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Women’s access to higher education: Impact on MDGs and Sustainability presented by: CHRISTIANA BADOO & JENNIFER AMPONSAH Date: 8 th October 2015
OUTLINE q. Introduction q. MDG 3 q. Gender equality q. Internationalization q. SDG goal 4, indicator 40/ envisaged impacts q. Recommendations q. Conclusion
by Dr. J. E. Kwegyir Aggrey (1875 -1927)
INTRODUCTION q Education brings about social change q Education is a major tool for empowering women and reducing gender inequality q
MDG 3 q The MDG goal 3 focuses on promoting gender equality and empowering women. q Advocates for the elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.
GENDER EQUALITY The view that men and women should receive equal treatment and should not be discriminated against based on gender. Gender equality may be measured in terms of equality of opportunity or equality of results.
INTERNATIONALIZATION q A major phenomenon in higher education that requires international cooperation & exchanges. q The process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-secondary education. q Includes policies and practices undertaken by academic systems, institutions & individuals to cope with the global academic environment.
INTERNATIONALIZATION –cont’d Many agreements & partnerships with Institutions abroad have been signed in areas including: q Curriculum development q. Staff & student exchanges q Research collaboration q Dissemination q Technical cooperation
TRENDS OF FOREIGN STUDENT ENROLMENT (2005 -2010) – UG/ KNUST
TRENDS OF FOREIGN STUDENT ENROLMENT -2010) – UG/ KNUST/ UCC (2005
FACTORS THAT IMPEDE INTERNATIONAL FEMALE STUDENTS ENROLMENT q High tuition q Study permit requirements e. g. medical aid requirements, police clearance among . q Unrecognized foreign educational qualifications others Difficulty in accessing financial aid q Adjusting to new expectations q Language and cultural barriers
STRATEGIES TO ENSURE GENDER EQUALITY –(UG) q Affirmative Action Policy – UG adopted this policy way back in the 1980 s to increase the ratio of female student enrolment. q Promotions: - 40% of academic senior members promoted over the past five years have been women. q Day care Centre: UG established a Day care Centre in 2013 in response to the need of staff and students who are nursing mothers.
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF UG ENROLLMENT RATES FROM 2001 TO 2015
SDG 4 - INDICATOR 40 q The recently adopted SDG goal 4, seeks to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. q Indicator 40 provides for tertiary enrolment rates for both men and women.
SDG 4 seeks to: • Expand by 2020 the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States. SDG Indicator 4. 7. [Indicator on scholarships for students from developing countries] SDG Indicator 4. 8. [Indicator on supply of qualified teachers] Source: Open Working Group of the General Assembly Report • Increase enrolment in higher education, including vocational & technical training, ICT, engineering and the sciences, in both developed developing countries.
ENVISAGED IMPACT OF SDGS ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION q Innovation in teaching and delivery methods. q Higher mobility of students, staff and programs. q Increase tertiary enrollment rates. q Increase percentage of girls & boys who acquire skills and values needed for global citizenship and sustainable development.
RECOMMENDATIONS q Increase bilateral relations among African universities at the national level. q Adopt lower cut-off grade for local and international female students during admissions and implement more gender-sensitive policies at all levels. q More exchange programs to facilitate internationalization of higher education and gender equality.
RECOMMENDATIONS –CONT’D q Highlight the existence of gender policies/ affirmative actions in the university to attract prospective female students. q Strengthen the strategies put in place to achieve the MDGs while plan to introduce other necessary strategies to achieve the SDGs. q. Introduce inter-institutional associations, conferences and workshops to explore opportunities for women to access higher education.
RECOMMENDATIONS –CONT’D q Encourage and support females up to postgraduate levels through scholarships q Organize international conferences to bring women together to share experiences q Introduce policies to create opportunities for females to assess higher education q Create awareness about available opportunities in order to access them q African universities must collaborate more to encourage internationalization
CONCLUSION q The OECD predicts that by 2025 there will be over 250 million students in higher education across the world. q If we are moving towards a more diversified yet more connected global higher education system, then who participates cannot be a question confined to national boundaries.
Thank you! Danke! Merci! Gracias! Asante! • Medaase!