- Количество слайдов: 61
Why Do They Hate Us?
Sources of Terrorist Hatred n Quality of life Issues: A response to the failure of governments of Islamic states to provide economic and quality of life opportunities for their citizens.
Quality of Life Issues n n n Oil wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few. Most Middle Eastern countries have a per capita income less than $4000. Around 23% of the population of the Middle East survive on less than US $2 per day The region suffers from unemployment of around 15% overall – and even higher among youth – in spite of relatively low female labor force participation. Strong demographic growth means that the labor force is growing at 3 -4% per year. The daunting implication is that at least 100 million jobs need to be created by 2020 in order to make any serious impact on the unemployment problem.
Sources of Terrorist Hatred n A Clash of Values: A response to modernization and globalization which has brought them face to face with “Western Values. ”
A Clash of Values n n Many Muslims see the West as a society they believe is corrupt at its base. Corruption is evidenced not only by the level of hedonist permissiveness, materialism, women's rights in the West, but also the secular nature of Western society itself.
The Image of America n n “President George Bush says that he will bring his values to our countries in order for us to become good people and not terrorists. Of course we must discover the truth, which lies clearly and sharply behind the picture that is showed by the media about the society of the USA, a picture that is a lie. ” “If we travel in our minds to the reality of the American society and the values, which are in fact ruling the American society, we will find that there are three basic issues that control the life of that society, the system, administration and the people as well. These three basic issues are: money, sex, and power. ” q Hassan Nasrallah, Leader of Hezbollah
Sources of Terrorist Hatred n Historical Struggle: A response to a history of struggle against perceived humiliation and injustices at the hands of the West.
Perceived Humiliations by The West n n n European Crusaders from the 11 th through 13 th centuries. The subjugation of most Muslim peoples of the Middle East to colonial rule by Europeans in the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. The “modern crusaders” – Israel and America.
From the Horse’s Mouth “As to America, I say to it and its people a few words: I swear to God that America will not live in peace before peace reigns in Palestine, and before all the army of infidels depart the land of Mohammad, peace be upon him. ” 6 October 2001
Bin Laden’s Message n n n "God knows it did not cross our minds to attack the towers but after the situation became unbearable and we witnessed the injustice and tyranny of the American-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon, I thought about it. "As I watched the destroyed towers in Lebanon, it occurred to me to punish the unjust the same way and to destroy towers in America so it could taste some of what we are tasting and get them to stop killing our children and women. “Your security is in your own hands and each state which does not harm our security will remain safe. ” q October 2004
The Arab –Israeli Dispute
Birth of Zionism Y GOALS: The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland of Palestine. Y Freedom from Western anti. Semitism. Theodore Herzl 1860 -1904
First Zionist Conference, 1897 Y Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in 1896. Y The First Zionist Congress Met in Basel, Switzerland in 1897. Y Becomes an international Jewish organization. Y “Next Year in Jerusalem!”
The Ottoman Empire in WW 1
Hussein-Mc. Mahon Letters, 1915. . Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Lord Rothchild, His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a na home for the Jewish people use the and will best endeavors to facilitate the achiev of this object, being clearly understood it that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious right existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine should be grateful if you w …I bring this declaration to the knowled the Zionist Federation. Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign Secretary
Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment!
Jewish Immigration Leads to Arab Riots Jewish Immigration 1919 1, 806 1931 4, 075 1920 8, 223 1932 12, 533 1921 8, 294 1933 37, 337 1922 8, 685 1934 45, 267 1923 8, 175 1935 66, 472 1924 13, 892 1936 29, 595 1925 34, 386 1937 10, 629 1926 13, 855 1938 14, 675 1927 3, 034 1939 31, 195 1928 2, 178 1940 10, 643 1929 5, 249 1941 4, 592 1930 4, 944
Demographic Evolution of Palestine 1850 -1947 • 1850 Census: 600, 000 (30, 000 Jews, 6%) • 1922 Census: 757, 182 (83, 794 Jews, 11%) • 1931 Census: 1, 035, 821 (174, 000 Jews, 16%) • 1947 Census: 1, 908, 775 (589, 341 Jews, 31%)
British White Paper of 1939 ¯ Limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75, 000 over the next five years. ¯ It ended Jewish land purchases. ¯ Independence for Palestine within 10 years. ¯ It is NOT British policy
Illegal Immigration and British “Detention” Camps in Cyprus : 1946 -1948
Jewish “Freedom Fighters” (or “Terrorists”? ) Irgun Zvai Leumi [Natl. Military Org. ] Avraham Stern & The Stern Gang
King David Hotel Jerusalem, June 1946
Population and Land Distribution in 1947
Truman Opts for Partition Over Objections of Departments of State and Defense n “I'm sorry, gentlemen, but I have to answer to hundreds of thousands who are anxious for the success of Zionism: I do not have hundreds of thousands of Arabs among my constituents. " --Harry S. Truman
Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, 1 st Prime Minister
War Begins!: May 15, 1948
Suez Crisis (1956) Gamal Abdul Nasser President of Egypt
Six-Day War (1967)
UN Security Council Resolution 242, 1967 n Affirms that the fulfillment of Charter principles requires the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East which should include the application of both the following principles: q q Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict; Termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.
