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What We Know About Nuclear Energy? Borys Ledoshchuk, Professor, MD, Ph. D, Kiev, Ukraine, Supercourse, International Editorial Board
Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Power Plants and Bombs, Nuclear Medicine and Nuclear Protection Reference : Wikipedia
Nuclear Energy - History In 1898, French Pierre Curie Reference : Wikipedia physicist Pierre Curie and his wife Maria Sklodowska -Curie had discovered that present in pitchblende, an ore of uranium, was a substance which emitted large amounts of radioactivity, which they named radium. Marie Curie, Sklodowska
Nuclear Energy - History In 1917 Ernest Rutherford the father of nuclear physics, is credited with splitting the atom. In 1932 John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, attempted to split the atomic nucleus by entirely artificial means, using a particle Ernest Rutherford accelerator to bombard lithium with protons, thereby producing two helium nuclei. Reference : Wikipedia
Nuclear Energy - History In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron. In 1934 nuclear fission was first experimentally achieved by Enrico Fermi In Rome, when his team bombarded uranium with neutrons. In 1938, German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, along with Austrian physicists Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch, conducted experiments with the products of neutronbombarded uranium. Reference : Wikipedia
Two Basic Types of Radiation Particulate Radiation -Alpha particles - Beta particulate -Electromagnetic Radiation -Radio waves -Microwaves -Ultraviolet light -Gamma radiation -X-radiation γ
Alpha Particles Alpha particles (symbol α ) are a type of ionizing radiation ejected by the nuclei of some unstable atoms. They are large subatomic fragments consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha Emitter Atomic Number americium-241 95 plutonium-236 94 uranium-238 92 thorium-232 90 radium-226 88 radon-222 86 polonium-210 84
Beta Particles There are many beta Beta particles are subatomic emitters: particles ejected from the Øtritium nucleus of some radioactive Øcobalt-60 atoms. They are equivalent to electrons. The difference Østrontium-90 Øtechnetium-99 is that beta particles originate in the nucleus and Øiodine-129 electrons originate outside Øiodine-131 the nucleus. Øcesium-137
Gamma Rays A gamma ray is a packet of electromagnetic energy--a photon. Gamma photons are the most energetic photons in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays (gamma photons) are emitted from the nucleus of some unstable (radioactive) atoms. Gamma emitting radionuclides are the most widely used radiation sources. The three radionuclides by far most useful are: Ø cobalt-60, Øcesium-137, Øtechnetium-99 m.
Sources of High Energy Radiation
Nuclear Energy - History In the United States - the first manmade reactor, known as Chicago Pile 1, which achieved criticality on December 2, 1942. This work became part of the Manhattan Project, which built large reactors at the Hanford Site to breed plutonium for use in the first nuclear weapons, which were used on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki photo taken at ground level of Nagasaki bombing
Nuclear Energy Electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951, at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho, which initially produced about 100 k. W (the Arco Reactor was also the first to experience partial meltdown, in 1955).
Nuclear Energy Russia's first nuclear power plant, and the first in the world to produce electricity, was the 5 MWe Obninsk reactor, in 1954. Block control panel Obninsk nuclear power plant. Photo: Ilya Varlamov AM-1 reactor was shut down in 2002. Photo: Alexander Belenky / BFM. ru
Nuclear Power Plants In 2009, 15% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power, despite concerns about safety and radioactive waste management. More than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built.
Nuclear Power Plants Many countries remain active in developing nuclear power, including China, India, Japan and Pakistan. All actively developing both fast and thermal technology, South Korea and the United States, developing thermal technology only, and South Africa and China, developing versions of the PBMR.
Nuclear Power Plants
World Map of Nuclear reactors
Nuclear Fuel Cycle • • • Uranium mining and milling Conversion and enrichment Fuel rod fabrication POWER REACTOR Reprocessing, or Radioactive waste disposal – Low-level in commercial facilities – High level at plants or underground repository
Nuclear Reactor Process
History of Nuclear Weapons
First Atomic Weapons
THE TRINITY TEST
Nuclear Bomb Tsar Bomba
The Soviet Atomic Bomb: 1939 -1955 Yuli Khariton, one of the fathers of the Soviet nuclear arms program Khariton was one of the elite group of physicists who, with Igor Kurchatov initiated the Soviet atomic weapons program in the 1940 s. He helped found the secret nuclear weapons complex at Sarov, renamed Arzamas 16 (and nicknamed "Los Arzamas"), in April 1946 and became its first Scientific Director, a position he held for 45 years.
