Скачать презентацию What s happening out there Ruth Sutton s view of Скачать презентацию What s happening out there Ruth Sutton s view of

b9f88c3a2a9c6105bb6badaa816c7f22.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 36

What’s happening ‘out there’? Ruth Sutton’s view of current assessment developments in Canada, NZ, What’s happening ‘out there’? Ruth Sutton’s view of current assessment developments in Canada, NZ, Scotland, and the implications for us in England

My assessment ‘whakapapa’ (Maori for ‘lineage) Started with an interest in the connection between My assessment ‘whakapapa’ (Maori for ‘lineage) Started with an interest in the connection between classroom assessment, metacognition, and students’ personal development 1982 -87 practical immersion, as Director of Manchester Assessment Project ‘Technical’ assessment immersion, as member of JMB’s Research Advisory Committee International immersion through regular work in NZ and Canada since 1992

The Big 5 Principles (identified by the UK Assessment Reform Group, 1999) 1. 2. The Big 5 Principles (identified by the UK Assessment Reform Group, 1999) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “The provision of effective feedback to students The active involvement of students in their own learning Adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment Recognition of the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial influences on learning The need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve”

Canada: divided by province and school district/division Canada: divided by province and school district/division

 Alberta : provincial tests and results managed by Alberta Education AFL encouraged through Alberta : provincial tests and results managed by Alberta Education AFL encouraged through ‘Alberta Initiative for School Improvement’ (AISI) over several years This approach has encouraged districts to see AFL as an ‘Initiative’, an add-on, not a shift in the norms of teaching No provincial report card: districts have to devise their own, based on curriculum outcomes Current public row about ‘no zeros’ policy in some schools: an example of the emotional/cultural underpinnings of assessment

Provincial ‘standards’ and assessment Ontario : assessment through Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), Provincial ‘standards’ and assessment Ontario : assessment through Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), Math and Literacy at Grades 3, 6, 9 (Maths) and 10 (literacy, graduation requirement) Results published and used for review and improvement Assessment principles and practice guidelines in ‘Growing Success’, 2010 Much progress recently, currently stalled by union action over pay, pensions etc

 Manitoba : weak provincial control, policy dominated by Winnipeg Comprehensive Assessment Programme (2000 Manitoba : weak provincial control, policy dominated by Winnipeg Comprehensive Assessment Programme (2000 - present): classroombased assessment, at the start of the year, results returned to schools but not publicly shared AFL encouraged but patchy: secondary assessment still dominated by ‘grading’ issues

Winnipeg Inner City ‘Feedback for Learning’ 2000 -03 Using the term ‘assessment’ brought with Winnipeg Inner City ‘Feedback for Learning’ 2000 -03 Using the term ‘assessment’ brought with it unhelpful negative baggage for teachers, students and the community ‘Feedback for Learning’ was the key to the project Our development focus was on teaching strategies, to enable and encourage the provision and use of effective feedback to improve student learning and outcomes Mostly within the realm of ‘ 2 nd generation’ learning and assessment (cf Mary James’ analysis), although we wanted to push it further, into collaborative meta-cognitive tasks

‘Backwards Planning’: a useful precondition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Learning intentions: what do ‘Backwards Planning’: a useful precondition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Learning intentions: what do we want the students to learn, including ‘learning how to learn’? Evidence of learning/success criteria: what will we look for to show that these goals have been achieved? Discuss and exemplify these with your students. Assessment activities: how will students show what they know, and get feedback to decide their next steps? Teaching: what teaching activities will enable and encourage students to learn and practice things we want them to learn? What’s the starting point? Check for prior learning and misconceptions.

