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Website Accessibility Research Disabled Users Still Locked Out Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by Website Accessibility Research Disabled Users Still Locked Out Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. William S. Spears School of Business Management Science and Information Systems Oklahoma State University - Tulsa Nicholas. Romano@okstate. edu Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Slide #1 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Talk Outline • Introduction to Website Accessibility – – – Definition Misconceptions and Realities Talk Outline • Introduction to Website Accessibility – – – Definition Misconceptions and Realities Guidelines/Theory Explication – – – Social Economic Legal • Research/Business Motivations • Research Studies • • • 2 – Study of Fortune 250 Companies 2002 – The Pervasively Low Accessibility rate of Websites: a Cross- Disciplinary Analysis of Validation Results – Longitudinal Study of Fortune 100 Companies (2001 -2005) Accessibility Technology Demonstration Guidelines for Developers Discussion Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Web Accessibility Introduction The Internet & Web offer ‘Information’ and resources for multiple purposes: Web Accessibility Introduction The Internet & Web offer ‘Information’ and resources for multiple purposes: Social Collaborative Commerce Governmental Resources are not always available to everyone that desires or needs to use them 3 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Web Accessibility Defined “the ability of persons, regardless of ability, to easily access information, Web Accessibility Defined “the ability of persons, regardless of ability, to easily access information, regardless of form, structure, or presentation. “ 4 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Reflected in the founding vision for the web “The concept of the web is Reflected in the founding vision for the web “The concept of the web is of universal readership. If you publish a document on the web, it is important that anyone who has access to it can read it and link to it. ” “The power of the web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect. ” Tim Berners-Lee Inventor of the World Wide Web Director of the World Wide Web Consortium Senior researcher 3 Com Founders Chair at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) 5 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

What is Web Accessibility? • Three main strands • Social: accessibility for disabled users, What is Web Accessibility? • Three main strands • Social: accessibility for disabled users, socially/geographically disadvantaged users • Technical: accessibility as “interoperability” • Legal: accessibility as a legal obligation 6 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

What is Accessibility? • A User Experience • Ability of a disabled user to What is Accessibility? • A User Experience • Ability of a disabled user to obtain the same information and perform the same tasks as any other user. • Creating better user experiences for all. The True Test: Can people with disabilities use your web page at all? Effectively and Efficiently? 7 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Introduction to Web Accessibility goes beyond making information available for people with disabilities Examples Introduction to Web Accessibility goes beyond making information available for people with disabilities Examples Less powerful computers Slow Internet connections Text Only Browsing Etc. more on this later…. . 8 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Some Misconceptions and Realities About Web Accessibility 9 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by Some Misconceptions and Realities About Web Accessibility 9 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Reality Misconception There actually a wide range of disabilities: Accessibility only means…. More details Reality Misconception There actually a wide range of disabilities: Accessibility only means…. More details follow web site works for the blind…” “making sure our 10 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Disabilities that affect Web use 5 main groups of impairments – Visual – Hearing Disabilities that affect Web use 5 main groups of impairments – Visual – Hearing – Motor/mobility – Cognitive – Seizure disorders For more information see: http: //www. webaim. org/techniques/ 11 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Proportion of Disabilities 12 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, Proportion of Disabilities 12 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Visual Disabilities Blindness Low Vision Color Blindness 13 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by Visual Disabilities Blindness Low Vision Color Blindness 13 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Visual impairments (1) • Blindness – Many use screen readers – Some use Braille Visual impairments (1) • Blindness – Many use screen readers – Some use Braille readers – Use the keyboard rather than the mouse, so cannot access mouse-dependent content (e. g. rollover effects) – Can’t access non-text elements unless a text equivalent is provided 14 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Visual impairments (2) • Low vision (a range of conditions) – Use screen magnifiers Visual impairments (2) • Low vision (a range of conditions) – Use screen magnifiers (software/hardware) – May use own stylesheets – Have problems with color contrast, text size, images used as text, fixed width pages • Color blindness – Can’t see/distinguish between certain colors – Have problems where color alone determines meaning/functionality 15 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Visual Disabilities: Low Vision Examples 16 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Visual Disabilities: Low Vision Examples 16 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Hearing Disabilities • Varies from mild to profound hearing loss – Some lip read Hearing Disabilities • Varies from mild to profound hearing loss – Some lip read or use hearing aids – Some use sign language – Controversial to refer to deafness as a disability – Linguistic minority (sign language community) – May have problems with complex language – Have problems with audio where captioning or a transcript is not made available 17 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Motor/Mobility Impairments • A range of conditions that affect movement and/or mobility – Paralysis, Motor/Mobility Impairments • A range of conditions that affect movement and/or mobility – Paralysis, tremor, loss of limbs, muscle weakness – Have problems activating small or moving targets, using checkboxes, radio buttons and in particular, selecting from drop downs. 18 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Cognitive Disabilities • A range of conditions involved including: – Learning disabilities – Brain Cognitive Disabilities • A range of conditions involved including: – Learning disabilities – Brain injury – Genetic diseases – Difficulties processing or remembering information – Have problems understanding complex language, complex page layout, inconsistencies across sites, text alignment can also cause problems 19 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Seizure Disorders • Photosensitive epilepsy – Sensitivity to flickering or intermittent light stimulation – Seizure Disorders • Photosensitive epilepsy – Sensitivity to flickering or intermittent light stimulation – Page elements that flash in the range 2 - 55 Hz (cycles per second) could cause a seizure 20 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Quasi-Disabilities These conditions create similar experiences • Slow Internet Connection • Old Browser • Quasi-Disabilities These conditions create similar experiences • Slow Internet Connection • Old Browser • Missing Plug-ins • No Speakers • Small Display • Eyes Busy/Hands Busy • Noisy Environment 21 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Misconceptions • Why bother? • Marketing Executive: “such a small market is not worth Misconceptions • Why bother? • Marketing Executive: “such a small market is not worth the hassle” • Web Designer: “no time to create a separate accessible site” • Site Owner: “blind people won’t be using my web site” 22 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Reality: Misconception 750 million worldwide Marketing Executive: More than small market is not worth Reality: Misconception 750 million worldwide Marketing Executive: More than small market is not worth the hassle” “such a 50 million Americans 7 million disabled in UK 19% of the working age population has some form of disability. Source: Disability Rights Commission – Disability briefing January 2004 23 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

