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What is Terrorism? United States and the War on Terror and Foreign Policy What is Terrorism? United States and the War on Terror and Foreign Policy

Terrorism and Conflict u Terrorism u Middle East Terrorism u State Sponsored Terrorism u Terrorism and Conflict u Terrorism u Middle East Terrorism u State Sponsored Terrorism u Non-government Terrorism u Osama bin Laden u Al-Qaeda u 9/11

Terrorism u u u u An attack on government or civilian populations by a Terrorism u u u u An attack on government or civilian populations by a non-government entity Sometimes state-sponsored Roots in Middle East 1920 United States campaign in Saudi Arabia with oil production Great wealth for leaders, but not all benefited Middle East governments influenced by western views Many felt views were against the teachings of Islam

Background of Terrorism 1949 state of Israel and Palestinian conflict u State sponsored terrorism Background of Terrorism 1949 state of Israel and Palestinian conflict u State sponsored terrorism by such nations as Libya, who paid, hired and trained terrorists u New Terrorism supported by individual wealth u Osama bin Laden rich Saudi Arabian family u

Background to 9/11 u 1996 al-Qaeda Jihad u 1996 Embassy Bombings u 2000 Millennium Background to 9/11 u 1996 al-Qaeda Jihad u 1996 Embassy Bombings u 2000 Millennium Plots u Bombing of U. S. S. COLE

Background to 9/11 Background to 9/11

Kenya and Tanzania u u u 1996 al-Qaeda or another name “World Islamic Front Kenya and Tanzania u u u 1996 al-Qaeda or another name “World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders” Bombed U. S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania Kenya killed 212 and wounded 4, 000 Tanzania killed 11 and wounded 85 “Operation Infinite Reach” in Sudan and Afghanistan in 1998 to find al-Qaeda

2000 Millenium Plots u “Attempted bombing of LA International Airport u Failed bombing plot 2000 Millenium Plots u “Attempted bombing of LA International Airport u Failed bombing plot of U. S. S. THE SULLIVANS u Failed Jordan bombing plot u Successful bombing of U. S. S. COLE in October 2000

September 11, 2001 u Turning point after Cold War u U. S. complacent after September 11, 2001 u Turning point after Cold War u U. S. complacent after Cold War ended u 4 planes involved: 2 crashed into the World Trade Center Towers, 1 crashed into the Pentagon and 1 went down in Shanksville, Pennsylvania

Response to 9/11 Citizens viewed it national emergency, united together u Election of 2000 Response to 9/11 Citizens viewed it national emergency, united together u Election of 2000 had divided nation u Willingness to cooperate, generous u Massive world support u Confusion of Ethnic backgrounds, race and religion u Small group attack, not thousands u

Purpose of War on Terror u Response to September 11 attacks u Eliminate international Purpose of War on Terror u Response to September 11 attacks u Eliminate international terrorism u Global military, political, legal and ideological struggle against terrorists and regimes that support them u Focus on Islamic militants and al

Objectives u u u Defeat terrorists: Osama bin Laden and their organizations Identify, locate Objectives u u u Defeat terrorists: Osama bin Laden and their organizations Identify, locate and destroy terrorists and organizations Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to terrorists: end state sponsored terrorism, establish and maintain international accountability, strengthen weaker nations and work with willing and able states Disrupt material support of terrorists Diminish conditions that terrorists exploit Defend U. S. citizens and interest at home and abroad

New Kind of War u Cut off terrorist funding: freeze assets u Fight terrorism New Kind of War u Cut off terrorist funding: freeze assets u Fight terrorism at home: Department of Homeland Security, USA Patriot Act u Bioterrorism strikes America soon after 9/11 with Anthrax in the mail

War on Terrorism Operation Active Endeavor October 2001 u Operation Enduring Freedom: Afghanistan 2001 War on Terrorism Operation Active Endeavor October 2001 u Operation Enduring Freedom: Afghanistan 2001 -Present u Philippines 2002: 80% complete u Horn of Africa: 2002 u Trans Sahara u Operation Iraqi Freedom 2003 present u

Why a War in Aghanistan? u Taliban government in Afghanistan was friendly to al. Why a War in Aghanistan? u Taliban government in Afghanistan was friendly to al. Qaeda u U. S. supported Taliban in 1980 s against the Soviet Union u Taliban after 9/11 unwilling to help U. S.