Winnipeg Inner City Feedback for Learning, 2000 -2003 ‘Ten Steps to Heaven’ 1. 2. Winnipeg Inner City Feedback for Learning, 2000 -2003 ‘Ten Steps to Heaven’ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Teacher is clear about purpose and task (backwards planning) Teacher plans to discuss and exemplify learning expectations Teacher designs and explains learning tasks Teacher and students develop success criteria together Students check their work, while the learning is in progress Students say what’s OK and what’s not Students identify a next step Students continue, or correct work so far Students reflect periodically on what they’ve learned, and how they learned it Students present learning and achievement to someone else

FFL ‘ten steps’ – the actions to help us remember 1. Task (fist) 2. FFL ‘ten steps’ – the actions to help us remember 1. Task (fist) 2. Purpose (heart) 3. Share 4. Small Steps 5. Get Working 6. Look and check 7. Idea for improvement 8. Take a step towards 9. Look back to reflect 10. Present learning

Canada: main issues 1. AFL techniques sometimes detached from original principles 2. Grade 7 Canada: main issues 1. AFL techniques sometimes detached from original principles 2. Grade 7 onwards obsessed with %, with no understanding of ‘margin of error’ 3. Secondary assessment dominated by high-staking regular grading and reporting 3 or 4 times per year. 4. Reliability of teachers’ grading undermined by concept of ‘individual professional autonomy’ 5. System leadership stronger at district level than at school level, plus frequent movement of Principals (who are called ‘Adminstrators’!)

Scotland: Curriculum for Excellence Skills-based: teachers decide the appropriate content to use as the Scotland: Curriculum for Excellence Skills-based: teachers decide the appropriate content to use as the context for learning 5 -14 testing abandoned, after concern about the negative unintended consequences of regular national testing on teaching and learning experiences in schools Money previously spent on design, distribution, marking of tests diverted into other methods of ensuring reliability, eg. national moderation procedures and the National Assessment Resource (NAR) Providers of ‘standardised tests’ quickly moved to exploit (or exacerbate) the anxiety about ‘reliability’ among parents, teachers and LAs - a residue of overreliance on tests

Moderation: costs and benefits Yes, it costs a lot to organise and run a Moderation: costs and benefits Yes, it costs a lot to organise and run a successful teacher moderation process It also costs a lot to run a national testing process BUT, the money spent on moderation leads to very high quality professional development and confidence: the money spent on national testing leads to teacher passivity, anxiety, marginalisation and spurious faith in the ‘objectivity’ of results

Assessment Design: the search for balance Validity Reliability Best fit Manageability (time, cost, and Assessment Design: the search for balance Validity Reliability Best fit Manageability (time, cost, and credibility)

New Zealand – centralised policy New Zealand – centralised policy

‘Tomorrow’s Schools’ in 1980 s Regional Ministry of Education oversight of schools abandoned: each ‘Tomorrow’s Schools’ in 1980 s Regional Ministry of Education oversight of schools abandoned: each school has autonomous locally elected Board of Trustees and directly accountable to central government National curriculum – too heavy to start with and then refined National Standards in Literacy and Numeracy recently developed: to be used for reporting to parents, assessed by ‘Overall Teacher Judgement’(OTJ) and moderation

‘Assess to Learn’ ATOL PD contracts in place for a decade and more Implementation ‘Assess to Learn’ ATOL PD contracts in place for a decade and more Implementation impressive until late primary but patchy thereafter PD has tended to be ‘formulaic’, and not deeply understood, beyond the connection with very strong early childhood practice

NZ Qualifications Authority Oversees National Certificate of Educational Standards at levels 1 and 2 NZ Qualifications Authority Oversees National Certificate of Educational Standards at levels 1 and 2 in the schools sector Tight criteria, loose(ish) moderation, assessed and recorded in ‘units’ Fragmented summative assessment often confused with ‘formative’: secondary ‘too busy’ to focus on systematic involvement of students

NZ main issues Implacable hostility of NZEI (primary teachers’ union) to National Standards has NZ main issues Implacable hostility of NZEI (primary teachers’ union) to National Standards has distracted teachers from managing them as effectively as necessary OTJ’s being introduced ahead of effective moderation: could this result in imposition of national assessment, despite prohibitive costs? National Education Monitoring Programme (Intensive sampling, like APU) has been phased out Political uncertainty and 3 year political cycle Education Review Office (OFSTED equivalent) could become obsessed with National Standards data Charter schools? ? What are they thinking of?