Nuclear Bombs Nuclear Club NPT Nuclear Weapon States (China, France, Russia, UK, US) Non-NPT Nuclear Weapon States (India, North Korea, Pakistan) Undeclared Nuclear Weapon States (Israel) States suspected of having nuclear weapon programs (Iran, Syria) NATO weapons sharing weapons recipients States formerly possessing nuclear weapons
General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat a variety of diseases
Consumption energy in the world Reference: IEA
Countries are going to use nuclear energy during 2015 -2030 • Latin America: 3 + 2 expected new (Chile, Peru) • Western Europe: 9 + 3 expected new (Italy, Portugal, Turkey) • Eastern Europe: 10 + 3 expected new (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Poland) • Africa: 1 + 5 expected new (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunis) • Middle East & South Asia: 3 + 1 expected new (Bangladesh) • South East Asia & the Pacific: 0 + 4 expected new (Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) • Far East: 3 + 3 expected new (North Korea, Philippines, Vietnam) Reference: IAEA
Relative energy content of natural sources of fuel U-238 - 86, 7% Coal - 8, 7% Gas - 3, 4% Oil - 0, 8% U-235 - 0, 4%
Nuclear energy KWh/cap in the different region (2007) Reference: IEA
Nuclear Catastrophes v a major nuclear war; v a military conflict in which few nuclear explosions take place; v the military (so-called “surgical”) employment of few nuclear explosions against specific targets; v the destruction of a city by a nuclear explosion produced by a terrorist commando; v the deliberate radioactive contamination on a significant scale of an inhabited area; v the accidental explosion of a nuclear weapon, or other accidents involving nuclear weapons; v a serious accident in a civilian nuclear installation, typically in an electricity-producing nuclear reactor.
Nuclear and Radiation Accidents Radiation Accident - the Mayak Disaster
Nuclear and Radiation Accidents The Three Mile Island NPP on Three Mile Island, 1979
Nuclear and Radiation Accidents The nuclear reactor after the disaster. Reactor 4 (center). Turbine building (lower left). Reactor 3 (center right) April 26, 1986 Pripyat, Ukraine. Photo Taken by Jason Minshull
Chernobyl disaster The outstanding prophylactic measures were performed on the wide territories of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus for the minimizing of the population irradiation. Total number of the resettled persons was more than 150 thousand persons.
Chernobyl disaster The successful assessment of the health outcomes of the Chernobyl Catastrophe and prevention of the possible future negative effects is in the combining of the international scientific, financial and humanitarian efforts for the solving these problems
Chernobyl today Chernobyl massively rushed tourists from western countries.
Today, the object "Shelter" is classified as a place of surface storage (temporary storage) of spontaneous radioactive waste (RAW). "Shelter" is equipped with systems that monitor the radiological situation inside this facility, as well as control systems of building structures.
Nuclear and Radiation Accidents Nuclear craft
Risk of terrorism (new challenge to industry) 9/11 jet passed near Indian Point
Risks of enrichment and fuel fabrication • Largest industrial users of water, electricity – Paducah, KY, Oak Ridge, TN, Portsmouth, OH • Cancers and leukemia among workers – Fires and mass exposure. – Karen Silk wood at Oklahoma fabrication plant. • Risk of theft of bomb material.
There are Three Factors That Affect Your Body’s Exposure to Radiation: distance Time shielding
Obama, Medvedev sign START treaty The United States and Russia signed on 8 April 2010 year in Prague, a new treaty on strategic offensive armaments.
Reference Kiev Pittsburgh Tokyo Cairo Novosibirsk
U. S. Government References to Radiation – Power. Point Files Bookmarks Author: Eric Marler M. D.
Nuclear Disaster Radiation Power. Point Lectures Google Web Search Author: Eric Marler M. D.