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What do all of these objects have in common?
Renaissance and Reformation
Objectives n n Learn what the term Renaissance means. Discuss the advice rulers were getting during the Renaissance.
The Renaissance n n Renaissance – “Rebirth” – 1300 -1600 Was an attempt to bring back cultures of the past. n Europe was engulfed in the dark ages. n Age of New Discoveries Exploration n Heliocentric Theory n Martin Luther n
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n R. – Rebirth of Roman and Greek Classics Q: What are the classics? n Classics = Ideas of ancient Rome and Greece n Roman Sculptures Greek Architecture
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n E. – Establishment of Italian City-States n During the middle-ages Italian towns expanded into independent city-states. n n Rulers encourage new ideas. By late middle-ages trade flourished in these citystates. Venice, Genoa, and Pisa control E. Mediterranean n Florence thrived on manufactured goods and bankers financed adventures. Florence produced primarily wool clo n
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n B. – Birth of the “modern” world n n n New wealthy middle-class developed of merchants and bankers. MC gained power both economically and politically. Had a general concern for education and individual achievement, supported the arts.
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n I. – Italian Artists n Michelangelo and Da Vinci
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n R. – Renaissance spreads n Italy Northern Europe (England) n Why did it spread?
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n T. – Theater: Shakespeare wrote plays and sonnets.
R. E. B. I. R. T. H. n H. – Humanism – Erasmus and Petrarch were most famous n Wanted people to be the best they could be. n Scholars stressed humanities n Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry, History, Arithmetic, Astronomy, Music
The Renaissance n Florence – the powerful Medici family gained wealth and power. n Lorenzo de’Medici spent his fortune to bring painters, sculptors, architects, and silversmiths to Florence to create and make Florence the center of the Renaissance.
The Renaissance n Handbooks were created for proper behavior. n n Renaissance writers prepared these manuals Machiavelli wrote The Prince for city-state rulers, primarily for Lorenzo de Medici. “It is much safer to be feared than loved, if one must choose. ” n Advised rulers to use any methods needed to achieve their goals. n n n Be cunning, diplomatic, and ruthless. The end justifies the means…
The end justifies the means… n n n n War on Terrorism Negative Ads in Campaigns Heightened security at airports Invasion of Iraq Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Buying New Clothes Cheating on tests Is someone justified in taking action even when the outcome may be immoral?
The Renaissance n Renaissance in Northern Europe Prospered in Italy and spread to the north. n In North, where feudalism was strong, it spread throughout the noble class. n Renaissance was more traditional n Rebirth of Classical Texts n Greek and Roman – people tried to find their faith. n n n In Europe and Spain people focused on Christian texts. Both Renaissances focused on similar goals n Individual achievement and classical learning.
Study of the Humanities n Italian city-states took new interest in education. n Theology, Law, Medicine of Greece and Rome n Humanists wanted to learn more about the world. Rediscover pre-middle-ages knowledge. n Castiglione believed that an ideal renaissance person was well rounded with a broad education in many different areas. n
Italian Humanism was based on the study of the Roman and Greek classics. The Humanists relied on understanding; * Rhetoric (writing and speaking) * Poetry * Moral philosophy * History Colleges today call these subjects the HUMANITIES.
PETRARCH: The Father of Italian Humanism Italian poet and humanist, who is considered the first modern poet. His perfection of the sonnet form later influenced such English poets as Chaucer, and William Shakespeare. 1304 -1374 His wide knowledge of the classical authors and his restoration of the classical Latin language earned him his reputation as the first great humanist. He was a great advocate of classical Latin. This is not unlike your English instructor expecting “regular” English on essays, not the text messaging English you are accustomed to using.
Beyond scholars, lawyers and theologians; the vernacular authors brought literature to the people with Gutenberg’s assistance! AUTHOR LANGUAGE BOOK OVERVIEW DANTE Italian A souls journey to paradise/heaven Divine Comedy CHAUCER English Canterbury Collection of stories from pilgrims to Tales Canterbury PIZAN The book Women have both of the City intelligence and of Ladies conviction French
Art and Literature n n Emphasis on realism w/harmony, balance, and realism. Donatello – sketched ancient ruins of Rome Statue of Hebrew King David n Rejected MA architecture and created extravagant buildings n
Art and Literature n New techniques Three dimensional paintings n Tempera Based Paint n Mixed with watered down egg whites. n Dried quickly. n n Oil based paints Dried slowly. n Easy to blend. n
ARTISTIC RENAISSANCE IN ITALY Renaissance sculptors and painters are recognized for use of the elements of: 1. Imitation of nature employing perspective, use of light and geometry 2. Reality of the human body as subject of paintings incorporating the idea of movement.
