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Welcome to the ESL Preservice Introduction
Tacoma Community House is an organization that began in Tacoma in 1910 as a settlement house to welcome newcomers to Tacoma. TCH offers: § Adult education § Employment assistance § Immigration services § Trainings (like this one– through Literacy NOW)
Literacy NOW is a division of Tacoma Community House. Literacy NOW provides a variety of workshops: § § § For ESL Tutors For Literacy Tutors Intercultural Communication for the Workplace or Library The workshops are funded by: § Office of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance § Fees to individual programs § Tacoma Community House
What will you get from this training? The purpose of this training is to: § Give you information about immigrants and refugees § Give you an introduction to needs of English language learners § Provide background information and strategies to aid in communication with your learners
This information is divided into three sections. At the end of each section, there will be brief quiz for you to complete.
Washington State is home to a variety of people who come from all over the world.
History of Immigration in WA Most influxes of immigration have occurred during times when immigrants have felt the “push” away from their home countries due to wars, famines, and poor economic situations or the “pull” of America in terms of providing opportunity.
1770’s First Asian Immigrants came in large numbers from Hawaii 1840 -1880 Europe’s “First Wave Migrations to WA” From Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland 1860’s and 70’s Japanese and Chinese recruited for industrial work
1880 -WWI Europe’s “Second Wave” Migrations to WA § Westward expansion encouraged the East Coast (Italy, Greece, the Balkan States, Poland, Russia and Austro-Hungary) to head West. 1903 Korean immigrants recruited for labor from Hawaii § About 1, 000 came, forming a core Korean community in WA
1940’s Middle Eastern Communities Emerged in WA § Immigrants were from Arabic speaking countries Large numbers of Mexican Americans immigrated from southern states § This is credited as beginning the migrant agricultural workforce in WA and came in response to the labor drain at the beginning of WWII
Post WWII Smaller “Third Wave” of European Immigrants § Settled among core groups of immigrants from their home countries 1960’s and 70’s Influx of non-Mexican Latino immigrants § Were granted refugee status by the US government in response to the multiple military coups that occurred during this period across South America
1970’s WA sponsors the first groups of Vietnamese refugees from the Vietnam War § This created an enclave of Vietnamese immigrants that form the base of a strong Vietnamese community still in WA today Post 1970’s Since the 1970’s, immigrants have come from the following areas: § Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos) § Poland (Russian Jews) § Former USSR § Somalia/Sudan
When you hear the word “immigrant” what do you think of?
According to the US government, foreign born individuals are separated into groups: § US Citizens § Immigrants § Legal Immigrants § Illegal or undocumented immigrants § Refugees/Asylees
Immigrants § Legal Immigrants apply to live in the US through work or family connections § Illegal or undocumented immigrants do not have permission to reside in the US
Legal Immigrants… § Are sponsored– they have a connection here whether by work or by family § Are on their own timeline to learn English and get a job § Allowed to apply for citizenship after 5 years residence in the US § Cannot (typically) access social services
According to US law refugees are… People unable to live in their own country due to reasonable fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or social grouping
Refugees: § Are on a timeline in terms of getting a job § Have access to social services and employment assistance (Temporary Assistant to Needy Families -- TANF) § BUT must be in class or work at least 32 hours § Can receive TANF benefits for 5 years § Allowed to apply for citizenship after 5 years of residence in the US § May have a highly traumatic background and experiences
Refugee Resettlement: Three Government Priorities Priority 1– Compelling Protection cases § Refugees for whom no other durable solution exists. Priority 2– Groups of special humanitarian concern, *subject to change every year § § Burmese in Thailand; Iranian religious minorities in Austria; Meshketian Turks; In-country processing: Former Soviet Union, Cuba, and Vietnam Priority 3– Family Reunification § Spouses, unmarried children under 21 or parents of persons admitted to the U. S. as refugees
According to US law… Foreign born citizens have the same rights, responsibilities, and expectations as native born citizens– EXCEPT that they cannot become President. Whether an immigrant or refugee upon arrival, all foreign born individuals can apply for citizenship after 5 years residence in the US.