How many people are disabled? • Most countries have between 10% - 20% of How many people are disabled? • Most countries have between 10% - 20% of population with disabilities • Not all disabilities affect Web use • But, a lot of people have ‘temporary disabilities’ and aren’t counted in statistics • And, we have an ageing population – Sight, hearing, mobility and cognitive functions all decline with age 24 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

How big is the Market? • Approximately 20 percent of the U S population How big is the Market? • Approximately 20 percent of the U S population has a physical disability – That includes approximately 400, 000 university students – Often no way of knowing who has disability • • • The U S population is aging Persons with disability spend a lot of money For those in education or government…it’s the law 25 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

People with Disabilities 32. 1 million working-age people (or 18. 7% of the population People with Disabilities 32. 1 million working-age people (or 18. 7% of the population age 15 to 64) have a disability. 26 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Relative perspective on the size of the market 20% = 54 Million People in Relative perspective on the size of the market 20% = 54 Million People in the U. S. Texas 27 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 + Ca lif or ni a Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Relative perspective on the size of the market $ Control $175 Billion in Discretionary Relative perspective on the size of the market $ Control $175 Billion in Discretionary Income 28 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Relative perspective on the size of the market One-third of US population > 55 Relative perspective on the size of the market One-third of US population > 55 by 2040 29 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Reality: Misconception In majority of cases “ Web designer: disabled only access” not needed Reality: Misconception In majority of cases “ Web designer: disabled only access” not needed “no time to create a separate accessible site” Inclusive design, not segregation Separation of content and presentation, using web standards, structural markup: single site, accessible to all Accessibility included in planning, not as an afterthought “Text only” is not a solution Later some survey results on this…. 30 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

 • • Misconception Reality Accessibility not just about the blind, but… • • • • Misconception Reality Accessibility not just about the blind, but… • • Site owner: • Many Possible scenarios (and solutions): “blind people won’t be (user control of style sheets) ” – online shopper with color blindness using my web site – reporter with repetitive stress injury (keyboard equivalents for mouse-driven commands; access-key) – online student who is deaf (captioned audio portions of multimedia files) – accountant with blindness (appropriate markup of tables, alternative text, abbreviations, and acronyms; synchronization of visual, speech, and braille display) – classroom student with dyslexia (use of supplemental graphics; freezing animated graphics; multiple search options) – retiree with aging-related conditions, managing personal finances (magnification; stopping scrolling text; avoiding pop-up windows) – supermarket assistant with cognitive disability (clear and simple language; consistent design; consistent navigation options; multiple search options) – teenager with deaf-blindness, seeking entertainment (user control of style sheets; accessible multimedia; device-independent access; labelled frames; appropriate table markup) (Source: http: //www. w 3. org/WAI/EO/Drafts/PWD-Use-Web/#usage) 31 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Theoretical Background Web Site Accessibility guidelines are based on Universal Design for Learning (UDL. Theoretical Background Web Site Accessibility guidelines are based on Universal Design for Learning (UDL. ) Which is based on the broader concept of Universal Design (UD). UDL in general and Web Site Accessibility specifically are usability extensions 32 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Universal Design (UD) • An architectural term meaning Universal Design (UD) • An architectural term meaning "the design of products and environments to be useable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without need for adaptation or specialized design. " • It is"accessible" or "inclusive" • Underlying Goal: design products or services for the fullest range of human function--taking into account physical, sensory, cognitive, and language needs or abilities of the broadest spectrum of customers during the initial design phase. 33 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Where Usability and Accessibility fit into System Acceptability Usability focuses on making websites or Where Usability and Accessibility fit into System Acceptability Usability focuses on making websites or applications easy for people to use. Accessibility focuses on making them equally easy for everyone to use, including people with disabilities. 34 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Currently there is no Explicated Web Accessibility Theory I am developing a a theoretical Currently there is no Explicated Web Accessibility Theory I am developing a a theoretical Model 35 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Two Accessibility Design Themes Graceful Transformation Understandable, Navigable Content Design Keys • Separate structure Two Accessibility Design Themes Graceful Transformation Understandable, Navigable Content Design Keys • Separate structure from presentation • Provide text (including text equivalents) • Create documents that work even if a user can’t see and/or hear • Create documents that don’t rely on one hardware type. Accessibility Guidelines 1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory & visual content. 2. Don't rely on color alone. 3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly. 4. Clarify natural language usage 5. Create tables that transform gracefully. 6. Ensure pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully. 7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes. 8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces. 9. Design for device-independence. 10. Use interim solutions. 11. Use W 3 C technologies and guidelines. 12. Provide context and orientation information. 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms. 14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple. Example Accessibility Rationale 1. Audio screen readers read all characters literally 1. Audio 2. Don't rely on color alone. 3. Semantic Information helps specialized software understand page organization 4. Enables use of language-appropriate pronunciation rules 4. Enables 5. Create tables that transform gracefully. 6. Ensure pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully. 7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes. Faculty Research Excellence Series Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. 8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces. Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Website Accessibility Research: 9. Design for device-independence. 10. Scripted pop-up windows Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm can surprise or disorient 10. Scripted Disabled Users Still Locked Out 11. Some pages cannot be made directly accessible. 11. Some accessible. 36 North Hall Room 150 © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Individual User Characteristics Universal Design for Learning Principles Styles Cognitive Learning Content Representations Design Individual User Characteristics Universal Design for Learning Principles Styles Cognitive Learning Content Representations Design Themes Manipulation Communication Psychomotor Understandable, Navigable Content Control Mechanisms Experience Skill Level Expression Mechanisms Knowledge Graceful Transformation Interests Affective Engagement Mechanisms Preferences Motivation Mechanisms Needs Faculty Research Excellence Series Nicholas C. Axioms: users Web Sites: can provide. Romano, Jr. Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library different methods Website Accessibility Research: Have these differences 37 Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved Design Themes: Ensure accessibility

