- Количество слайдов: 50
What were the Long-Term Causes of the Cold War? L/O – To identify the ideological differences and mutual suspicions that developed between the USA and USSR
Long Term Causes Defined : • 1. Competing ideologies • 2. Russian Revolution ( chasm ? ) • 3. Nazi- Soviet Pact ( WWII, august 1939) • 4. Second Front delays by the Western Allies • 5. Yalta and Potsdam ( Potsdam = Treaty of Versailles ? ? ? ) • 6. Atomic Bomb • 7. Satellites of Eastern Europe ( puppet states )
Long term Causes • 8. Two camp speeches • 9. Iron Curtain Discourse • 10. Division of Germany ( quadro-tri-bi zonia ) • 11. Truman’s doctrine • 12. Marshall Plan • 13. Berlin Blocade • 14. USSR atomic bombs • 15. Respective competing alliances
Communism vs Capitalism • The USA and USSR were seen by many in the early 20 th century as inevitable enemies. This was due to their fundamentally different political and economic systems. • The Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 saw communism established in Russia by Vladimir Lenin. • Communism or Marxism was based on the 19 th century ideas of Karl Marx advocated a new type of government that promised a ‘classless’ society – this threatened the very existence of Western Capitalist Democracies like the USA.
The United States Capitalism • Individuals free to compete for profits (supply & demand) with minimum government interference almost LAISSEZ –Faire • Private ownership of the economy by a small group of individuals who make all key decisions concerning investment, production, and employment • Often called market or free enterprise economy • Influenced by ideas of Adam Smith (1776 Wealth of Nations) Liberal Democracy • Government chosen by the people – vote for a political party who best represents one’s views • Rights are protected: freedom of speech, press, assembly, information, religion, & peaceful protest
Two Rival Ideologies The West The USSR Economic Differences: Capitalism Economic Differences: Communism Individuals should be able to compete with each other with a minimum of state interference and make as much money as they wish. This is known as Capitalism creates divisions between rich and poor. Thus all businesses and farms should be owned by the state on behalf of people. This is Communism. Individuals are thus encouraged to work hard Goods will be distributed to individuals by the promise of individual reward. state. Everyone will thus get what is needed and everyone will be working for the collective good. “To each according to their needs , from each according to their ability. “ Political Differences: Liberal Democracy Political Differences: One-Party State Individuals choose the government through voting. There is a range of political parties to choose from. There is no need for a range of political parties, as the Communist Party truly represents the views of all the workers and rules on behalf of the people. Individual freedoms valued by the West are not necessary. Individuals have certain rights, such as freedom of speech and freedom of the press. “The trouble with free elections is that you never know how they are going to to turn out. ” Vyacheslav Molotov, 1954
Marxism–Leninism Believes that economic factors determine reality • Perceives capitalism to be immoral as it exploits labor • Foresees its overthrow by the workers After abolition of profit and economic exploitation, a communist society would evolve Anti Capitalism • Anti Liberal democracy • Anti Religion Dictatorship of the proletariat WHY ?
The enemies of Marxism–Leninism • Capitalism • Liberal democracy • Religion “If we mean that we are to hold Europe against communism, we must not budge [from Berlin]. I believe the future of democracy requires us to stay here, until forced out. ” US Lieutenant-General Lucius D. Clay, 1948 Capitalism : Belief in private ownership of land business Liberal Democracy ; Belief in parliamentary democracy Religion : Belief that ultimately God determines the fate of mankind, not economic factors
Capitalism • An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.
Basics of Capitalism: • Capitalism is said to promote economic growth and the overall standard of living. • In other words, capitalism creates CAPITAL (money) …and lots of it.
What is capitalism? • Economic system. • Believes in individual ownership and competition. • The theory is that when everyone is selfish, it benefits everyone. • Adam Smith is “the” capitalist.
So…. • System of government is democratic • Property is privately owned • Driven by free enterprise • Wealth distributed unevenly • Education and health care provided by private entities • Freedom of the press • Class distinctions: upper class, middle class and working class • Focus is on the individual and his/her own progress in life
The ideology of capitalism • People need freedom • When people compete against one another, they achieve greater things • Some people have more than others because they make better use of their abilities • Governments should not interfere with the rights of individuals to make their own living • The government should interfere in the economy as little as possible
What’s good about capitalism? • Freedom, choice. • You can work wherever, buy whatever, and pretty much do whatever. • If you’re successful, you can be very successful. Think Bill Gates.
What’s bad about capitalism? • No “safety net. ” • If you’re unsuccessful, you can be very unsuccessful. Think about the poor. • Big gap between rich and poor.
