- Количество слайдов: 36
What is “New” Media? intro to new media New Spaces of Interaction and Encounter
Aims of Today’s Presentation • New Media not just about unquestionable technological invention and progress • Helps determine, to some extent, what people can and can’t do • New Media about people, culture, societies, economics • Plays a role in the distribution of social and personal power
What is New Media? Any form of media with the following characteristics: • Interaction is defined by Many: Many • Provide on-demand access to Content • Anywhere (not bound by geography) • On any digital device • With interactive user-feedback • And creative participation & community formation around media content 3
Forms of New Media? • • The Internet Mobile Phones Games Consoles Digital TV DVD DV Filmmaking MP 3
The Internet • Central hub for a number of digital media • The Internet has been responsible for a change in the way different media are made and distributed • No other form of mass media has allowed such widespread participation before • Allows users to “become the media”, creating their own web site
MP 3 • Alters the way music is produced and distributed • Developed as a way of exchanging music files via the internet • Became popular at first due to the success of Napster • Popularity of format has led to hardware being produced to play files away from computer • Became increasingly common and cheaper to buy than CDs • Offers new and unsigned artists the chance to reach a global audience • Format has the potential to empower an artist as record companies could become obsolete.
Digital TV • Benefits of choice? • Interactivity • Development of digital hardware to replace VCR e. g. TIVO, Sky+ • “Walled Garden” access to internet
Convergence • The coming together of two or more technologies into one device e. g. Playstation 2.
Game Consoles • Huge growth area – generates more money than Hollywood • Crossover between film and computer games – spin off games and spin off films. • Convergence is increasingly common. • Involvement of huge multi-nationals e. g. Sony & Microsoft
The Evolution of Media is always new J. Gutenberg’s Print-Press 193 0 ARPANET 1923 Motion Picture – Charlie Chaplin 1914 Television Cross continental 1830 1843 1895 Telephone long distance electric telegraph line by S. Morse Moving Picture 1 st Photograph 1455 1 st Computer Sold 1951 The US release control of the Internet Lumiere Brothers Home Compute r 1969 1976 W W W was born 1994 Interaction defined by: 1: 1 and 1: Many 10
The Revolution of Media is always new Web 2. 0 W W W 1994 Web 1. 0 45 million Users + 250, 000 Websites BBS Web 0. 5 Characterized by bulletin board systems, brochureware, digital duplication or versioning, interactivity, read only web 1: Many Truly interactive, 2 -way digital Many: Many conversation, Read and Write Web 11
Augmented Reality 12
• Being Online Alex Galloway and Eugene Thacker (2007) The Exploit, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press p. 126. • We have traditionally thought of ourselves as either online or offline – Dial-up culture • This is a changing circumstance • In work we are online (accountable) offline (unaccountable) • Broadband, wireless, mobile connectivity make us increasingly online – in the bathroom, unconscious • Bots run all day and night – text messages, online gaming – 24 hours online culture
What happens to a population when it goes online?
The Implication of New Media • A gradual fading away of geographic boundaries making physical location less significant for social relationships. • Users have evolved from just being consumers to participators. • Democratization of the creation, publishing, distributing and consumption of media content. • The rise of the amateur class as a result of the lowered bar of entry and transaction cost • The birth of pseudo-cultures and online paradigms. For example, the fact that information wants to be free. • Cannibalization of traditional media. 15
Too Much Connectivity Information Commodity Overload, Spam and Social Contagion
• The Internet of Things • Makes the point that whereas once the user interacted with a system, it is now the user that becomes the subject of interaction
New Media in Business Regardless of media, good business comes down to a simple process of : • Identifying customers • Learning what they want or need • Feeling their challenge • Learning how they communicate with one another, and • Observing how they discover and share information • Keeping their attention by keeping your brand top of mind – Attention Economics 19
Understanding the Consumer 20
A Brief History of the “New” Media
When did the “new” begin… New media the result of the convergence between • modern media • the computer
• Computing • • • Analogue media – Photographic camera (France 1839) – Cinema (France 1895) – Radio (1901 - UK) – Television (1920 s) • Mass dissemination of information (output) – – – Texts Images Sounds • • Charles Babbage (London 1833) – The Analytical Engine George Boole (Oxford 1854) – Boolean logic Turing machine theory (Cambridge 1936) – Theory of computable numbers Von Neumann (1940 s in the US) – Processor/memory The processing of mass information (input) – – Votes Records
Counterculture 1. High tech military spending concentrated in the Bay area in San Francisco 2. Center of counter culture movement in the 60 s… 3. Now the site of Silicon Valley Wise, R 2000. Multimedia: A Critical Introduction, London: Routledge. . pp 25 -41
DIY media • Old media tools and content were tied together • There is thus a mystical authority established • The models ‘worked’ on the audience • Audience • Broadcaster Rushkoff, D (1994) Cyberia: life in the trenches of hyperspace, London: Harper Collins. http: //www. rushkoff. com/cyberiabook. html
DIY media • New media gave the tools to the audience • Thus the mystical authority is broken by interactivity • the remote • the joystick • the application • We have control over the pixel… • the network • The DNA of new media. . .
New Media Paradigm • ‘A new media that is not necessarily constrained by the dominant characteristics of mass media’ (Jankowski and Hanssen, Contours of Multimedia 1996)
The actor Alec Baldwin has boycotted the Emmy awards after the event's broadcaster, Fox News, refused to air a joke he made about the phone-hacking scandal at News International.
The End of Authority? • Hypertext blurs the roles of author & reader (Landow) • Internet threatens established power structures
New Media Goes Corporate
New Media Contagions
New communication paradigm? Old paradigm (mass communication) = one to many - sender to receivers New paradigm (networked media) = many to many - sender to receivers? ? ?
mass media? mass passive linear user-inaccessible new media? interactive (demassified) non-linear user-responsive networked
Current Statistics are staggering 1 new member. The Ford Explorer joins Social gamers buy over $6 billion in virtual goods; movie goers buy only $2. 5 billion in real goods Linked. In every second launch on Facebook generated more traffic than the Super Bowl million people If Wikipedia were made into a book it joined G+ in the first would be almost 4 week million pages long If Facebook was a country it would be e-readers have surpassed book sales the rd largest in the world 10 3
New Media Field of Study DIGITALIZATION VIRTUALITY USE COVERGENCE NETWORKS THE USER EXPERIENCE INTERACTIVITY SIMULATIONS SOCIAL MEDIA MODELS OF INTERACTIVITY ONLINE COMMUNITY NEW MEDIA POLITICS NON-LINEAR COMMUNICATION CYBERCULTURE NETWORK ECONOMY INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE HACKING SOCIAL POWER INFORMATION SPACE SPAM CONTAGIONS INFORMATION AGE OPEN SOURCE AFFECT HYPERSPACE TACTILE MEDIA COGNITION HYPERTEXT CODE/SCRIPTS HYPERMEDIA MOBILE HYPERFICTION UBICOMP NAVIGATION DESIGN INTERFACE DESIGN