Individual User Characteristics Universal Design for Learning Principles Guidelines/Checkpoints Design Themes Underlying Rationale Checkpoints: Individual User Characteristics Universal Design for Learning Principles Guidelines/Checkpoints Design Themes Underlying Rationale Checkpoints: 12. 1, 12. 2, …etc. #12. Provide context and orientation information. Checkpoints: 13. 1, 13. 2, …etc. Styles Learning # 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms Cognitive Content Representations Manipulation Checkpoints: 14. 1, 14. 2, …etc. # 14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple. Understandable, Navigable Content Knowledge Checkpoints: 3. 1, 3. 2, …etc. #3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly. Control Mechanisms Interests Preferences Audio screen readers read all characters literally #2. Don't rely on color alone. Semantic Information helps specialized software understand page organization. Checkpoints: 4. 1, 4. 2, …etc. #4. Clarify natural language usage. Expression Mechanisms Enables use of languageappropriate pronunciation rules Checkpoints: 51, 5. 2, …etc. Graceful Transformation Needs Checkpoints: 1. 1, 1. 2, …etc. #1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory & visual content. #2. Don't rely on color alone. Psychomotor Skill Level # 14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple. Checkpoints: 2. 1, 2. 2, …etc. Communication Experience # 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms Affective Engagement Mechanisms Motivation Mechanisms #5. Create tables that transform gracefully. Checkpoints: 6. 1, 6. 2, …etc. #6. Ensure pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully. Checkpoints: 7. 1, 7. 2, …etc. #7. Ensure user control of timesensitive content changes. Checkpoints: 8. 1, 8. 2, …etc. #8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces. Checkpoints: 9. 1, 9. 2, …etc. #9. Design for device-independence. Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Axioms: users Web Sites: can provide Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm Have these differences different methods 38 North Hall Room 150 #5. Create tables that transform gracefully. #9. Design for device-independence. Checkpoints: 10. 1, 10. 2, …etc. Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. #10. Use interim solutions. . Website Accessibility Research: Checkpoints: 10. 1, 10. 2, …etc. Disabled Users Still Locked Out #11. Use W 3 C technologies © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved and Guidelines. Scripted pop-up windows can surprise or disorient Some pages cannot be made

Research/Business Motivations • Ethical/Social • Economic • Legal 39 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored Research/Business Motivations • Ethical/Social • Economic • Legal 39 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Motivations Public Sector Equal rights for citizens We All are CITIZENS Non discrimination Social Motivations Public Sector Equal rights for citizens We All are CITIZENS Non discrimination Social inclusion Private Sector • Social responsibility Customer base increase Better service for customers and employees Competitive advantage • ROI 40 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved We All are CONSUMERS

Motivations Ethical/Social • IBM’s Public Affairs report ‘Assuring Access for All’ suggests: Motivations Ethical/Social • IBM’s Public Affairs report ‘Assuring Access for All’ suggests: ". . to help prevent a division of haves and have-nots, competing firms must be free to provide customers all over the world with the best and most affordable network computing products and services. [however]. . . governments must be prepared to fund universal access programs for those who are left unserved by competition. " 41 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Motivations Economic “The economic aspects of Web-based business should be reason enough to jump-start Motivations Economic “The economic aspects of Web-based business should be reason enough to jump-start the private sector into building accessible Web sites. Huge Markets remain untapped (Kautzman 1998) 42 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Motivations Economic: Untapped Markets 750 million worldwide affected by disabling conditions Disabled Non-disabled Computer Motivations Economic: Untapped Markets 750 million worldwide affected by disabling conditions Disabled Non-disabled Computer at home 23. 9% 51. 7% Internet Use 9. 9% 38. 1% 65+ disabled 65+ non-disabled 10. 6% 25. 3% 2. 2% 8. 9% 15 -64 disabled 15 -64 non-disabled 32. 6% 55. 6% 15. 1% 42. 3% (Kaye 2000) 43 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Motivations Economic: Untapped Markets 750 million worldwide affected by disabling conditions % disabled Age Motivations Economic: Untapped Markets 750 million worldwide affected by disabling conditions % disabled Age <18 45 -64 75 -84 5. 8% 29. 2% 63. 7% America is graying: by 2050 80 Million will be over 65 (Kaye 2000) 44 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Additional Incentives Increase Market Share and Audience Reach – Improve usability for non-disabled and Additional Incentives Increase Market Share and Audience Reach – Improve usability for non-disabled and disabled users – Improve search engine listings Improve Efficiency – – – Reduce site maintenance Site search engine Improvements Address server-load and server-bandwidth • Demonstrate Social Responsibility • Reduce Legal Liability W 3 C report “Auxiliary Benefits of Accessible Web Design” http: //www. w 3. org/WAI/bcase/benefits. html 45 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Some Key Benefits • Reach a wider audience – up to 10 percent • Some Key Benefits • Reach a wider audience – up to 10 percent • Makes your site more useable for everyone (35% better) • Reduces site maintenance – lower bandwidth and hosting cost • Device/platform independence (1/3 devices handheld by 2010) • Improves search engine rankings • Social responsibility and reputation • You don’t break the law • Future-proofing your online presence. 46 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Motivations Legal 47 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March Motivations Legal 47 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Legal Requirements • Many Countries now have laws that require Accessibility • UK - Legal Requirements • Many Countries now have laws that require Accessibility • UK - Disability Discrimination Act 1995 provision of goods and services • Australia – Disability Discrimination Act 1992 • USA – Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 • USA – Section 508 of Rehabilitation Act procurement policy for federal government agencies 1998 • Other countries have similar legislation. 48 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (42 U. S. C. 12101 et seq. 1990) • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (42 U. S. C. 12101 et seq. 1990) • The ADA is a federal anti-discrimination statute designed to remove barriers which prevent qualified individuals with disabilities from enjoying the same employment opportunities that are available to persons without disabilities. • The ADA was signed into law on July 26, 1990. 49 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