MASTER ARTISTS OF THE HIGH RENIASSANCE Fresco as a painting technique was used by the three icons associated with the high renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci - Dissected bodies to see muscles for more realistic portraits and statues. - Last Supper and Mona Lisa Raphael - Portraits of the Madonna - idealism beyond beauty which surpassed human standards. Michelangelo - The more beautiful the body, the more godlike the figure. Creator of the Sistine Chapel ceiling.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci WORKS OF DAVINCI 1452 -1519 The Last Supper Ermine Mona Lisa
Legacy n n n n n Only 17 paintings Notebooks Drawings of unfinished works Diverted rivers to prevent flooding Principles of turbine Cartography Submarine Flying machine Parachute …And much more….
WORKS OF RAPHAEL Raphael 1483 - 1520 Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Angels Modern day Reference: Cupids School of Athens which exemplifies the rebirth of interest in Greek/Roman history. Madonna
WORKS OF MICHELANGELO Pieta Ceiling and Walls Sistine Chapel Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni 1475 -1564
David, Michelangelo, c. 1501
St. Peter’s n Architect for St. Peter’s
Paper over Artist n n n You, along with your partner, decide which work you want to write about from any of the Renaissance artists. 2 Pages – Times New Roman – Double Spaced Include why the artist made it, the history behind it, and why it has been studied so much.
Art and Literature n Renaissance Writers n Miguel de Cervantes n n Wrote Don Quixote – Mocked Ideals of Chivalry Shakespeare Explore themes of jealousy, ambition, love, and greed in literature and plays. n Built “The Globe” n Was an author, playwright, and actor. n
Art and Literature n Call for reform from scholars that studied the Bible. n n Erasmus pointed out the ignorance of the clergy for their use of pomp and ritual rather than their teaching of Jesus. Sir Thomas More n Wrote Utopia that described the ideal world of peace, education, and equality.
Changing Patterns of Life n Introduction of Printing Press n Hand copying slowly came to an end. n Paper was invented in the 1300 s. n 1455, Johann Gutenberg invented the PP n Printed books rapidly in all languages.
Invention of Printing by Johannes Gutenberg (1440) Printing not entirely new before this time: Printing, using wood blocks, existed in Korea (8 th Century) Moveable type cast, 10 th Century in China. Casting type in metal and printing books (Korea by 15 th Century) n n In China, Korea and Japan written language needed thousands unique characters, each representing a concept or word. Symbols The 26 -letter alphabet used in Western languages gave the moveable type such an important place in history of printing.
The Gutenberg Press cont…. n n The type was then placed in a box called a Type case had separate compartments for each letter, number and character. To compose a page, printer selected letters one at a time and lined them up in a “composing stick”. Then using pieces of type with no face on them, spaces between words were adjusted to justify the line to required length. The Type Case
n. Nebraska - CN n. Nebraska - G n. Nebraska - TNR
…cont n n n Gutenberg modeled his typefaces on the letters used in handwritten books (imitated the Monks) This style: “black letter” or “gothic”. Very popular style in Germany until mid-1940’s. Black Letter or Gothic
Social Impact of Gutenberg’s invention n n Increased the speed of printing and improved accuracy and reliability in the transmission of texts. Reduced the price of printed materials making them more accessible to the masses (free exchange of ideas) Encouraged the spread of vernacular languages like German, French, Italian and English (replaces Latin) Printing allowed a larger audience to read Luther’s German translation of the Bible. Accelerated the spread of the Protestant Reformation
Everyday Life n n n Nuclear instead of Extended Households. Demand for products rapidly decreased from the population decrease because of the black plague. People developed new products and foods until the population began to increase.
Women in the Renaissance n n Little change from Middle Ages Major role in taking care of the home. Spinners and Weavers Powerful queens came to power. Isabella of Spain n Elizabeth of England n
The Reformation n There was a need for reform. n Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism BC – 1308 – Pope stole – moved to Avignon n GS – 1378 – Two popes elected – Rome & Avignon n n Rulers in Europe pushed the church out of political affairs.
The Reformation n n To raise money for church spending and wars, the church increased the fee for baptisms, marriages, funerals, and sold indulgences forgiveness's for sins. Christians protested this practice. n Many were tried and executed for heresy.
Martin Luther n n Devoted his life to faith and teachings. Originally Luther wanted to question church practices (indulgences), but the church would not answer and Luther was forced to defend his statements.
What did People believe at the Start of the 16 th Century? n n n If you died with a dirty Soul you would go to either Purgatory or straight to hell. You had to go to Church and get the Priest to clean your Soul. If you died with a clean Soul you would go to heaven.
What did People believe at the Start of the 16 th Century? n n If you went on a Crusade or a Pilgrimage you could earn time out of Purgatory You could buy a special letter from the Pope called an Indulgence which was like a get out of jail for free card but for Purgatory.