Common theme: the gap between ‘knowing’ and ‘doing’ Regularly noted by research studies on Common theme: the gap between ‘knowing’ and ‘doing’ Regularly noted by research studies on AFL Raises major issues around ‘traditional’ PD Interest in ‘teaching as a construct of habits’ What enables/encourages teachers to change their daily fundamental habits? Without this change, sustainability is a nonstarter

How does habit change happen? The three-part brain The neo-cortex: intellectual processing 2. The How does habit change happen? The three-part brain The neo-cortex: intellectual processing 2. The reptilian brain: basic instincts 3. The limbic brain: handles emotions, experiences and habits 1.

Deep-rooted, hard-wired habits are resistant to change We learn how to teach through doing Deep-rooted, hard-wired habits are resistant to change We learn how to teach through doing it, (not reading about it), using the limbic brain to establish our professional habits These habits include planning, questioning, marking Habits learned ‘limbically’ will be changed the same way, through practice Changing habits generates problems and potential conflict

Changing habits – according to ‘Addiction Theory’ (Proshaska) Pre-contemplation Contemplation First step Discomfort and Changing habits – according to ‘Addiction Theory’ (Proshaska) Pre-contemplation Contemplation First step Discomfort and floundering Practice Confidence New habit Coach someone else

The Weightwatchers’ Model for whole school change The Weight-watchers model for changing teaching and The Weightwatchers’ Model for whole school change The Weight-watchers model for changing teaching and learning habits involves: Big, important, agreed goals Small steps and continual feedback Perseverance Collegial support and accountability Recognition of success

AFL: is it an end in itself or a means to an end? UK AFL: is it an end in itself or a means to an end? UK Teaching and Learning Research Project (2009), presented by Mary James in NZ Learning Autonomy (outcome) Learning How to Learn (activity) Assessment for Learning (tools)

Is it time to re-brand AFL? Implementing and sustaining AFL requires change in most Is it time to re-brand AFL? Implementing and sustaining AFL requires change in most of the mechanisms of teaching We need to focus on ‘re-engineering’ teaching, rather than adding something to it The word ‘assessment’ can confuse the issue, especially in secondary schools Why not “Feedback for Learning”? Or even “Teaching for Learning” ? ?

Motivating learners, young and older: the essential ingredients self efficacy ‘Locus’ of control Helpful Motivating learners, young and older: the essential ingredients self efficacy ‘Locus’ of control Helpful feedback As close to self as possible Motivation Achievement

A song to help us remember - to the tune of ‘You are My A song to help us remember - to the tune of ‘You are My Sunshine’ Please feel free to harmonise

 Let’s look at problems pupils can work on Release the magic, inspire to Let’s look at problems pupils can work on Release the magic, inspire to learn Share the criteria, provide great feedback And success you all will earn

 Our classroom focus is on the learning Not just the levels and the Our classroom focus is on the learning Not just the levels and the test We give our pupils responsibility And they reward us with their best

 Raise motivation, expect achievement Observe and listen, to find the clues And then Raise motivation, expect achievement Observe and listen, to find the clues And then adjust our next steps in teaching To reduce those classroom blues

 What’s in it for me, I hear you asking Why should I bother What’s in it for me, I hear you asking Why should I bother with all this stuff? I’ll tell you why, dear, learning goes deeper And behaviour’s not so tough

LAST VERSE! So there we have it, feedback for learning We know it works, LAST VERSE! So there we have it, feedback for learning We know it works, so why not try Student involvement, in every classroom Children’s learning hits the sky

Thank you Keep in touch : sutton. ruth@gmail. com www. ruthsutton. co. uk Take Thank you Keep in touch : sutton. [email protected] com www. ruthsutton. co. uk Take a look at the story of Winnipeg’s ‘Feedback for Learning’ in ‘Creating Independent Student Learners’ (2006) And check out my first novel, ‘A Good Liar’, (2012)