The Rehabilitation Act Amendment (Section 508) • Section 508 is a part of the The Rehabilitation Act Amendment (Section 508) • Section 508 is a part of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that requires all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the Federal government to be accessible to people with disabilities. • On August 7, 1998 President Clinton signed the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 into law. 50 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Study Motivations Legal Section 508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act says that all government-funded Study Motivations Legal Section 508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act says that all government-funded requests for purchase must include provisions to meet the technology needs of people with disabilities. This ties in with the ADA Act that requires reasonable accommodation for employees and the Telecommunication Act that demands access to the Internet for the disabled. ” Kautzman, A. M. , Virtuous, Virtual Access: Making Web Pages Accessible to People with Disabilities. Searcher, 1998. 6(6 June): p. 42 -49 51 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Legal Requirements Three Court Cases: • Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games SOCOG Legal Requirements Three Court Cases: • Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games SOCOG • Ramada/Priceline • Target 52 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Maguire vs. Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) • Australia June 1999 Maguire vs. Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) • Australia June 1999 Bruce Maguire lodged a complaint with the Human Rights & Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) under a law called the Disability Discrimination Act. • Complaint alleged that the Web site of the SOCOG was inaccessible to him as a blind person. • Remedy: SOCOG was ordered to engage the following by 15 September 2000: – – – including alt text on all images and image map links on its Web site providing access to the Index of Sports from the Schedule page providing access to the Results Tables to be used on the Web site during the Sydney Olympic Games • SOCOG refused to comply with the order and was later ordered to pay Bruce Maguire $20, 000 for its refusal to comply. • The Maguire case set a firm worldwide precedent that inaccessible Web sites can be and are illegal. 53 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Ramada. com and Priceline. com • Attorney General (NY) Eliot Spitzer said over the Ramada. com and Priceline. com • Attorney General (NY) Eliot Spitzer said over the past year (2004) investigators from his office found that portions of the Ramada. com and Priceline. com Internet sites were not accessible although the Americans With Disabilities Act requires that private Web sites be accessible to blind and visually impaired Internet users. • Under the terms of the agreements, the companies will implement a range of accessibility standards authored by the Web Accessibility Initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium, an organization that recommends Internet standards. • Also, Ramada. com and Priceline. com will pay the state of New York $40, 000 and $37, 500, respectively, as costs of the investigation. 54 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Target Sued By National Federation of the Blind • February 7, 2006 • Claim: Target Sued By National Federation of the Blind • February 7, 2006 • Claim: Target’s Web site is inaccessible to the blind, violating California civil rights and disability law. • Charge that Target. com fails to meet the minimum standards of Web accessibility • The suit also contends that because the Web site requires the use of a mouse to complete a transaction, blind customers are unable to make purchases on their own. • Ruling: a retailer may be sued if its website is inaccessible to the blind • The court thus rejected Target’s argument that only its physical store locations were covered by the civil rights laws, ruling instead that all services provided by Target, including its Web site, must be accessible to persons with disabilities. 55 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Sec. 508 Standards • It requires that electronic and information technology that is developed Sec. 508 Standards • It requires that electronic and information technology that is developed or purchased by the Federal Government is accessible by people with disabilities. (http: //www. section 508. gov/index. cfm? Fuse. Action=Content&ID=3) 56 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Sec. 508 Standards that Affect Web Developers • § 1194. 22 Web-based intranet and Sec. 508 Standards that Affect Web Developers • § 1194. 22 Web-based intranet and Internet information and applications. 57 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Section 508 in Detail 1194. 22 Standards define 16 discrete criteria in no particular Section 508 in Detail 1194. 22 Standards define 16 discrete criteria in no particular order 58 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Sorting Out The Requirements 59 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Sorting Out The Requirements 59 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Research Question ? Considering the Ethical, Economic and Legal motivations for making websites accessible, Research Question ? Considering the Ethical, Economic and Legal motivations for making websites accessible, are organizations complying with the 508 guidelines? 60 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Three Research Projects 1. Study of Fortune 250 Companies 2002 2. The Pervasively Low Three Research Projects 1. Study of Fortune 250 Companies 2002 2. The Pervasively Low Accessibility rate of Websites: a Cross- Disciplinary Analysis of Validation Results (2005) 3. Longitudinal Study of Fortune 100 Companies (2001 -2005) 61 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Study of Fortune 250 Companies 2002 • Romano, N. C. , Jr. (2002). Customer Study of Fortune 250 Companies 2002 • Romano, N. C. , Jr. (2002). Customer Relationship Management for the Web-Access Challenged: Inaccessibility of the Fortune 100 Business Web Sites. Thirty-Fifth Annual Hawai'i International Conference on Systems Sciences, Kona, Hi, IEEE Computer Society Press. • Romano, N. C. Jr. (2002). "Customer relationship management for the Web-access challenged: Inaccessibility of Fortune 250 business Web sites. " International Journal of Electronic Commerce 7(2): 81 -117. 62 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Method Web Accessibility Validation Sample: Fortune 250 Company Website homepages Bobby Online Validation tool Method Web Accessibility Validation Sample: Fortune 250 Company Website homepages Bobby Online Validation tool Demonstration with OSU-Tulsa Library http: //webxact. watchfire. com/ 63 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1. 0 Guidelines created in 1999 to explain how Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1. 0 Guidelines created in 1999 to explain how to make websites and intranets accessible to people with disabilities. They are prioritised into three levels: Priority Level 1 - 'Must' or level ‘A’ Minimum - key issues: images, language, Multimedia Priority Level 2 - 'Should', or level ‘Double-A’ Good practice - key issues: layout, hypertext, forms Priority Level 3 - 'Ought' or level ‘Triple-A’ Beyond best practice 64 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Priority Level Errors • Priority 1 – At least one Error: 181/248 (73%) Results Priority Level Errors • Priority 1 – At least one Error: 181/248 (73%) • Priority 2 – At least one Error: 240/248 (97%) • Priority 3 – At least one Error: 247/248 (99%) 65 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Priority Level 1 Errors Priority 1 – At least one Error: 181/248 (73%) Results Priority Level 1 Errors Priority 1 – At least one Error: 181/248 (73%) 66 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Examples of bad alt text • Any HTML markup. alt text can only contain Examples of bad alt text • Any HTML markup. alt text can only contain plain text and entities, no tags. • alt="filename. jpg". This doesn't get us anywhere. What is the graphic's function? We don't care what it's called. • alt="alt text". Inserted by some HTML editors as a reminder, and left there by clueless designers. • alt="Click here!" Serves no useful purpose (unless of course it's on a graphic that says "Click here!"). • alt="Turn images on!" This is like being asked by a blind person what time the clock says, and responding, "Just open your eyes!" Images may be off for a reason (low bandwidth), they may be unavailable (text-only browser), or they may not even be off at all (screen reader, which displays images but reads alt text aloud). 67 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Examples of good alt text • Jonathon Delacour has a graphic in his page Examples of good alt text • Jonathon Delacour has a graphic in his page banner of a Chinese symbol. alt="Site logo: xin, the Chinese character for heart". • Leslie Harpold has a graphical page banner that includes the site name, "The Historical Present", and a tagline, "Hypermodernism has a posse". alt="the historical present: hypermodernism has a posse". • Jeffrery Zeldman has a navigation bar of text-as-graphics; on rollover, each graphic puts a little tagline in the status bar with Javascript. Of course, blind users will miss this, so Zeldman also puts the same text in the alt text of each graphic. Slick. 68 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Priority Level 2 Errors Priority 2 – At least one Error: 240/248 (97%) Results Priority Level 2 Errors Priority 2 – At least one Error: 240/248 (97%) 69 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Priority Level 3 Errors Priority 3 – At least one Error: 247/248 (99%) Results Priority Level 3 Errors Priority 3 – At least one Error: 247/248 (99%) 70 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility and Revenue 71 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Results Accessibility and Revenue 71 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility and Revenue Companies with higher revenues tend to have a higher percentage Results Accessibility and Revenue Companies with higher revenues tend to have a higher percentage of accessible Web sites Deeper analysis, however, reveals that some of the companies with the highest revenues have the least accessible Web sites, while some with the lowest revenues have the highest accessibility, indicating that although there is a general pattern, there are some clear exceptions. Only three of the top 25 Fortune companies have Web sites among the top 25 most accessible Web sites, while four have Web sites ranked above 200 in terms of accessibility. 72 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility and Revenue Findings imply that the success of a company in terms Results Accessibility and Revenue Findings imply that the success of a company in terms of the Fortune measure of revenue does not imply that its Web site is accessible. In other words, those with the most resources to make their sites accessible may not be putting in required effort to do so. 73 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility by Industry 74 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Results Accessibility by Industry 74 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

