Скачать презентацию workshop Weakforms doc Gandsar 9 doc I decided Скачать презентацию workshop Weakforms doc Gandsar 9 doc I decided

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workshop Weakforms. doc; Gandsar 9. doc I decided to wait at the corner of workshop Weakforms. doc; Gandsar 9. doc I decided to wait at the corner of the street for the girl from Ipanema

I can see John was trying. John has been trying too long. He must I can see John was trying. John has been trying too long. He must try better He must have been trying

I can see John was trying. John has been trying too long. He must I can see John was trying. John has been trying too long. He must try better He must have been trying

Black and white are as different as chalk is from cheese, but the truth Black and white are as different as chalk is from cheese, but the truth is that cheese is whiter than chalk a man and an old woman the woman and the old man some men and some old women there are some books on the table some of the books in the shop are priceless

Tell them to ask her to show us your plans Tell them to ask her to show us your plans

I think he knows I think she knows I think we know I’ll be I think he knows I think she knows I think we know I’ll be there I’ve been robbed

Words which change before a word beginning with a vowel 1 be, he, she Words which change before a word beginning with a vowel 1 be, he, she I’ll be there – I’ll be early Does he drink? Does he agree?

Words which change before a word beginning with a vowel 2 do, to, you Words which change before a word beginning with a vowel 2 do, to, you What do they want? What do Amricans want? Give it to Mary – give it to Arthur Did you make it? – Did you eat it?

Words which change before a word beginning with a vowel 3 for, her, are, Words which change before a word beginning with a vowel 3 for, her, are, were for me – for all of us her mother – her aunt What are they doing – what are all the children doing

I think he must have seen her John had lost his helmet I think he must have seen her John had lost his helmet

I think he must have seen her John had lost his helmet I think he must have seen her John had lost his helmet

 • foregrounding Mary has seen him before Mary has seen hm before • foregrounding Mary has seen him before Mary has seen hm before

 • comparative stress This train isn’t coming from London, it’s going to London • comparative stress This train isn’t coming from London, it’s going to London

 • evasion of repetition (deaccenting) Government of the people, buy the people, for • evasion of repetition (deaccenting) Government of the people, buy the people, for the people City life is great, as long as you don’t actually live in the city

 • citation forms How do you spell the word “than”? • citation forms How do you spell the word “than”?

 • Prepositions and auxiliary verbs are strong at the end of utterances I • Prepositions and auxiliary verbs are strong at the end of utterances I come from Brighton – Brighton’s where I come from Do you want to come I’m not sure I want to

 • Prepositions and auxiliary verbs are strong at the end of utterances - • Prepositions and auxiliary verbs are strong at the end of utterances - but pronouns remain weak I don’t want to see him I don’t want to see her I don’t want to see them

(c) Different grammatical function • that: weak when relative (complementizer), strong when a determiner (c) Different grammatical function • that: weak when relative (complementizer), strong when a determiner that’s the man that I saw He said that was the man he saw

(c) Different grammatical function • some – weak when an indefinite deteriminer, strong when (c) Different grammatical function • some – weak when an indefinite deteriminer, strong when adjectival There are some people waiting to see you Some of them are drunk Some party this is!

(c) Different grammatical function • Verbs which can be either main or lexical (strong (c) Different grammatical function • Verbs which can be either main or lexical (strong forms) or auxiliary (weak forms) Jean has found it Jean has the answer Does Paul agree? Paul does his duty

 • Structural words beginnng with h- drop the h when weak I gave • Structural words beginnng with h- drop the h when weak I gave her the letter I gave him the letter Toby went to see his mother

 • Structural words beginnng with h- drop the h when weak – but • Structural words beginnng with h- drop the h when weak – but usually retain it at the beginning of a sentence His mother was glad to see him Her answer was quite definite

 • Structural words beginnng with h- drop the h when weak – but • Structural words beginnng with h- drop the h when weak – but usually retain it at the beginning of a sentence Adam has lost it What have you done with the evidence?

 • If the dropped h leads to V-V, it may reappear, or lead • If the dropped h leads to V-V, it may reappear, or lead to r-insertion I tried to give her his letter Tessa has lost it

 • H-dropping does not occur on lexical words in RP English! Harry hurt • H-dropping does not occur on lexical words in RP English! Harry hurt his head • Nor does it occur on stressed structural words He hurt his head, not hers • But some lexical words are spelled with a “silent” h – honest, hour --- hotel? herb?

Mary and Bruce and quicker than me but slower than you Mary and Bruce and quicker than me but slower than you

am is are was were have has had does did can will must I am is are was were have has had does did can will must I think I can do it Jane will have finished by now When does she leave work?

We must get some more What was I saying Where were the children We must get some more What was I saying Where were the children

 • That’s not what i said • That isn’t what I said • • That’s not what i said • That isn’t what I said • You can’t do that

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The first 2 columns show whether the word takes 0 or i when it The first 2 columns show whether the word takes 0 or i when it is weak. If it takes final i this should be regarded as the 'happ. Y' vowel, i. e. it may be tensed to í , especially if it is followed by a vowel in the next word - look in column 4. Column 3 shows forms which lose their initial h except at the beginnings of utterances

Columns 4 -8 show words which change before vowels, and the changes concerned. An Columns 4 -8 show words which change before vowels, and the changes concerned. An arrow means "becomes". Column 6 applies only to non-rhotic accents; the rhotic accents will always have a final -r in these words. Also, many American accents do not change 0 to u as in column 5. Columns 7 and 8 only concern the words the and a (an). The change in the before vowels does not take place in many American accents. Finally, column 9 shows those words which retain their STRONG vowel at the end of utterances, BUT REMAIN UNSTRESSED.