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Welcome to SOCI 1010 Introduction to Sociology Day 14 January 26, 2012
Charlie Starkweather AKA Charles Raymond Starkweather Born: 24 -Nov-1938 Birthplace: Lincoln, NE Died: 25 -Jun-1959 Location of death: Nebraska State Penitentiary Cause of death: Execution Remains: Buried, Wyuka Cemetery, Lincoln, NE High School: (dropped out) Robbery -- Robert Colvert (1 -Dec-1957) Kidnapping -- Robert Colvert (1 -Dec-1957) Murder -- Marion Bartlett (21 -Jan-1958) Murder -- Velda Bartlett (21 -Jan-1958) Murder -- Betty Jean Bartlett (21 -Jan-1958) Murder -- August Meyer (27 -Jan-1958) Murder -- Robert Jensen (27 -Jan-1958) Murder -- Carol King (27 -Jan-1958) Murder -- C. Lauer Ward (Jan-1958) Murder -- Clara Ward (Jan-1958) Murder -- Lillian Fencl (Jan-1958) Murder -- Merle Collison (Jan-1958)
• Caril Ann Fugate was convicted of murder and sent to prison for her part in a week-long murder rampage through Nebraska and Wyoming in 1958 that left nearly a dozen people, including her parents and little sister, dead. Fugate, in reliance on her age of fourteen, always maintained that she was the innocent victim of her boyfriend Charles Starkweather. After eighteen years of penal service, the state of Nebraska paroled her in the mid-’ 70 s. • After her parole, Fugate moved to St. Johns, Michigan, a small farming community between Lansing and Mt. Pleasant, in the center of Michigan’s lower peninsula. What drew her there was the solace of a couple who befriended her after seeing a documentary about the murders.
Agenda for Class #14 • Roll call • Social Stratification http: //www. quia. com/hm/475741. html
Social Stratification In the United States Part 1
What Is Social Stratification? • A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a social hierarchy
Four Basic Principles • • Social stratification is a trait of society It persists over generations It is universal It involves not just inequality but beliefs
Caste and Class Systems • A caste system is social stratification based on ascription or birth • Example – Traditional India
The Class System • Representative of industrial societies – social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement • More “open” – social mobility occurs
Stratification and Conflict • Social-conflict analysis holds that social stratification ensures that some people gain advantages at the expense of others.
Marx’s View • He identified two major classes – the capitalists (owners) and proletarians (workers). • He believed the workers would revolt, overthrow the capitalists and create a socialist system.
Max Weber • Viewed Marx’s ideas as too simplistic • Theorized that there were three dimensions of social inequality – class (property), status (prestige), & power • These variables create a socioeconomic status hierarchy
• Class: A person's economic position in a society. Weber differs form Marx in that he does not see this as a supreme factor in stratification. Weber noticed how managers of corporations or industries control firms they do not own; Marx would have placed such a person in the proletariat.
• Status: A person's prestige, social honor, or popularity in a society. Weber saw how political power was not just welded from capital value, but also their status. Such as how poets or saints can have immense influence on society but have relatively little economic worth.
Occupational Prestige Rankings • • Physician 82 College professor 78 Judge 76 Attorney 76 Astronomer 74 Dentist 74 Bank officer 72 Engineer 71
• • • Architect 71 Clergy 70 Chemist 69 Nurse 62 School teacher 60 Author 60 Accountant 57 Actor 55 Computer programmer 51 Athlete 51
• • • Bank Teller 50 Electrician 49 Police officer 48 Secretary 46 Mail carrier 42 Plumber 41 Farm owner 41 Dancer 38 Mechanic 37 Bus Driver 32
• • Cashier 31 Gas station attendant 22 Taxi Driver 22 Garbage collector 17 Janitor 16 Maid 14 Shoeshine Attendant 9 Source: National Opinion Research Center http: //psych. fullerton. edu/mbirnbaum/web/prestige_diffs. htm
• Power: A person's ability to get their way despite the resistance of others. For example, individuals in state jobs, such as an employee of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or a member of the United States Congress, may hold little property or status but they still hold immense power.