The Pervasively Low Accessibility rate of Websites: a Cross- Disciplinary Analysis of Validation Results The Pervasively Low Accessibility rate of Websites: a Cross- Disciplinary Analysis of Validation Results Romano, N. C. Jr. (2005). The Pervasively Low Accessibility Rate of Websites: A Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of Validation Results. Human Computer Interaction International, Las Vegas, NV, USA. 75 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Method Secondary Data Analysis of Web Accessibility Validation Studies Initial Sample: Exhaustive literature review Method Secondary Data Analysis of Web Accessibility Validation Studies Initial Sample: Exhaustive literature review of all published studies in English from 1997 to late 2004 Inclusion Criteria: 1. validated more than one Web page or site for accessibility according to the ADA 508 guidelines 2. provided results in terms of the accessibility rate among the pages analyzed Sampling/Inclusion Results: Over 100 Studies found; only 67 met criteria 76 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Studies per year Pages/sites per study Validation methods Accessibility rates Web sites/page types Results Studies per year Pages/sites per study Validation methods Accessibility rates Web sites/page types Regions 77 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Number of Web Accessibility Validation Studies per Year 78 Faculty Research Excellence Series Results Number of Web Accessibility Validation Studies per Year 78 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Pages/sites per study Studies by Number of sites/pages Validated Note: The total is Results Pages/sites per study Studies by Number of sites/pages Validated Note: The total is fewer than 67 because some individual studies segmented a large sample of sites/pages and these were split out in some parts of the analysis but considered here as a single study. 79 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Validation methods Note: The total is greater than 67 because some individual studies Results Validation methods Note: The total is greater than 67 because some individual studies employed more than one type in a single paper. 80 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility rates Note: The total is fewer than 67 because some individual studies Results Accessibility rates Note: The total is fewer than 67 because some individual studies segmented a large sample of sites/pages and these were split out in some parts of the analysis but considered here as a single study. 81 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility rates by Web sites/page types Note: The total is fewer than 67 Results Accessibility rates by Web sites/page types Note: The total is fewer than 67 because some individual studies segmented a large sample of sites/pages and these were split out in some parts of the analysis but considered here as a single study. 82 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Accessibility rates by Region 83 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Results Accessibility rates by Region 83 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Discussion Results reveal that over 70% of the studies published, including those of the Discussion Results reveal that over 70% of the studies published, including those of the author, employed only a single automatic validation tool (Bobby), which does not directly consider content accessibility and does not address whether or not challenged individuals can participate in electronic commerce or Collaborative activities. 84 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Longitudinal Study of Fortune 100 Companies (2001 -2005) Loiacono, Eleanor T. , Romano, Nicholas Longitudinal Study of Fortune 100 Companies (2001 -2005) Loiacono, Eleanor T. , Romano, Nicholas C. Jr. and Mc. Coy, Scott. (forthcoming) State of Corporate Website Accessibility. Communications of the ACM (CACM) Conditionally Accepted. 85 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Method Multiple Web Accessibility Validation Sample: Four sets of Fortune 100 Company Website homepages Method Multiple Web Accessibility Validation Sample: Four sets of Fortune 100 Company Website homepages – 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2005 Bobby Online Validation tool 86 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Priority Level Errors 87 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Results Priority Level Errors 87 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Priority Level Manual User Checks 88 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the Results Priority Level Manual User Checks 88 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results • Only 27% of sites were free of both Priority 1 barriers and Results • Only 27% of sites were free of both Priority 1 barriers and user checks. • Priority 1 errors being eliminated, but deeper level errors (Priority 2 and 3) and manual checkpoints may have been ignored—giving sites little more than “face-accessibility” or a sense of “virtual compliance” to the guidelines 89 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Results Website Quality Issues 90 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Results Website Quality Issues 90 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Two relevant studies provide insights. • Lazar, J. Why don’t Companies do more? • Two relevant studies provide insights. • Lazar, J. , A. Dudley-Sponaugle and K. -D. Greenidge (2004). "Improving web accessibility: a study of webmaster perceptions. " Computers in Human Behavior 20(2): 269 -288. • Knight, J. (2003). Attitudes to Web Accessibility. Usability News. Light, A. , British HCI Group. . < http: //www. usabilitynews. com/news/article 1321. asp> (Last accessed 20 January 2007) 91 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Lack of Knowledge/Ignorance/Understanding of WAI Guidelines • 76/117 Why don’t Companies do more? • Lack of Knowledge/Ignorance/Understanding of WAI Guidelines • 76/117 (64%) of respondents agreed that 'management is unaware of the importance of Web accessibility' and 'lack of awareness' and 'lack of policies/management' shared second place among perceived barriers to Web accessibility (Knight 2003) When asked “Are you familiar with the Section 508 laws by the US Federal government or similar laws from other governments around the world (i. e. Portugal, Canada, England, and Australia)? ”, 129 (73. 