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What is Green Computing? Green Computing. . . Why? Approaches to Green Computing How to Implement? Future of Green Computing GREEN IT For Business Virtualisation Industrial implementations of Green Computing Conclusion References
What is Green Computing? "The study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. "
Green Computing – Why? Growing public environmental awareness Increasing impacts on environmental and human health Corporate social responsibility (Cont. )
Approaches to Green Computing Virtualization • Power Management • Power supply • Storage • Video Card • Display • IT Equipment Recycling • Remote Conferencing & Telecommuting Strategies • Product longevity(contd. ) •
Approaches to Green Computing (contd. ) • Algorithmic efficiency • Resource allocation • Terminal servers • Operating system support
How to Implement? Audit your data centre and remove unused equipment and software. • • Virtualise applications, storage and servers in the data centre wherever appropriate. • Consider consolidating data centres.
• Introduce videoconferencing or telepresence facilities. • Power-sucking displays can be replaced with green light displays made of OLEDs, or organic light-emitting diodes. • Use of toxic materials like lead can be replaced by silver and copper.
• • Making recycling of computer with an option of reuse or resale. Buy and use a low power desktop or a laptop computer (40 -90 watts) rather a higher power desktop (e. g. 300 watts). • Thin clients can use only 4 to 8 watts of power at the desktop as the processing is done by a server.
• • For desktops, buy a low power central processing unit (CPU). This reduces both power consumption and cooling requirements. Buy hardware from manufacturers that have a hardware recycling scheme, and recycle your old computer equipment rather than sending it to landfill.
• • • Turn your computer and monitor off when you are not using it. Enable hibernation. Avoid an unnecessary operating system version upgrade which requires a hardware upgrade. Replace your CRT screen with an LCD screen. • Keep your PC for at least 5 years. This
Energy Use of PCs CPU uses 120 Watts CRT uses 150 Watts -8 hours of usage, 5 days a week = 562 KWatts • if the computer is left on all the time without proper power saver modes, this can lead to 1, 600 KWatts -for a large institution, say a university of 40, 000 students and faculty, the power bill for just computers can come to $2 million / year Energy use comes from -electrical current to run the CPU, motherboard, memory -running the fan and spinning the disk(s) -monitor (CRTs consume more power than any other computer component) -printers
E-waste Impacts in China Photos Courtesy of Basel Action Network
FUTURE OF GREEN COMPUTING: The plan towards green IT should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings.
GREEN IT FOR BUSINESS: Rising energy prices, together with government-imposed levies on carbon production, are increasingly impacting on the cost of doing business, making many current business practices economically unsustainable. It is becoming progressively more important for all businesses to act in an environmentally responsible manner, both to fulfill their legal and moral obligations, but also to enhance the brand to improve corporate image.
Data Centers: Data centres consume a lot of electricity. Many server computers run at less than 30 per cent capacity and, although more effective than the average desktop machine, this isn’t using them to their fullest potential. If you can double the amount of work each processor does, you can halve the number of devices in use and cut the overall environmental impact. A common way to achieve this is with virtualisation software.
Power to run a small data center A practical example One server might use 400 W In 24 hours it would use 9. 6 k. Wh $. 10/k. Wh = $1/day (approx) 500 servers = $500 per day +$500 for cooling = $30 K/month! Benefits of saving energy • Saving energy is GREEN Saving energy is cost efficient
Virtualisation • Virtualization: Duplicating hardware with software • Important in Cloud Computing
Virtualization Realizing a piece of hardware such as a web server or file server in software rather than hardware Writing a program that does the same exact thing as a piece of hardware Savings Manufacturing Servicing Disposal Power
Types of Virtualization 1. Operating System EX: Running Linux inside of VMware EX: Running Windows on a Mac EX: Running VM images in a cloud 2. Application Server (Load Balancing) Dividing a high volume of requests to different servers Applications Thin Client concept (Google Apps) Seeing a file system but not knowing (or caring) where the files are physically stored (perhaps in many locations)
Green Effects of Virtualization VMware publishes numbers that say between 50 -70% can be saved from virtualization The Gartner group says that the energy savings of jobs running VMware alone will power all of New England! (they give no actual rates or metrics but this is an interesting claim) Who is doing this? The USDA used virtualization to reduce/consolidate 255 servers into 22! 4 Years ago, Los Alamos National Laboratories undertook a virtualization project that decommissioned 100 servers, resulting in the use of only 13. This has resulted in a savings of almost $1. 5 Million dollars
INDUSTRIAL IMPLEMENTATIONS OF GREEN COMPUTING: ➤ Blackle ➤ Fit-PC ➤ Zonbu computer ➤ Sunray thin client ➤ The Asus Eee PC ➤ Other implementations
Conclusion The greenest computer will not miraculously fall from the sky one day, it’ll be the product of years of improvements. The features of a green computer of tomorrow would be like: efficiency, manufacturing & materials, recyclability, service model, selfpowering, and other trends.