Taliban u Sunni Islamic political movement u Governed Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001 u Taliban u Sunni Islamic political movement u Governed Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001 u Regrouped in 2004 as an insurgency movement at the local level u Headed by Mullah Mohammed Omar u 2008 severed any ties with al-

Present Afghanistan u President Obama does not call it War on Terror, but “Overseas Present Afghanistan u President Obama does not call it War on Terror, but “Overseas Contingency Operations” u States U. S. at war with al. Qaeda

North-West Pakistan Areas North-West Pakistan Areas

Why War in Iraq? u Get rid of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) that Why War in Iraq? u Get rid of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) that Saddam Hussein had developed u Saddam Hussein was taken out of power

USA Patriot Act u Sharing information between federal law enforcement agencies and intelligence services USA Patriot Act u Sharing information between federal law enforcement agencies and intelligence services u Investigate suspected terrorists u Fear of violation of 4 th Amendment of search and seizure

Axis of Evil President Bush named countries that supported anti-U. S. activities as part Axis of Evil President Bush named countries that supported anti-U. S. activities as part of this in 2003 u Iraq, Iran and North Korea u North Korea fringe nation wanting to develop nuclear buildup u Iraq at time had WMDs u Iran had taken U. S. hostages in 1979 before and believed to support terrorist activities u

Prevented Terrorist Attacks Since 2001 2003 Plot to crash a plane into U. S. Prevented Terrorist Attacks Since 2001 2003 Plot to crash a plane into U. S. Bank in LA u 2003 Plot to bomb Brooklyn Bridge u 2004 Plot to bomb financial buildings: International Monetary Fund, World Bank and Washington DC sites and NY Stock Exchange u 2004 Plot to bomb Columbus Shopping Mall in Columbus OH u

Prevented Terrorist Attacks Since 2001 2006 Plot for transatlantic aircrafts: 10 from UK to Prevented Terrorist Attacks Since 2001 2006 Plot for transatlantic aircrafts: 10 from UK to US and Canada flights using liquid explosives u 2006 Plot to bomb Sears Tower in Chicago, IL u 2007 Plot to bomb Fort Dix, NJ: major troop processing point u 2007 Plot to bomb JFK Airport in NY u 2009 Plot to bomb plane on Christmas Day u

Criticism for War on Terror u Many view it as US effort to control Criticism for War on Terror u Many view it as US effort to control Middle East oil and dominate u Effectiveness is still ongoing u Fall of Taliban government u Destruction of al-Qaeda camps u War in N-W Pakistan still ongoing u New government in Iraq

U. S. Foreign Policy U. S. Foreign Policy

U. S. Foreign Policy Largest economy of around $14. 3 trillion u ¼ of U. S. Foreign Policy Largest economy of around $14. 3 trillion u ¼ of global Gross Domestic Product u Defense budget of around $711 billion u 2/5 of global military spending u President is in charge of Foreign Policy u Secretary of State is the Foreign minister and key state-to-state u

Secretary of State u Hilliary Clinton u State Department policy is to create more Secretary of State u Hilliary Clinton u State Department policy is to create more secure, democratic and prosperous world u Benefits for American people and international community

House of Representatives u Controls funding u Policy to prevent spread of nuclear technology House of Representatives u Controls funding u Policy to prevent spread of nuclear technology and hardware, encourage positive relations between countries, safeguard American businesses abroad u Promote international education and protect American citizens at home and abroad

Foreign Policy u U. S. tended to promote isolationism through 19 th Century u Foreign Policy u U. S. tended to promote isolationism through 19 th Century u 20 th Century global policy essential and international cooperation u NATO is largest military alliance with 28 nations

Current International Concerns Oil u Foreign Aid u Military Aid u Missile Defense u Current International Concerns Oil u Foreign Aid u Military Aid u Missile Defense u War on Drugs u Terrorism u Often requires covert operations as well as diplomacy u

Sources u Photos: Microsoft Clip Art, Wikipedia u www. ushistory. com u History Channel Sources u Photos: Microsoft Clip Art, Wikipedia u www. ushistory. com u History Channel u Library of Congress