7%) indicated they were familiar with the laws (Lazar 2004) • • When asked if respondents were familiar with the three sets of guidelines coming out of the Web Accessibility Initiative (http: //www. w 3. org/wai) – – 112 (64%) indicated familiarity with web content accessibility guidelines 40 (23%) were not familiar with any of the guidelines (Lazar 2004) 92 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Lack of Knowledge/Ignorance/Understanding Tools • When Asked: ’’Are Why don’t Companies do more? • Lack of Knowledge/Ignorance/Understanding Tools • When Asked: ’’Are you aware that there are software tools that can check your web site to see if it is accessible, and provide useful feedback? ’’ 138 (78. 9%) were familiar 28 (16. 0%) were not familiar 5 (2. 9%) were not sure • • • When asked ‘‘Have you ever used a free web-based accessibility tool, e. g. Bobby? ’’ 121 (69. 1%) indicated that they had used free web-based tools 50 (28. 6%) indicated that they had not 93 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Lack of Knowledge/Ignorance/Understanding Tools • When Asked “Have Why don’t Companies do more? • Lack of Knowledge/Ignorance/Understanding Tools • When Asked “Have you ever used a non-web-based accessibility tool, e. g. APrompt, INFOCUS, Page. Screamer? ’’ 38 (21. 7%) indicated that they had used non-web-based tools 132 (75. 4%) indicated that they had not used such tools 4 (2. 3%) were not sure • • When asked ‘‘Have you ever tested your web site using a screen reader? (A screen reader reads the text out loud in computersynthesized speech)? ’’ 68 (38. 9%) indicated that they had tested using screen readers 105 (60%) indicated that they had not tested using screen readers 1 (0. 5%) was not sure. 94 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • • Inadequate Training 100/117 (86%) of respondents agreed Why don’t Companies do more? • • Inadequate Training 100/117 (86%) of respondents agreed that 'Developers do not have adequate training' in Web accessibility (Knight 2003) • • Insufficient time to Incorporate Accessibility 56/117 (48%) disagreed that 'most development lifecycles are too short to incorporate accessibility'. That accessibility 'takes too long' was the lowest ranking barrier (Knight 2003) • • Experience 115/175 respondents (65. 7%) indicated that they had previously created an accessible web site, 47 respondents (26. 9%) indicated that they had not created any accessible web site (Knight 2003) 95 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Technical Difficulty • 78/117 (67%) of respondents agreed Why don’t Companies do more? • Technical Difficulty • 78/117 (67%) of respondents agreed that 'some WAI guidelines are difficult to implement'. Difficulty of WAI guidelines placed third in barriers to accessible web site development (Knight 2003) • 40% of respondents felt that it is practical 'to design for all assistive technology devices'. However, a majority (53%) disagreed that ‘Web accessibility is purely a technical issue'. (Knight 2003) • 49% of respondents agreed that 'it is impossible to cater for all users' needs'. The trade-offs in web accessibility are reflected in a majority (56%) agreeing 'there is a conflict between usability and accessibility'. 80% disagreed that 'accessibility inhibits innovation‘ (Knight 2003) • 66% of respondents disagreed that 'text-only sites are the most accessible‘ • 72% disagreed that 'there is a conflict between graphic presentation and accessibility‘ (Knight 2003) 96 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • • Financial Factors: 51% agreed 'Web accessibility provides Why don’t Companies do more? • • Financial Factors: 51% agreed 'Web accessibility provides a return on investment' (Knight 2003) • • Legal Aspects 31%, felt that 'the legal case for accessibility has been well publicized. ' 61% disagreed that 'the case for accessibility would be helped by legal action‘ (Knight 2003) • When asked ‘‘Is your web site subject to the US Federal Government’s rules on accessibility? ’’ 43 respondents (24. 6%) indicated that their web sites were 101 respondents (57. 7%) indicated that their web sites were not 830 respondents (17. 1%) were not sure. 97 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Future Plans • When asked: ‘‘Does your organization Why don’t Companies do more? • Future Plans • When asked: ‘‘Does your organization have any plans to make your web site accessible to users with visual impairments in the future? ’’ 103 (58. 8%) indicated their organization plans on accessibility 37 (21. 1%) indicated no accessibility improvements were planned 30 (17. 1%) were not sure • • • 98 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Why don’t Companies do more? • Accessibility not taken seriously compared to issues such Why don’t Companies do more? • Accessibility not taken seriously compared to issues such as privacy • We re-surveyed F 100 websites to determine which have accessibility policies as these indicate a more serious commitment to the issue than if one is absent. • 85 websites did NOT have an accessibility policy; while 92 had a privacy policy. (IBM has a great example accessibility policy See: http: //www-03. ibm. com/able/access_ibm/index. html) • Language is another possible accessibility issue and 35 of the sites had a Spanish language alternative, more than twice the number with accessibility statements. • Companies take privacy and providing access to the large and growing Spanish speaking market more seriously than they do providing access to the visually impaired. 99 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Companies can do more easily and inexpensively 100 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by Companies can do more easily and inexpensively 100 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