What percent of WA State is Foreign Born? Between 1990 and 2000 alone, the foreign born population increased by 90%. Year 1990 Total Number 322, 144 % of Population 6. 6% 1999 434, 957 7. 7% 2000 614, 457 10. 4% 2005 763, 059 12. 2%
Where do US Immigrants come from? Nationally, the vast majority come from Mexico. Top Ten Countries Represented by Immigrants in the US
WA State has a higher percentage of immigrants from Russia and the Ukraine than the US average. WA State also has a higher percentage of immigrants from East Asian countries like Laos and Taiwan.
In Washington, immigrants come from… Top Ten Countries Represented by Immigrants in WA State
The refugee population is very different from the immigrant population. Because refugees only come from government approved countries, the countries they come from can change every year.
Where do US Refugees come from? § About 80, 000 refugees come to the United States each year § The number of refugees accepted from each country changes each year. § In 2009, the biggest numbers of refugees are coming from: § Iraq (16, 695) § Burma (16, 000) § Bhutan (11, 992)
In Washington State, refugees come from… Top 3 Refugee Countries: § Somalia— 17. 8% § Ukraine— 16. 6% § Russia— 10. 3%
Quiz (click for Answers) 1. What are three groups into which the US government separates foreign born individuals? Answer: US Citizens, Immigrants (legal and illegal) and Refugees/Asylees. 2. True or False: Refugees are sponsored by a family member or workplace. Answer: False, legal immigrants are sponsored by a family member or workplace. 3. True or False: The countries which refugees are from can change every year. Answer: True. 4. True or False: One major difference between the United States and Washington State is that WA State has more immigrants from Southeast Asia. Answer: True, Vietnam and Laos are among the Top Ten Countries Represented in Washington State.
Whatever the immigrant status; refugee, asylee, legal immigrant, undocumented or illegal immigrant, all will struggle with differences between their home country culture and US culture.
A Model to Understand Culture There are three levels of culture to understand… Sensory Conscious Rules Unconscious Rules
The Sensory Level When we think about culture, these are the areas that we can easily see and predict might be different from culture to culture. Examples § § § § Language Architecture Food Money Vegetation Density of Population Modes of Transportation Clothing Sensory Conscious Rules Unconscious Rules
Conscious Rules These are things we teach our children. Although we can name these behaviors, the meaning of the behaviors is obscured because they are automatic and we do not have to think about them. Sensory Examples § § § Greetings Eating Punctuality Eye Contact Space Conscious Rules Unconscious Rules
Unconscious Rules Our beliefs, values and behaviors which are so automatic and “natural” that we hardly stop to think that someone else might see the world differently. Examples § § Importance of work Attitudes about men’s/women’s roles Communication Styles What makes a good parent, spouse, boss Sensory Conscious Rules Unconscious Rules
Culture shock happens when a person experiences the confusion and discomfort of having everything culturally familiar replaced by unfamiliar cultural norms.
People living in a different culture adjust through a process of integrating their native culture with the new culture in a form of bi-culturalism. There are five stages of… Cultural Adjustment
Stage 1: Everything is new and interesting. Happiness 1 5 3 4 2 Time
This person is in Stage 1: “I come to the US and I go to the grocery store and there is so much food! Also, there are cars everywhere– everyone has a car! America is so exciting!”