Going Places – 1948 https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=mo. Mdcd KFBw 0
https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=PZ 4 Vzh. Iu KCQ
Marxism • Marx and Engels studied the history of the world’s economies Capitalism Feudalism Basic Communism Socialism Communism !!!! • They believed they discovered an inevitable pattern
So… • System of government is totalitarian • Property is owned by the state • No free enterprise is allowed • Wealth distributed equally • Education and health care provided by the state • Press controlled and owned by the state • Classless society: all members of society are considered to be equal • Focus is on the progress of the community as a whole
What’s good about communism? • Security, basic needs met. • Everyone would have a job, house, health care, etc.
What’s bad about communism? • Lack of choice • No reward for being a better worker or punishment for being a slacker. • Everyone expected to be the same.
Idealism vs. Self-Interest • The USA and USSR both believed that their political philosophy was ‘right’, and the best way to create a just society. • Each side believed that it offered the only true path to ‘peace, freedom, justice and plenty’ for all. • However behind the idealism, the USA and USSR were also motivated by their own self-interests and power politics.
The West The USSR What ideals underpinned the view of each country? • Idealism of Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt • Struggle for a better world based on collective security, political selfdetermination and economic integration. • Peace, freedom, justice and plenty • DID IT WORK ? • Marxist idealism and Stalinism • Struggle for a better world based on international socialism- WHEN DID IT START? • Peace, freedom, justice and plenty How was this to be achieved by each country? • Achieved by democracy/Capitalism and international co-operation • Achieved by spreading Soviet-style Communism What elements of self-interest lay behind each country’s ideals? • The need to establish markets and open doors to free trade • The desire to avoid another economic crisis of the magnitude of 1929 • President Truman and most of the postwar US administration’s belief that ‘what’s good for America is good for the world’ • The need to secure borders • The need to recover from the effects of World War Two • The need to regain strength as the ‘nursery of Communism’ • Stalin’s belief that what’s good for the USSR is good for workers of the world
Russian Revolution, 1917 Emergence of revolutionary Russia/USSR with imperative to spread communism worldwide Anti-Western policies, 1918– 35 Invasion of Poland, 1920 Support of Kuomintang in China Comintern founded, 1919 Support for rebellions in European colonial territories
Western reaction, 1918– 33 British, French, US and Japanese intervention in Russian Civil War, 1918– 17 Anglo-Soviet ‘Cold War’, 1927 Anti-communist Nazi government came to power, 1933
USSR’s defensive policy against Nazi Germany, 1933 – 39 USSR’s defensive policy against Nazi Germany, 1933– 39 Popular Front policy Intervenes in Spanish Civil War Joins League of Nations Seeks French and British support
USSR’s co-operation with Nazi Germany Nazi–Soviet Pact, August 1939 Partition of Poland Annexation of Baltic states Bessarabia and north Bukovina
Increasing Hostility: 1917 -1939 • The intervention of the West in the Russian Civil War (19181922) supporting the conservative forces – the Whites – in their attempt to overthrow the Bolsheviks. • The USSR did not receive recognition nor was allowed to join the League of Nations until the 1930 s. • The appeasement of Hitler by the West in the 1930 s was partly motivated by fear of Soviet Communism. • The Non-Aggression Pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact) between the USSR and Nazi Germany in 1939 allowed Hitler to concentrate on attacking the West.
What was the significance of Stalin? • Another problem for many in the West was the nature of Stalin’s Russia. ‘Stalinism’ was a particular brand of Communism that was seen as evil at the time. • Stalin ruled as a dictator. His policies included ruthless collectivisation which led to the deaths of millions. His ‘five-year plans’ improved industry so he could defeat Nazi Germany. • In the 1930 s, Stalin launched the ‘Great Terror’ which resulted in purges of all political opponents as well as millions of ordinary people, most of whom died.
What was the significance of Stalin? • By 1945, Stalinism seemed poised to take-over Europe. It meant: 1. The dominance of Stalin over the party, and the party over state institutions 2. A powerful state security machine 3. The ruthless maintenance of power by the elimination of opposing leaders, groups or entire sections of the population 4. The development of a regime associated with paranoia and violence.
Stalin’s Role in World War Two • Stalin had hoped to delay an attack from Nazi Germany by signing the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact. • However in June 1941, Hitler invaded the USSR. Operation Barbarossa was the biggest military operation in history. • The Red Army was pushed back, Ukraine was overrun and Moscow threatened. However the Soviets fought back, and after victory at Stalingrad in 1943, the Nazis were pushed back. • Stalin’s victory over Nazi Germany made him more secure and put the USSR in a position to emerge as one of the leading powers in the post-war world.