The Inclusive web 101 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, The Inclusive web 101 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Assistive Technology • Screen Readers, Screen Magnifiers, CCTV systems, Keyboards, etc… 102 Faculty Research Assistive Technology • Screen Readers, Screen Magnifiers, CCTV systems, Keyboards, etc… 102 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Access Technology - Vision § Screen readers are used for non-visual access to Window Access Technology - Vision § Screen readers are used for non-visual access to Window applications and the Web. A screen reader allows users who are blind to hear what is happening on their computer by converting the screen display to digitised speech. § (JAWS) are examples of screen readers. § § § Demonstration Job Access with Speech (JAWS) Other tools Adobe Reader SWeb NVDA 103 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

New Technologies can add Barriers 104 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa New Technologies can add Barriers 104 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Captcha’s A CAPTCHA (an initialism for Captcha’s A CAPTCHA (an initialism for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart", is a type of challengeresponse test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human. A common type of CAPTCHA requires that the user type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes with the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appears on the screen. This CAPTCHA of "smwm" obscures its message from computer interpretation by twisting the letters. This somewhat more sophisticated CAPTCHA of "wikipedia" adds more distortions as well as highlights, shadows, and random line segments to thwart edge detection. Source http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Captcha 105 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Source: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=4 jrg. Mlufa 7 w 106 Faculty Research Excellence Source: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=4 jrg. Mlufa 7 w 106 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Example: Online Banking 107 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, Example: Online Banking 107 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Example: Permission Email 108 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, Example: Permission Email 108 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Guidelines 109 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, Guidelines 109 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Developers - key accessibility issues The Trinity of Accessible Web Design § Relevant Content Developers - key accessibility issues The Trinity of Accessible Web Design § Relevant Content Design § Non-jargon § Concise § Clear & accurate Mark-up § Summarised § Intuitive § Attractive § Relevant § Legible § Bullet proof § Standards compliant (W 3 C) § Semantic 110 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Developers - key accessibility issues Images not labelled properly Inaccessible Flash Multimedia - lack Developers - key accessibility issues Images not labelled properly Inaccessible Flash Multimedia - lack of captioning and transcripts Frames – poor frame titles makes pages hard to navigate for blind web users Tables - information in tables not coded so they are readable by blind web users Scripts – Java. Script and applets which are not compatible with adaptive technology with no alternative content provided Relative Design – enable text resizing in Internet Explorer Hypertext – Clear and concise links Forms – Intuitive and accessible forms 111 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Basic Rules to Follow • If you can't make a page accessible, construct an Basic Rules to Follow • If you can't make a page accessible, construct an alternate accessible version. • Do not use color text to convey your information. • Use ALT tag to provide equivalent alternatives for images. • Use a client-side image map rather then a server side image map. • Use appropriate paragraph styles for headings and lists. 112 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Basic Rules to Follow Continued… • Use longdesc attribute or short description to summarize Basic Rules to Follow Continued… • Use longdesc attribute or short description to summarize the graphs and charts. • Use meaningful text for hyperlinks, rather than “click here”. • Provide alternative content for video and audio contents. • Avoid using table for column layout. If you must do so, make sure the contents are organized in a liner order. 113 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Basic Rules to Follow Continued… • • • Use of frames is discouraged. Identify Basic Rules to Follow Continued… • • • Use of frames is discouraged. Identify human language used in the Web page. Avoid using absolute unit, but relative unit in the HTML tags. Use validation tool to check your site. Date the page and provide contact info. 114 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Manual Check List • • Disable the multimedia features on your browser View the Manual Check List • • Disable the multimedia features on your browser View the pages by disabling the style sheet Navigate your page with the Tab key Test the page by printing it in black and white 115 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Accessibility Guidelines for Hearing Disabilities • Never assume a user will hear an audible Accessibility Guidelines for Hearing Disabilities • Never assume a user will hear an audible notification. • Where appropriate, allow users to choose between audible or visual cues. • Do not overuse or rely exclusively on audible cues. • Allow users to configure frequency and volume of audible cues. • See: Web Accessibility for the Hearing Impaired http: //coe. sdsu. edu/eet/articles/webaccesshearing/index. htm 116 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Captioning Two Options for Audio One of the most straightforward ways to make multimedia Captioning Two Options for Audio One of the most straightforward ways to make multimedia content accessible is to add captions to audio or video tracks. This method does not require changes of design/layout, as it adds the accessible content directly into the current media. “D" links (descriptive or definition links) Often used as a simple and quick way to add accessible information to complex content. The most common method to employ "d" links is to add the letter "D" immediately following a media object, and then to create a hyperlink from the "D" to a text-only page. "D" links are often used as a text D equivalent for users with visual disabilities as well, making them a good option for reaching as many users as possible. 117 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Example of Captioning and D link 118 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the Example of Captioning and D link 118 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Media Access Generator (MAGpie) http: //ncam. wgbh. org/webaccess/magpie/ Is one tool to add captions Media Access Generator (MAGpie) http: //ncam. wgbh. org/webaccess/magpie/ Is one tool to add captions to video Another is Captionate Here are Two examples: CEAonline Living with Hepatitis B – An Interactive Learning Guide by Mindshare Media, Inc. 119 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Going Beyond Retrofitting “A common response from programmers after receiving an accessibility evaluation is Going Beyond Retrofitting “A common response from programmers after receiving an accessibility evaluation is that it would have been much easier to incorporate the requested changes at the beginning of the site development lifecycle. …building accessibility into a site early in the development lifecycle saves time and money compared to retrofitting. ” (Law et al. 2005) 120 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Summary • • • Companies SHOULD do more Motivations outweigh Objections Legal motivation is Summary • • • Companies SHOULD do more Motivations outweigh Objections Legal motivation is increasing with litigation Assistive technology is improving Further research and development is needed 121 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Future Research/Practice • Extend Surveys to find out why (Lazar) • Additional Validation methods Future Research/Practice • Extend Surveys to find out why (Lazar) • Additional Validation methods – – – Comprehensive Web accessibility audits Content accessibility Validation through experience by people with disabilities Quality Assessments Comparative Assessments • Increased awareness/education • Emergence of Niche firms to service market 122 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Future Research/Practice • Accessibility Transformation • Machine Learning Techniques – (i. e. Naïve Bayes Future Research/Practice • Accessibility Transformation • Machine Learning Techniques – (i. e. Naïve Bayes classifier, to detect errors) • Governmental Interventions – Law enforcement – Penalties – Incentives / Tax Breaks etc. – New Legislation with penalties – Litigation from community 123 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Questions Comments Welcome Thank you! 124 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Questions Comments Welcome Thank you! 124 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Validation Tools • Bobby http: //bobby. watchfire. com/bobby/html/en/index. jsp • LIFT http: //www. usablenet. Validation Tools • Bobby http: //bobby. watchfire. com/bobby/html/en/index. jsp • LIFT http: //www. usablenet. com/ • Lynx Viewer - Lynx text Viewer http: //www. delorie. com/web/lynxview. html • Table Builder http: //www. accessify. com/tools-and-wizards/accessibletable-builder_step 1. asp 125 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Screen Readers • JAWS from Freedom Scientific (Free) • Window-Eyes from GW Micro ($39. Screen Readers • JAWS from Freedom Scientific (Free) • Window-Eyes from GW Micro ($39. 00 for 60 day trial) • Non. Visual Desktop Access for Windows (Free) • Hal from Dolphin Computer Access (Free 30 Day Trial) • See also: http: //www. tucows. com/Windows/Audio. Video/A udio/Text. To. Speech/ 126 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Website Accessibility for FREE • • • WAVE - external link Accessibility Toolbar - Website Accessibility for FREE • • • WAVE - external link Accessibility Toolbar - external link (NILS) Cynthia Says - external link (ICDRI) A-Prompt - external link (University of Toronto) Site Valet - external link (Web. Thing) 127 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Website Accessibility for FREE • • Acc. Monitor Online - external link (Hi. Soft) Website Accessibility for FREE • • Acc. Monitor Online - external link (Hi. Soft) Bobby online - external link (Watchfire) TAW - external link in Spanish (Sidar) Torquemada - external link in Italian (Webx. Tutti) • Ask. Alice - external link (SSB Technologies) 128 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Commercial Products & Services n In. Focus - external link (SSB Technologies) n Acc. Commercial Products & Services n In. Focus - external link (SSB Technologies) n Acc. Verify, Acc. Repair, Acc. Monitor - external link (Hi. Software) n LIFT (including LIFT for Dreamweaver & for Front. Page) - external link (Usable. Net) n RAMP - external link (Deque) n Bobby - external link (Watchfire) n COAST - external link (COAST Software) 129 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Resources • W 3 C Web Accessibility Initiative http: //www. w 3. org/WAI/ • Resources • W 3 C Web Accessibility Initiative http: //www. w 3. org/WAI/ • Accessify http: //www. accessify. com/ • Accessifyforum http: //www. accessifyforum. com/ • Web. AIM: Web Accessibility In Mind http: //www. webaim. org/ • Isolani http: //www. isolani. co. uk/ • Dive into Accessibility http: //www. diveintoaccessibility. org/ • “Evaluating Web Sites for Accessibility with the Firefox Web Developer Toolbar” http: //www. webaim. org/techniques/articles/evaluatingwithfirefox • Wa. SP (Web Standards Project) http: //webstandards. org 130 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