Stage 2: Everything is new and interesting. Happiness 1 5 3 4 2 The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating. Time
This person is in Stage 2: “I was a college instructor in Afghanistan and I had many things, and I still don’t have those things here like I had there. And I won’t be able to have those things here; the standard of living. I don’t even have a backyard here so that my children can play, and in Afghanistan I had over 1, 000 acres of farmland, fruit gardens, and houses. ”
Stage 3: Everything is new and interesting. Happiness 1 Cultural differences and challenges are mastered. Unconscious rules of the culture become better understood. 5 3 4 2 The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating. Time
This person is in Stage 3: “I changed my values and attitudes in this country. In my country I didn’t talk to my children very much, but in this country I try to play with them. I try to change to that relationship where we can share everything. I love them. ”
Stage 4: Everything is new and interesting. Cultural differences and challenges are mastered. Unconscious rules of the culture become better understood. Happiness 1 3 5 4 2 The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating. Strangeness of the new culture hits home. Time
This person is in Stage 4: “I'll never get used to how Americans say ‘hi’, but don’t really stop to talk. I miss how in my country we say ‘hi’ to everyone and stop to talk with friends or neighbors we meet. But, I am safe and my children have opportunities to build a future here. ”
Stage 5: ACCEPTANCE AND ADJUSTMENT Cultural differences and challenges are mastered. ATTAINED Unconscious rules of the culture Everything is new and interesting. 1 Happiness become understood. 5 3 4 Strangeness of the new culture hits home. 2 The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating. Time
This person is in Stage 5: “I have lots of friends in America. I feel like this is my home. I miss my country, but not like I used to. I’m very happy here. ”
Helping immigrants adjust § Learn about your students’ culture § Look for books or movies about that culture § Recognize the process of acculturation § Compare and contrast the students’ culture with US Culture and include examples of different cultures in your teaching § Deepen your awareness of your own culture § Pay close attention to Unconscious Rules § Be open to differences in perception, your “Rules” may be different
Quiz (click for Answers) 1. What are three levels of culture? Answer: Sensory, Conscious Rules and Unconscious Rules. 2. What is culture shock? Answer: The intense confusion and discomfort produced when adjusting to life in an unfamiliar culture. 3. What are some different ways you can help students experiencing culture shock adjust? Answer: Learn about your students’ culture, recognize the process of acculturation, deepen your awareness of you own culture and be open to differences in perception.
What skills and support do immigrants and refugees need? § § § English skills Work or job skills Help learning English Help finding or applying for a job Help finding housing
Where do they get their skills/support? § § § Work Interacting in the community Going to school Working with a tutor Sponsors
Roles of Learners Adults play a number of roles; they are family members, community members, workers or job seekers.
Family Member Role Your students might be home-bound parents with little contact with the English speaking community.
Worker Role Your students might have jobs and this may be the most important area where they need support in English.
Community Member Role Your students may be concerned about becoming US Citizens or interacting with the English speaking community.
We need tutors because… There are many people in our community who want to improve their English skills for work, community, or family reasons.
Why Learn English? 4 main reasons: § Voice: § To express ideas and opinions with the confidence to be heard and understood § Access to information: § To access information in order to orient self in the world § Independent action: § To solve problems and make decisions independently § Bridge to the future: § To reflect on past learning experiences and apply insights to the world as it changes
The Tutor’s Role § To set up a welcoming learning environment § To set the tone for learning § To create timely learning experiences connected to what the learner is ready to learn § To identify and use relevant and purposeful materials § To encourage § To monitor the learner’s development
As a tutor, you can expect … § To receive support– your agency will train you and provide resources through your volunteer coordinator § To experience a “Getting to Know You” period where you and your learner develop rapport § To gain a new perspective § To be an important part of someone else’s success
By the time you are matched with your learner, they will have had their “Literacy Level” determined.
Levels of Literacy § Pre-Literate § Oral tradition, first language not written § Holding a pen or opening a book are new exercises § Teaching: focus on oral skills, then transition into reading and writing § Non-Literate § Written language in home country but the student has little or no exposure to literacy in their first or second language § Teaching: emphasize the connection between spoken and written language § Semi-Literate § Limited schooling in their own language § Teaching: help students become confident in their literacy skills § Non-Roman Alphabet Literate § Speak and are literate in a language that is written with a different script. § Can transfer skills from one language to another even if the script is completely different. § Fully Literate § Read and write with ease in English and their own language.
What does your student’s level mean? § § You student’s level will indicate their skills in: Speaking Reading Writing Listening
How are their skills measured? § Through observation § Through assessment Washington programs use CASAS (Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems)
The CASAS Test breaks learners skills into levels: Beginning Literacy/Pre-Beginning ESL: Level 1 Communicates through gestures with a few isolated words Low Beginning ESL: Level 2 Asks and responds to basic learn phrases spoken slowly and repeated often High Beginning ESL: Level 3 Simple oral communication abilities using basic learned phrases and sentences
Low Intermediate ESL: Level 4 Understands simple learned phrases easily and some new simple phrases containing familiar vocabulary spoken slowly with frequent repetition High Intermediate ESL: Level 5 Understands learned phrases easily and new phrases containing familiar vocabulary, Some limited telephone conversation abilities Advanced ESL: Level 6 Can participate in conversations on a variety of topics. Has ability to communicate on telephone on familiar topics.