Who was Martin Luther? n n n He could read Latin, Greek and Hebrew. While comparing the Latin Catholic Bible with the original Greek & Hebrew he found that certain parts were incorrectly translated. Luther hung his 95 theses on the local Church door in Wittenburg in 1517. – in Protest, not to break away from the Catholic Church
What did Martin Luther Believe? n n n You Don’t have to go to Church to get your soul cleaned. The Church is wrong to sell indulgencies which buy time out of Purgatory. Read the Bible in your own language and not Latin.
Martin Luther n Printing Press n n n Helped Luther’s statements spread quickly and his followers increased rapidly. Luther claimed that the Bible and a person’s own conscience outweighed the authority of the Pope. In 1520, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V called Luther before the Imperial Diet and demanded that Luther withdraw his statements. n Luther refused and became leader of Protestant Reform.
Luther’s Reforms n 3 Core Ideas for Reform n n n God’s was the only one who could grant salvation. Rejected church ceremony and the authority of the Pope by stating the Bible was the only guide of Christians. Emphasized the role of the individual and urged them to read and study the Bible themselves.
Impact of Luther’s Reforms n n Luther’s ideas gained widespread support in Germany and many people sympathized w/ his criticism of the church and resented the heavy taxes paid to the church. Townspeople overtook church land Established independent churches. n Followers and reformers became known as Protestants. n
Impact of Reform n Peasants supported Protestants Did not want to pay heavy church taxes. n Southern Germany – peasants revolted n 100, 000 peasants died. n Luther and followers decided to reject political revolution. n n 1545 – Luther dies. ½ of Germany joined the reformation. n 1547 – Charles V tried to force Protestants out. n
Peace of Augsburg n n Officially recognized the split in Christianity and allowed Princes to choose the religion w/in their land. This, however, did not end the conflict that would continue for hundreds of years b/w Catholics and Protestants.
Challenges to the Catholic Church n Switzerland became the center of the Reformation. n n Ulrich Zwingle established a church that abolished the Catholic mass, confessions, and indulgences. Believed in discipline of individuals and churches w/o decoration.
Challenges, cont. n n n Geneva – John Calvin – est. Calvinists Believed God alone decided on an afterlife and believed in predestination or that God had already chosen who would be saved. Life of simplicity and hard work. n Adopted by Netherlands, Scotland, and England.
Challenges, cont. n Baptist Protestants – Germany n n Infants were too young to be baptized. Influenced the thinking of other Protestants, but faced persecution from Catholics and other Protestants.
Henry VIII n n n Catholic – published attacks against Luther. King of England quarreled with pope over marriage. Catherine of Aragon – Married 18 years. No Male Heir n Mary Tudor only one that lived past infancy. n Asked for an annulment, but Pope Clement VII refused. n n Henry resented the Pope.
Henry VIII n n n 1533, Archbishop of Canterbury annulled the marriage and Henry married Anne Boleyn Parliament then recognized the King as the supreme head of the Church of England by the AOS of 1534. England was split between Protestants and Catholics. If you opposed the Catholic Church, Henry responded by executing you.
Henry VIII n Henry closed corrupt Catholic monasteries and forced 10, 000 monks and nuns from their monasteries. n n n He seized the monastery and sold it for profit. Church of England became known as the Anglican Church that preserved Catholic traditions, but allowed priests to marry and translated the Bible into English. 1547, Henry VIII died leaving behind a turbulent reign and 6 wonderful wives.
Mary Tudor n 1553 took the throne. Wanted England to be Catholic. n Did not accept the Pope. n
Elizabethan England n With the death of Mary, Elizabeth I began a long and powerful reign that preserved the Protestant Reformation. n n Elizabeth was an equal opportunity persecutor. Protestants or Catholics. Spanish Armada World’s greatest naval fleet of warships came to attack England. n Spanish Armada entered the English Channel. It met Elizabeth’s fleet led by Francis Drake. n n – Sea Dogs
Spanish Armada n English got Spanish to break ranks. n n English ships were smaller and faster and quickly sank many of the Spanish ships. Spanish set sail for home, but storm sinks more ships. n Only ½ of the Spanish Armada made it home. n Free from threat, Elizabeth’s England prospers.
Elizabethan England n Renaissance became highly visible in London n n England’s capital city – became largest in World. Elizabeth died in 1603 and England faced challenges. Religious tension caused Pilgrims to leave in 1608. n New monarch conflicted with the Parliament. n
Life After Elizabeth n 1689 – Parliament wrote Bill of Rights n Constitutional Monarchy Ruler bound to laws of constitution. n BOR served as a model for AR and U. S. Constitution. n
Counter Reformation n Paul III led reform of the Catholic Church. n n n 1534 -1563 Council of Trent – called for better training of priests and for reform in church finances and administration. Church tried to limit books people could read. n Created the Index
A Catholic Church
Clothes worn by Catholic Priest in 16 th Century Notice the image of Christ
A Protestant Church
Clothes Worn by Protestant Vicars (Priests)
What other changes took place in Protestant Churches?