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What have we learned? • We have an understanding of the historical situation that existed at the time of the foundation of Judaism and Islam. Judaism Islam When was this religion founded? 4000 years ago 1500 years ago Where was it founded? The Fertile Crescent in the Middle East Saudi Arabia in the Middle East What was the lifestyle of the people? Nomadic hunters and herders Tribal people who led a nomadic lifestyle What was the land like? Very fertile Rock covered by large deserts What was the climate like? Hot and dry, with seasonal flooding Hot and dry Where were the The states of Assyria and The cities of Mecca and
What have we learned? • We know that the primary sources of information about Judaism and Islam are found in their sacred texts. Judaism The Tanakh Islam The Qur’an • We can differentiate between faith documents and historical documents. Judaism: Islam: The Tanakh is the primary document of faith. The Mishnah and the Talmud are also documents of faith. The Qur’an is the primary document of faith. The Sunna and the Hadith are documents of history.
We have traced the development of Judaism and Islam from oral to written tradition. Judaism The Jewish people passed on the story of their faith by word of mouth from generation to generation. Eventually, they began to write down the stories from their oral tradition. The Hebrew Bible took over a thousand years be recorded in its present form. There were hundreds of writers involved in this great task. Islam The sacred text of Islam also began with an oral tradition. Muhammad learned by heart all the revelations that he received from Allah, then he taught these to other Muslims, who in turn learned them off and recited them. When Muhammad died, all that was revealed by Allah was brought together and written down to form the written text known as the Qur’an.
What have we learned? • We have identified essential elements of the beliefs and symbols of Judaism and Islam. What are they? • We can recognise these beliefs and symbols in the words and actions of the followers of Judaism and Islam, past and present. How?
Name: Founders: Date: Earliest Followers: A follower of this major world religion is called: Beliefs: Judaism Abraham and Moses 4000 years ago The descendants of Abraham and the Israelite or Hebrew people. A Jew. The Jewish people believe in one God who is the creator of everything. They believe that God has a unique relationship with the Jewish people because God established a covenant with them through Abraham and Moses. The Jewish people await the arrival of the Messiah. Sacred Text: The Hebrew Scriptures Location/ Place of Origin: Holy Day: Israel Saturday. The Sabbath begins at sunset on Friday and continues until after sunset on Saturday. The traditional Sabbath candles are lit and special prayers are said, usually by the mother of the family. The men and the boys attend the synagogue to welcome in the Sabbath. At the end of the day, there is a special celebratory meal, with prayers and singing. Prayer: The Jewish people pray daily. The formal language for prayer is Hebrew, though of course Jewish people can pray in any language. Devout Jewish people pray five times a day: before going to bed, after rising in the morning and at the three meal times. (The Jewish day begins in the evening. ) In the evening and in the morning, the Shema is recited.
Place of Worship: The synagogue Sacred Times /Festivals: Autumn festivals Rosh Hashanah/Yom Kippur/ Sukkoth/Simchat Torah Winter festivals – Hanukah/Purim Spring festival – Pesach Summer festivals – Shavuot/Tishah b’Av Place of Pilgrimage: The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a sacred place of pilgrimage for the Jewish people. Leadership: Chief Rabbi/Rabbi. Rites of Passage: The Jewish people celebrate all the important events of life, from birth to death. The Bar Mitzvah (Coming of Age) for a boy, and the Bat Mitzvah for a girl are major celebrations within the Jewish family community. Way of life: Jews live their lives in accordance with then Ten Commandments. They observe the Hebrew Scriptures quite literally and take instruction on many daily events, including dietary laws. Jewish people observe their Sabbath day strictly and take that time to rest and pray. When in the synagogue at prayer, Jewish men wear the kippah, the tallit and tefillin. Symbol of this religion: The symbol of Judaism is called the Magen of David, also known as the Star of David. It is often worn as an ornament around the neck by young Jews.
Name: Founder: Date: Earliest Followers: Islam Muhammad 1500 years ago The family of Muhammad and the people of Mecca. A follower of this major world religion Is called: A Muslim. Beliefs: The Islamic people believe in one God, Allah, and in the Prophet Muhammad. The key beliefs are summed up by the Shahada: ‘There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. ’ Muslims submit their lives to Allah and everything in their life is under the control of Allah. Sacred Text: The Qu’ran Location/ Place of Origin: Saudi Arabia Holy Day: Friday. All male Muslims are expected to attend the mosque at midday on Fridays for prayers. They turn to an arched alcove or a decorated panel in the wall to show them the direction of Mecca. Men and women sit in different parts of the mosque. A leader, called the imam, leads the prayers. Prayer: Muslims are called to pray five times a day. This is the second pillar of Islam, Salat. When Muslims pray, they turn towards Mecca. For a Muslim, life revolves around these prayer times. They have specific ritual actions that are carried out before prayer. Each action has a specific meaning.