Quiz (click for Answers) 1. What are three different roles learners play outside of the classroom? Answer: Family, Worker and Community Member. 2. True or False: Part of a tutor’s role is to create a welcoming learning environment. Answer: True. 3. True or False: The difference between a preliterate and non-literate is that a preliterate has no written language in their first language and a non-literate has no exposure to written language in their first language. Answer: True.
So, why are levels so important? Depending on your learners’ literacy level you can expect different levels of understanding and communication, fluency and accuracy, and the student’s level can inform your choice of materials and activities.
Here’s an example of different communication levels:
Is this the mother? In your house, who does the cooking? Is the father sitting or standing? Is the mother eating? Where was the mother before? What do you eat for breakfast? Are they in the kitchen or in the living room? Where do you like to eat? What is on the table? Who likes orange juice? Is there food on the table? This picture generates a range of questions How does the father feel? Is there a spoon on the table? Who is cooking, the mom or the dad? How many people are in your family? What is on the table?
Is this the mother? In your house, who does the cooking? Is the father sitting or standing? Is the mother eating? Where was the mother before? What do you eat for breakfast? Are they in the kitchen or in the living room? Where do you like to eat? What is on the table? Who likes orange juice? Is there food on the table? Which Questions are the easiest to answer? How does the father feel? Is there a spoon on the table? Who is cooking, the mom or the dad? How many people are in your family? What is on the table?
Yes/No Questions– The easiest to answer § Is this the mother? § Is the juice on the table? § Is there a glass on the table? § Is it morning?
Often, English Language Learners understand more language than they can produce. So, the easiest questions are those that require the least language response.
EASIER The Question Hierarchy can guide your choices when working with adults learning English. YES/NO QUESTIONS EITHER/OR QUESTIONS HARDER WH– QUESTIONS PERSONAL QUESTIONS OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS
We’ve already seen examples of yes/no questions from the visual, now let’s look at other levels.
Either/or or Choice Questions § Are they in the kitchen or in the bedroom? § Who is cooking, the mother or the father? § Does the mother have long or short hair? § Is the father sitting or standing?
Wh-Questions- for getting factual information § What is on the table? § Who is drinking orange juice? § How many people are in the kitchen?
Personal Questions § How many people are in your family? § In your house, who does the cooking? § Who works in your family? § Where do you study?
Open-ended, interpretative questions– the most difficult to answer § Where was the mother before? § How does the mother feel? § What is going to happen next?
Not only is the Question Hierarchy useful in structuring conversation, its also a useful tool that can be used in many different ways in instruction. You will learn more about the Question Hierarchy in your next Literacy NOW training.
In your next Literacy NOW training, you will also…. § Receive information about ESL teaching theory § Practice using a variety of teaching methods § Gain confidence to use your newly acquired skills in your tutoring sessions
Your experience in the next workshop will model the learning process that we recommend for your students who will come to you with real needs and specific purposes for using new language skills in their lives. We’ll see you at the next training!
Sources Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems. Skill Level Descriptors. 21 August 2009. http: //https: //www. casas. org Cultural Orientation Resource Center. US Refugee Program: Current Fiscal Year Admission Statistics. 11 September 2009. http: //www. cal. org/co/refugee/statistics/index. html Ellis, Mark. Immigrants in WA State. 18 August 2009. Available online: http: //faculty. washington. edu/ellism/wa-immigration. pdf Literacy Network of Washington. Teaching English Language Learners: A Handbook for Volunteers. Washington, 2008. Malloy, Jennifer. Personal Interview. 31 July 2009. United States. Census Bureau. 2000 Census. 18 August 2009. Washington State. Refugee and Immigrant Assistance Program. ESA Program Briefing Book 2008. White, Sid and S. E. Solberg, eds. Peoples of Washington: Perspectives on Cultural Diversity. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, 1989.