WWII Nazi-Soviet Pact - August 1939 Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler – to last 10 years Secretly agreed to attack and divide Poland between them (occurred Sept. 1939) Lasted until June 1941 – when Nazis attacked SU in Operation Barbarossa
The Second Front Delay After joining the Allies in 1942, Stalin pushed US & Britain to open a 2 nd front Did not occur until June 1944 – Stalin suspicious Allies wanted Nazis to kill as many Soviets as possible (80% of Nazis Military resources thrown at SU) Catastrophic losses – Stalingrad 99% of city destroyed, 2 million deaths Nazis withdrew after 200 days – turning point in the war for the Allies
Déjà –vu ?
The 5 Ds of all the ALLIES • 1. Denazification "Laundry" • 2. Demilitarization • The Morgenthau plan (never policy, but feared) The Morgenthau Plan by the Allied occupation of Germany following World War II was a proposal to eliminate Germany's ability to wage war by eliminating its arms industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries basic to military strength. • Denazification ("… is like delousing") • West/US: Nuremberg Trials; Hitler • Soviet: remove structural causes of Nazism
The 4 Ds of all the ALLIES • 3. Decartelization: break up the corporate conglomerates (IG Farben, Krupp, Siemens, . . . ) • 4. Decentralization (federation of states) • 5. Democratization: What and How?
3 Rs of Allies • Reeducation: the positive means of democratization initially: "Vansittartism"--"rub noses in excrement" • Reparations: economic scarcity makes democratization more difficult • Resettlement / refugees
In what ways did the war aims and ambitions of the USSR, US and Great Britain conflict? The USSR’s aims ØBy the winter of 1944– 45, Stalin’s immediate priorities were clear. He wanted security for the USSR and reparations from the Axis powers to help rebuild the Soviet economy. Ø To protect the USSR against any future German attack, Stalin was determined to regain the land the USSR had annexed in 1939– 40 and lost during the course of the war, including: Øland that the Soviet Union had annexed from Poland in 1939; in compensation, Poland would be given German territory that lay beyond the Oder River Ø the Baltic provinces of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Øterritory lost to Finland in 1941 ØBessarabia and northern Bukovina from Romania.
Eastern Europe q. In eastern Europe, Stalin’s first priority was to ensure that regimes friendly to the USSR were established. q. By 1944, Stalin seems to have envisaged a postwar Europe, which for a period of time would consist of three different areas: q. An area under direct Soviet control in eastern Europe: Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and, for a time at least, the future Soviet zone in Germany.
Also , Importantly for later ● An ‘intermediate zone’, which was neither fully communist nor fully capitalist, comprising Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Finland. The communists would share power there with the liberal, moderate socialist and peasant parties. IS IT REALLY POSSIBLE IN A COMMUNIST STATE ? These areas would act as a ‘ bridge’ between Sovietcontrolled eastern Europe and western Europe and the US. ● A non-communist western Europe, which would also include Greece.
Continued co-operation • Stalin wanted to continue close co-operation with Britain and the US even after the end of the war. • In 1943, he dissolved the Comintern as a gesture to convince his allies that the USSR was no longer supporting global revolution. • The British government saw this as evidence that Stalin wished to co-operate in the reconstruction of Europe after the end of the war. • STALIN’s FOREIGN POLICY
Why did the USA and USSR emerge as superpowers after 1945? Military Reasons • To defeat Germany, the USA had become the number one air-force power in the world. • To defeat Germany, the USSR had become the number one land-force power in the world. • France and Britain’s inability to defeat Germany had changed the balance of power. They had become ‘second rank’ powers. • The USSR now lacked any strong military neighbours. This made it the regional power. • The USA’s economy was strengthened by the war. It was now able to outproduce all the other powers put together. • The USA was committed to more ‘open trade’. Its politicians and business people wanted to ensure liberal trade, and market competition flourished. The United States was willing to play an active role in avoiding the re. Economic emergence of the disastrous pre-war pattern of trade-blocs and tariffs. Reasons • The USA had the economic strength to prevent a return to instability in Europe. • The small Eastern European countries that had been created after World War One were not economically viable on their own, so they needed the support of a stronger neighbour, and the USSR could replace Germany in this role.
Why did the USA and USSR emerge as superpowers after 1945? • For the West, the outcome of World War Two showed that the ideals of democracy and international collaboration had triumphed over fascism. Thus the political system of the USA was the right path for the future. • For the Soviet Union, it was Communism that had triumphed over fascism. Indeed, Communism had gained widespread respect in Political Europe because of its part in resisting the Germans. Reasons • The USSR’s huge losses, and the role of the Red Army in defeating the Nazis, gave Stalin a claim to great influence in forming the post-war world. • The USSR had the political (as well as military) strength to prevent a return to instability in Eastern Europe. Communism could fill the political vacuum there.
Superpower Rivalry • Given their relative strength, the USA and USSR came to dominate, creating a ‘bipolar’ international system. • They would dictate the post-war settlement in Europe however during this process, the Grand Alliance set-up during the war collapsed. • By 1949, the Cold War had come into existence. This would last forty years until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989.