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Words to Know government - a political system for exercising authority. aristocracy – a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility. citizen – a native of a state or nation with certain rights and privileges. direct democracy – a government controlled by its citizens either directly or through representatives. monarchy – a government in which power is in the hands of a single person.
Words to Know continued natural law – patterns and explanations of the world discovered through reason and intelligence; used by the Greeks in place of superstition & traditional explanations of the world. republic – a form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives & leaders elected by the people. senate – in ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Objectives 1. To identify the different political systems that developed in ancient Greece. 2. To trace changes in the Greek democracy and the flowering of Greek philosophy during the fifth century B. C. 3. To compare and contrast democracy in Athens with that under the Roman republic. 4. To describe the influence of Roman law on government.
The World Arctic Ocean Pacific Ocean SOUTH POLE Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean SOUTH POLE Pacific Ocean
Question: How does the past influence the present? Democracy is from the Greek words “demos” meaning people and “kratos” meaning rule or authority Government - a political system for exercising authority. Democracy - a government BY the people.
Rise of Democratic Ideas In Greece and Rome Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Romans 509 B. C. Greeks 594 B. C.
Direct Democracy - government in which citizens rule directly voting on laws, & other matters affecting the city-state. (Like a town meeting today with the people’s representatives hearing what the people want to say. ) Executive Branch President White House Legislative Branch Senators & Representatives Capital Building Judicial Branch Justices Supreme Court Separation of Powers –the assignment of executive, legislative, & judicial powers to different groups of officials in a government. (Like the U. S. Government, today)
athenian rulers and their reforms Solon (630 – 560 B. C. ) increased citizens’ participation in government but it was still a limited democracy. 594 B. C. , outlawed slavery based on debt and cancelled farmers’ debts, averting a revolution established four classes of citizenship based on wealth instead of heredity. also created a new Council of Four Hundred to prepare business for the already existing Council a fairer code of laws the right of citizens to bring charges against wrongdoers.
508 B. C. Cleisthenes' reforms was felt immediately, revolutionizing all aspects of Athenian life. Everyone was really happy ! He wanted to break up the power of the nobles. His laws allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. He also created the Council of Five Hundred which counseled the assembly. Democracy released unheard of potentials in its citizens and ushered in an age of achievement and prosperity.
Athens, Greece – The Parthenon Atop the Acropolis
Aristotle Plato Socrates Greek Philosophers (Thinkers) They did not rely on superstition or tradition but used reason and intelligence (logic) to discover predictable patterns they called natural laws.
NATURAL LAWS Greek Philosophers based their philosophy on these natural laws: 1. The universe (land, sky, sea) is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute & unchanging laws. 2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason.
338 B. C. The end of Democracy in Greece and…. . …… The beginning of a foreign Monarchy.
*Direct democracy *Paying jurors so more people can participate in government Greeks *3 branches of government *Written Legal Code *Natural law
The lands of the Roman Empire, who allowed conquered people the right of equal treatment under the law.
Invading Roman Army
Romans, welcoming their emperor.
• All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law. • A person was considered innocent until proven guilty. • The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused person. • Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
The Roman Republic Roman aristocrats overthrew the harsh king & set up the new government: the Republic The Romans were the first to give us Representative Democracy with their senators.
Roman Senate Roman Forum
Justinian’s Code even kings were subject to the law. 451 B. C. The Twelve Tablets (the early code): officials collected all Roman laws A. D. 528 Justinian (the new code): all Roman laws since 451 B. C. be collected when completed, consisted of four works 1. The Code which contained all the laws 2. The Digest which is a summary of legal opinions 3. The Novellae, laws passed after 534 These established “a government of law, not of men”
*Representative democracy Romans *the Individual is a citizen of the State not just a subject to a ruler. *Written Legal Code *3 branches of government *All citizens had the right to : equal treatment under the law considered innocent until proven guilty burden of proof rested with the accuser *Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
Rise of Democratic Ideas in Greece and Rome *594 B. C. – In Greece, adult males may attend & present laws for debate in the assembly. *509 B. C. – Romans establish a Republic (representative Government). *508 B. C. – In Greece, the assembly reorganized to limit power of the nobles. *461 B. C. – In Greece, direct democracy introduced to Athens. *A. D. 528 – In Rome, EMPEROR JUSTINIAN authorized a panel to compile a written legal code for all Roman citizens including rulers. *A. D. 533 – Justinian’s Code of Laws (written legal code) completed.
Summary: Rise of Democratic Ideas • Greece/Rome: • democracy (direct & representative) • natural laws of the universe (logic, reason, intelligence) • limit power of nobles • written code of laws • separation of power (3 branches of government)