Dimensions of Class • Income – wages & earnings from investments • Wealth – total value of money & other assets, minus any debt • Social power – the ability to control, even in the face of resistance • Occupational prestige – job-related status • Education – key to better career opportunities • Ancestry, race, and gender
• http: //www. cbsnews. com/htdocs/census_2 000/framesource. html
The Upper Class • Upper-uppers – – “Blue bloods” or “high society” Less than 1% of U. S. population Membership is by ascription (birth) Possess enormous wealth primarily inherited • Lower-Uppers – the “new” rich – Known as the “working rich” – Get money by earning it rather than inheritance – 3 to 4% of U. S. population
The Middle Class • 40% - 45% of population • Great diversity of family backgrounds • Divided into: Upper-middles Average income of $113, 000 to $200, 000 Prestigious white-collar occupations Stress “careers”; education
Average-Middles • Average-Middles – Less prestigious white-collar occupations. – Wealth in form of a house and retirement funds. • Income $45, 000 - $110, 000 • Work in less prestigious white-collar occupations
The Working Class • • About 1/3 of population Income $25, 000 - $45, 000 Blue-collar occupations Have little or no wealth – Vulnerable to financial problems • Jobs provide little personal satisfaction • Half own their own homes • Fewer children go to college (about 1/3)
The Lower Class • About 20% of population • Low income makes their lives insecure and difficult • Limited schooling – only about half complete high school • “Working Poor”
• Why does college attendance and success drop with the lowering of social classes? Describe some possible contributing factors.
2008 HHS Poverty Guidelines • • Persons in Family or Household 1 $10, 400 2 14, 000 3 17, 600 4 21, 200 5 24, 800 6 28, 400 Federal Register, Vol. 73, No. 15, January 23, 2008, pp. 3971– 3972
Richest People Links • Income and Poverty • List of Billionaires by states • Median income
Ways in Which Class Matters • Life Chances • Health – amount and type of health care • Values and attitudes vary from class to class • It shapes family life – whom one marries, family size, styles of child rearing, & our world of relationships • Politics
GLOBAL STRATIFICATION Part 2
Global Stratification: An Overview • Highest 1/5 of humanity controls 80% of income
Getting Terms Down • High Income Countries – richest 40 nations with most developed economies • Middle Income Countries – per capita income ranging between $2, 500 and $10, 000; 90 countries • Low Income Countries - the remaining 60 have the lowest productivity and most extensive poverty
High Income Countries • Highly industrialized; • Include most of first to go through Western Europe, Industrial Revolution Canada, United States, Japan, • 25% of land surface; Australia and New 15% of world’s pop. Zealand • Economies are all market-driven; control world’s financial markets
Middle Income Countries • Limited industrialization • 90 nations • About half of people are involved in agriculture • 40% of the world’s land area; 1/3 of population • Include Russia, nations of Eastern Europe, oil-producing nations of the Middle East, Venezuela, Brazil, and Algeria & Botswana in Africa
Low Income Countries • Encompass primarily • Found in Central and agrarian societies that Eastern Africa and in are poor Asia • 60 nations in this category • Inhabit 35% of the earth’s land area; about 1/2 the world’s people
Global Wealth and Poverty • Poverty in poor countries is more severe • Relative poverty is found everywhere; poor societies grapple with widespread, absolute poverty • Worldwide, lives of 1 billion people are at risk due to poor nutrition; about 15 million per year die from hunger
Poverty and Children • Hits children the hardest • Some 100 million children in poor countries work on the streets to assist their families; another 100 million leave their families, sleeping and living on the streets • Many children in urban areas are abused or murdered
Poverty and Women • Hardships of poverty fall harder on women • Gender bias against women is greatest in poor, agrarian societies
Correlates of Global Poverty • Poverty is a complex problem reflecting: 1. limited industrial technology 2. rapid population growth 3. traditional cultural patterns 4. internal social stratification 5. male domination 6. global power relationships
Global Inequality: Theoretical Analysis • Two major explanations – modernization theory and dependency theory
Modernization Theory • A model of development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences among societies • It identifies tradition as the greatest barrier to economic development • Where industry has taken root, countries have become wealthier
The Role of Rich Nations • Modernization theorists argue that rich nations can help by: 1. assisting in population control 2. agricultural technology to increase food production 3. introducing industrial technology 4. instituting programs of foreign aid
Dependency Theory • A model of development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones
Slavery • Anti-Slavery International estimates that 400 million live in conditions that amount to slavery Francis Bok, former Sudanese slave. At the age of seven, he was captured during a raid in Southern Sudan, and enslaved for ten years.
The International Labour Organization estimates that: • At least 12. 3 million people are victims of forced labor • more than 2. 4 million have been trafficked • 9. 8 million are exploited by private agents • 2. 5 million are forced to work by the state or by rebel military groups • The profits from forced trafficked labor are estimated to be in excess of $32 billion.
• Due to the illegal nature of trafficking and differences in methodology, the exact extent is unknown. According to United States State Department data, an "estimated 600, 000 to 820, 000 men, women, and children are trafficked across international borders each year, approximately 70 percent are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. The data also illustrates that the majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. ”
Assignment • Quiz group #2 Chapters 6 – 11 – due date extended to midnight February 4 – No Extensions after that time • Symbol presentations 2/2 and 2/7 • Finish reading chapters 8 - 9 • Read Chapters 6, 10 and 11 Inequality • Be working on NOTEBOOKS !!!!!!!