Resources for Deaf and Hearing Disabled • Deaf Buy. com. On line shopping for Resources for Deaf and Hearing Disabled • Deaf Buy. com. On line shopping for the deaf and hard of hearing. http: //www. deafbuy. com/ • Harris Communications. Assistive products, books, videos and novelties related to hearing loss and sign language. http: //www. harriscomm. com/catalog/ • Hartling Communications, Inc. Assistive technology products for the deaf and hard of hearing. http: //www. hartling. com • HATIS (Hearing Aid Telephone Interconnect Systems). Specialty headsets designed to meet unique clarity, comfort and compatibility requirements of people using T-coil hearing aids. http: //www. hatis. com • Hearmore Products for the deaf and hard of hearing. http: //www. hearmore. com/Scripts/default. asp • HITEC. Assistive communication products for the deaf and hard of hearing. http: //www. hitec. com/hitec. html • http: //wally. rit. edu/internet/subject/deafness. html 131 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150

References and resources • Evaluating websites for accessibility http: //www. w 3. org/WAI/eval/ • References and resources • Evaluating websites for accessibility http: //www. w 3. org/WAI/eval/ • Getting started with accessibility assessments http: //ausweb. scu. edu. au/aw 03/papers/arch 2/paper. html • Evaluating website accessibility: a seven step process http: //www. csun. edu/cod/conf/2004/proceedings/203. htm 132 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

Resources: • Dive Into Accessibility 30 days to a more accessible web site http: Resources: • Dive Into Accessibility 30 days to a more accessible web site http: //diveintoaccessibility. org/ • Evaluating website accessibility series consists of the following articles: – Evaluating website accessibility part 1, Background and Preparation (this article) provides some background and suggests some useful tools for the evaluation process. http: //www. 456 bereastreet. com/archive/200603/evaluating_website_accessibility_part_1 _background_and_preparation/ – Evaluating website accessibility part 2, Basic Checkpoints explains accessibility aspects that can be tested with automated tools as well as some relatively easy manual checks. http: //www. 456 bereastreet. com/archive/200603/evaluating_website_accessibility_part_2 _basic_checkpoints/ – Evaluating website accessibility part 3, Digging Deeper takes a look at things that are difficult to test with automated tools and require more time and/or experience to evaluate manually. http: //www. 456 bereastreet. com/archive/200603/evaluating_website_accessibility_part_3 _digging_deeper/ • University of Wisconsin-Madison Web Accessibility 101 http: //www. doit. wisc. edu/accessibility/online-course/start. htm 133 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved

References Law, C. , J. Jacko, and P. Edwards. (2005). Programmer-Focused Website Accessibility Evaluations. References Law, C. , J. Jacko, and P. Edwards. (2005). Programmer-Focused Website Accessibility Evaluations. 7 th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility Assets '05. October 09 – 12, Baltimore, MD, USA, ACM Press New York, NY, USA, 20 -27. Kautzman, A. M. , Virtuous, Virtual Access: Making Web Pages Accessible to People with Disabilities. Searcher, 1998. 6(6 June): p. 42 -49 Kaye, S. , Disability and the Digital Divide. 2000, US National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (www. dsc. ucsf. edu): Washington, DC, USA. Online at: http: //dsc. ucsf. edu/publication. php? pub_id=6. 134 Faculty Research Excellence Series Sponsored by the OSU-Tulsa Library Thursday, March 29, 2007 6: 00 pm North Hall Room 150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. Website Accessibility Research: Disabled Users Still Locked Out © Copyright 2007 All Rights Reserved