Place of Worship: The mosque Sacred Times /Festivals: Eid ul-Fitr takes place at the end of Ramadan in the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. Eid ul-Adha takes place during the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. Place of Pilgrimage: The holy city of Mecca, home of the Ka’ba, is the sacred place of pilgrimage for the Islamic people. Every Muslim tries to make the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime. Leadership: The imam leads the prayer in the mosque on Fridays. Rites of Passage: As with Judaism, the Islamic faith tradition celebrates all the major events of life, from birth to death. At birth, words from the Qur’an are whispered into the ear of the newborn baby. There is also a Naming Ceremony. Way of life: The people of the Islamic faith observe their religion as their way of life. Muslims live their lives in accordance with the Five Pillars of Islam. Like Jews, they have strict dietary laws and a sense of ritual around their prayer times. Pilgrimage is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is to be observed at least once in the life of a Muslim. Symbol of this religion: The crescent moon and star is a symbol of Islam. The five points of the star symbolise the Five Pillars of Islam. The moon and the stars remind Muslims of God, the creator of everything.
What have we learned? • We can recognise important moments in the stories of Judaism and Islam.
Key Moments in the development of Islam AD 570 Birth of Muhammad. AD 595 Muhammad met and married Khadija. AD 610 The Night of Power and Excellence. AD 620 Muhammad preached to people from Yathrib, a city north of Mecca. AD 622 The Hijra. AD 630 Muhammad returned to Mecca and initiated a jihad (a holy war). AD 632 Muhammad made his final pilgrimage to the Ka’ba shrine. AD 650 After the death of Muhammad, Islamic armies converted many provinces of the eastern Roman Empire and also the Persian Empire to Islam. AD 700 The conquest of the North African coast began. Roman Africa was taken, and in AD 711 the Islamic armies crossed over into Spain and the south of France. Middle Ages During the Middle Ages, there was much conflict between Islam and the (8 th to 12 th Century) Christian states of Europe. Fifteenth century The Islamic Turks overran what was left of the old eastern Roman Empire, took Constantinople (now Istanbul), and gained control of Greece and specific neighbouring territories in eastern Europe.
The Worldwide Community of Judaism The Worldwide Community of Islam There approximately thirteen million Jews worldwide: six million in the USA, three million in Israel and the rest divided throughout the world, including communities in Russia and Eastern Europe. Members of the Jewish community who live outside of Israel are known as the Diaspora. The majority of Muslims today live in countries of North Africa (e. g. Algeria, Libya and Egypt) and in the Middle East. Muslims are also present in significant numbers in countries as varied as Russia, China, India, England the United States of America. The worldwide community of Muslims is known as the Umma.
What have we learned? • We are able to compare and contrast the faith and practice of early Jewish and Muslim communities with the faith and practice of the modern communities. For example: Early Jewish Community – Orthodox Jews • Follow the laws of the Torah and the Jewish tradition strictly • Accept male rabbis only • Use only Hebrew in their synagogues • Men and women sit apart in the synagogue • Keep strict dietary laws Modern Jewish Community – Reform Jews • Adapt the laws of the Torah and the Jewish traditions to modern life • Allow synagogue services to be led by rabbis and by others • Accept both male and female rabbis • Celebrate services in the local language • Men and women sit together in the synagogue • Do not keep strict dietary laws
Christianity and Judaism: Similarities and Differences Christians and Jews believe in • • One God Life after death God’s final judgement of us Prayer, fasting and almsgiving Mary, the mother of Jesus The books of the Old Testament The existence of evil Christians and Jews disagree on • God as Father, Son and Holy Spirit • Jesus as the Son of God • Jesus’ death and resurrection • Jesus as saviour (The Jewish people are still waiting for the Messiah) • The New Testament and the Old • Testament being God’s final word
Christianity and Islam: Similarities and Differences Christians and Muslims believe in Christians and Muslims disagree on • One God • Life after death • God’s final judgement of us • Prayer, fasting and almsgiving • Mary, the mother of Jesus • Angels • The existence of evil • God as Father, Son and Holy Spirit • Jesus as the Son of God • Jesus’ death and resurrection • Jesus as saviour • The Bible as God’s final word