Yom-Kippur War (Oct. , 1973)
Israeli Settlers in Occupied Lands As of July 2009, approximately 304, 569 Israelis live in the 121 officially-recognized settlements in the West Bank, a further 192, 000 Israelis live in settlements in East Jerusalem and over 20, 000 live in settlements in the Golan Heights. [ Settlements range in their character from farming communities to suburbs to frontier villages, and, in the case of East Jerusalem, city neighborhoods
The Search for Peace
Recognizing the Two Narratives The Palestinian Narrative: n Nakba (the catastrophe) of 1948 n The 37 -year Occupation (West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem) n Spiritual connection to the Holy Land n Fear of Dispossession / 20 th Century Jewish Immigration The Jewish Narrative: n History of Jewish Persecution n Holocaust n Israel as Jewish ‘Safe Haven’ n Spiritual connection to the Holy Land
The Promised Land? Genesis 15: 18 -21 describes the land promised to the descendants of Abraham in terms of the extent of territories of various ancient peoples. More precise geographical borders are given in Exodus 23: 31 which describes borders as marked by the Grea Wadi of Egypt (the Nile), the Red Sea, the "Sea of the Philistines" i. e. , the Mediterranean, and the "River, " the Euphrates), the traditional furthest extent of the Kingdom of David.
Camp David Accords (1979) President Anwar Sadat of Egypt President Jimmy Carter of the U. S. Prime Minister Menachem Begin Of Israel
The Search for Peace n n On 9 September 1993, the Norwegian Foreign Minister announced that secret negotiations had been completed between the PLO and Israel which resulted in an agreement in principle to end their conflict. On 13 September 1993, the Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was signed in Washington, DC.
Palestinian Territories on the West Bank, 1994 • Palestinian-controlled, Palestinian-administered land (Area A) • Israeli-controlled, but Palestinian-administered land (Area B) • Israeli-controlled, Israeliadministered land (Area C)
The Clinton Effort for a Comprehensive Agreement
Camp David Peace Plan 2000
Two Plans for Bringing Peace
The Saudi Peace Plan, 2002 n Until the adoption of the Saudi initiative by the Arab League, only two Arab states, Egypt and Jordan, recognized Israel's right to exist. Under the Saudi plan all 22 Arab states have offered to q q Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended Enter into a peace agreement with Israel Provide security for all the states of the region Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of this plan "
The Saudi Peace Plan n In return, the Arab League calls upon Israel to: q q q Withdraw fully from all the territories occupied since 1967 (including the Syrian Golan Heights) to the lines of June 4, 1967 Achieve a just solution to the Palestinian refugee problem in accordance with the December 1948 UN General Assembly Resolution 194 Accept a sovereign independent Palestinian state in the Palestinian-occupied territories in the West Bank and Gaza strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital"
Likud Plan: Unilateral Israeli Actions n "In any future final-status agreement, there will be no Israeli settlement in the Gaza Strip. q q n "Israel will supervise and guard the external envelope on land, will maintain exclusive control in the airspace of Gaza, and will continue to conduct military activities in the sea space of the Gaza Strip. " "Israel will continue to maintain a military presence along the border line between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. " “It is clear that in the West Bank, some areas will remain part of the state of Israel, among them civilian settlements, military zones and places where Israel has additional interests. "
The Separation Wall
Impact on One Arab Community
Impact on One Arab Community
Joint Israeli & Palestinian Public Opinion 76% of Israelis and Palestinians favor a two-state solution The One. Voice poll of 23, 000 Palestinians and 17, 000 Israelis as reported in AP and Ha’aretz found that 76% on each side endorsed the two-state concept - a Palestinian state existing beside a Jewish state, "each recognizing the other as such, both democratic and respecting human rights, including minority rights. " Sources: Associated Press and Ha’aretz, May 2004.
Politicians Seem to be Listening "(Israel's) control over the Palestinians cannot continue without end. Do you want to stay forever in Jenin, Nablus, Ramallah and Bethlehem? That is not right. ” - Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon. May 27, 2003 “Israel must give up all of the land that it captured in the 1967 Middle East war. If you keep 10 percent of the land you keep 100 percent of the conflict. ” - Former Prime Minister, Shimon Peres. February, 24 2004 Israeli Prime Ministers from both ends of the political spectrum have acknowledged that Israel’s presence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip must eventually end.
Essential Components of a Peace Plan Each state must have defined borders, contiguous territory, supreme sovereignty over that territory. 1. q All states of the region must have normalized diplomatic and economic relations and be free of threats from their neighbors. 2. q Public security guarantee from U. S. and/or NATO may be necessary for Israel. Arab refugees must be compensated for their lost property inside of Israel but will not have the right to return to their homes there. Equitable sharing of water resources must be established. 3. 4. q 5. Does not necessarily have to be pre-1967 borders. Territorial swaps are possible. Similar to Israel-Jordan agreement on sharing water from the Jordan River basin. Jerusalem must be shared as the capital of both states.
Benjamin Netanyahu Hints Shared Jerusalem Possible n n n On 7 July 2010 Israeli prime minister addressed a conference of Presidents of U. S. Jewish groups on his government’s eagerness for direct peace talks with the Palestinians. Regarding the Status of Jerusalem he said, ““Everybody knows that there are Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem that under any peace plan will remain where they are. ” Most experts interpret this to mean that other neighborhoods of Jerusalem may not remain “where they are, ” and will become part of an eventual Palestinian state
A Possible Solution?
Official U. S. Support for Two-States "The Israeli occupation that began in 1967 will be ended through a settlement negotiated between the parties, based on U. N. Resolutions 242 and 338, with Israeli withdrawal to secure and recognized borders. " President G. W. Bush, June 24, 2002 “For decades, there has been a stalemate: two peoples with legitimate aspirations, each with a painful history that makes compromise elusive. The only resolution is for the aspirations of both sides to be met through two states, where Israelis and Palestinians each live in peace and security. “ President Barack Obama, June 4, 2009,
Why Do They Hate Us?