • Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite into geocentric orbit on October 4, 1957. – The race to control space was on. • April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin became first human in space and first to orbit Earth. • US felt a loss of prestige and increased funding for space programs and science education. • On May 25, 1961, Kennedy gave a speech challenging America to land a man on the moon and return him safely by the end of the decade. • Apollo 11 landed on the moon on July 16, 1969.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion • The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempt by US-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. • Increasing friction between the US and Castro's communist regime led President Eisenhower to break off diplomatic relations with Cuba in January 1961. • Even before that, however, the CIA had been training anti-revolutionary Cuban exiles for a possible invasion of the island. • The invasion plan was approved by Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy.
Berlin Wall • In the dark on August 13, 1961, a low, barbed-wire barrier rose between East and West Berlin. Within days, workers cemented concrete blocks into a low wall, dividing neighborhoods and families, workers and employers, the free from the repressed. • The USSR called the wall a barrier to Western imperialism, but it also was meant to keep its people going to the West where the standard of living was much higher and freedoms greater. • The West Germans called it Schandmaur, the "Wall of Shame. " Over the years, it was rebuilt three times. Each version of the wall was more higher, stronger, repressive, and impregnable. Towers and guards with machine guns and dogs stood watch over a barren no man's land. Forbidden zones, miles wide, were created behind the wall. No one was allowed to enter the zones. Anyone trying to escape was shot on sight. Early 1960 s view of east side of Berlin Wall with barbed wire at top. A view from the French sector looking over the wall.
Cuban Missile Crisis CIA map showing range of Soviet supplied intermediate and medium range missiles if launched from Cuba • This was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. The US armed forces were at their highest state of readiness ever, and Soviets in Cuba were prepared to launch nuclear weapons to defend the island if it were invaded. • In 1962, the USSR lagged far behind the US in the arms race. Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but US missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. • In April 1962, Soviet Premier Khrushchev deployed missiles in Cuba to provide a deterrent to a potential US attack against the USSR. • Meanwhile, Fidel Castro was looking for a way to defend his island nation from an attack by the US. Ever since the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961, Castro felt a second attack was inevitable. Consequently, he approved of Khrushchev's plan to place missiles on the island. In the summer of 1962 the USSR secretly installed the missiles.
The Slow Thaw… • In 1969 Nixon began negotiations with USSR on SALT I, common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement. • SALT I froze the number of ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled. • It was the first effort between US/USSR to stop increase nuclear weapons. • SALT II was a second round of US/USSR talks (1972 -1979), which sought to reduce manufacture of nuclear weapons. SALT II was the first nuclear treaty seeking real reductions in strategic forces to 2, 250 of all categories on both sides. Nixon and Brezhnev toast the SALT I treaty. Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II treaty.
Cold War Thaw Continues • Gorbachev becomes Soviet premier and understands that the Soviet economy cannot compete with the West, partly because of Afghanistan and partly because of the costs of keeping up militarily. • Gorbachev recognizes there is increasing unrest in the country. • He tries to reform the USSR with glasnost (= openness: think “glass” because you can see through it) and perestroika (=restructuring: think “structure/stroika”). • Gorbachev is further pressured to reform the USSR when Reagan gives his speech in Germany challenging Gorbachev to “tear down this wall. ” Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev President Reagan delivers his speech in Berlin.
The Wall Falls, 1989 • A wave of rebellion against Soviet influence occurs throughout its European allies. • Poland’s Solidarity movement breaks the Soviet hold on that country • Hungary removed its border restrictions with Austria. • Riots and protests break out in East Germany. • East Germans storm the wall. Confused and outnumbered, border guards do not fight back. • The wall is breached. • Eventually East and West Germany are reunited in 1990.
The USSR Dissolves Boris Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the 1991 coup Rocky beats Ivan Drago. • On December 21, 1991, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords declaring the USSR dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place. • On December 25, 1991, Gorbachev yielded as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct. He turned the powers that until then were vested in him over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia. • The following day, the Supreme Soviet, the highest governmental body of the Soviet Union, recognized the collapse of the Soviet Union and dissolved itself. – This is generally recognized as the official, final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a functioning state.
The Cuban Revolution
How Castro Came to Power • Late 1950’s: Fulgencio Batista was ruler of Cuba – Batista had been elected president, but later made himself dictator – Many people in Cuba were unhappy with his rule • Much poverty (many people were very poor) • Poor Education & Poor Healthcare (both of which worsened the poverty problem)
Communist Cuba • Castro immediately began organizing a communist government in Cuba – Declared that all property belonging to Americans, now belonged to the Cuban government (also claimed all Cuban owned property as well) – Had Batista’s supporters arrested (most were executed by firing squad, others spent decades in prison)
• Cubans no longer had the right to protest against the Cuban government – Newspapers, Radio, and T. V. were shut down (the Cuban government became the only news source) – All churches were closed / church property was taken by the government / Christians were discriminated against
United States Embargo • Because of Castro’s actions, and the communist government he had created in Cuba, the United States government placed an embargo on Cuban goods (this meant that no Cuban goods could be sold in the U. S. )
Current Cuba/U. S. Relations • Relations between Cuba and the United States have not improved much over the last 50 years – There is still an embargo on Cuban goods – But, Americans can now send money to family members in Cuba
• 1994: U. S. / Cuban Compromise – The United States agrees to accept 20, 000 Cuban refugees per year (although there are many more that do enter the country illegally every year) – The Cuban government agrees to stop allowing so many Cuban citizens to ‘escape’
Indian Independence Movement What methods did Gandhi use and were his methods successful?
Rise of Indian Nationalism • Despite helping Britain in WWI, Indians were once again treated as 2 nd class citizens after the war • Groups like the Indian National Congress (Hindu) and Muslim League (Islam) began a campaign for Indian independence • Many Indian radicals began to violently protest British rule • 1919: British pass the Rowlatt bills, which jailed people w/o a trial • Mohandas Gandhi protests unfair laws • Gandhi believed in an approach called nonviolent resistance & non-cooperation • Gandhi organized peaceful marches and “An eye for public refusal to obey unfair British laws an eye makes the whole world blind” “Victory attainted by violence is actually defeat”
• However, Rowlatt Bills ban public gatherings • 4/13/1919: Hindu & Muslim Indians gather in Amritsar to protest • A British Commander felt Indians were openly defying the ban and ordered his troops to open fire on the crowd • 400 people were killed and 1, 200 wounded in the Amritsar Massacre • Despite British violence, Gandhi urges followers to continue nonviolence • Gandhi begins to organize a boycott of British goods & taxes • The boycott on cloth is successful & British are losing money! • Gandhi organizes the Salt March 1930 • Police officers beat the marchers. American media reports the event • Independence is gained in 1947 but British partition country based on religion (India, East & West Pakistan)
Global Issues • • Globalization September 11 Patriot Act War on Terrorism – Iraq, Afghanistan – North Korea Nuke Threat