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Web Services: Navigating the Standards Landscape Marc N. Haines CTI Workgroup – Web Services Web Services: Navigating the Standards Landscape Marc N. Haines CTI Workgroup – Web Services 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security SOAP-MTOM XML Schema 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF WSDL eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI XML Encryption © Marc Haines 2

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD GJXDM HL 7 XML Foundation WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security SOAP-MTOM XML Schema 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF WSDL eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI XML Encryption © Marc Haines 3

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD GJXDM HL 7 Web Services Core eb. XML WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing eb. XML WS-Security SOAP-MTOM XSLT XML Schema 19 -May-2005 OWL/S RDF WSDL eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI ? XML Encryption © Marc Haines 4

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security WSDL Commercial Web Services XML Encryption SOAP-MTOM XML Schema 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF © Marc Haines eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI 5

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security WSDL Competing XML Encryption Standards Universes XML Schema SOAP-MTOM 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF © Marc Haines eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI 6

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security WSDL Vertical Standards XML Encryption SOAP-MTOM XML Schema 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF © Marc Haines eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI 7

Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD Web Services Standards • The Web Services Standards Landscape Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security WSDL Web Services Nirvana XML Encryption SOAP-MTOM XML Schema 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF © Marc Haines eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI 8

Web Services Standards • Standardization – Players – Process – Standards 19 -May-2005 © Web Services Standards • Standardization – Players – Process – Standards 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 9

Web Services Standards • The Players Standards ISO IEEE WS-I Internet Related Standards UN/CEFACT Web Services Standards • The Players Standards ISO IEEE WS-I Internet Related Standards UN/CEFACT UN/ITU-T e-Business Related Standards OASIS W 3 C V V 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines V 10

Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Players • W 3 C • Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Players • W 3 C • OASIS • ISO • IEEE • UN/CEFACT, UN/ITU-T • Vertical standards groups • WS-I 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 11

Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – Different standardization organizations use varying terminology to Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – Different standardization organizations use varying terminology to indicate the status of their work W 3 C OASIS Working Draft Committee Draft Public Working Draft Public Review Draft Candidate Recommendation internal public Committee Specification implementation Proposed Recommendation 19 -May-2005 OASIS Standard © Marc Haines endorsement 12

Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Food Chain Globalizer ISO IEEE UN/CEFACT Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Food Chain Globalizer ISO IEEE UN/CEFACT Standardizer Expose draft to larger audience Refine and find common denomiator Provide recommendation (a. k. a. standard) W 3 C OASIS Initiator 19 -May-2005 Approves “local” standard and gives it “global” visibility Idea and First initial draft of a specification IT Vendors Research Organizations Individuals © Marc Haines 13

Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Food Chain Globalizer ISO (ISO-15000) ? Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Food Chain Globalizer ISO (ISO-15000) ? Standardizer 19 -May-2005 W 3 C OASIS / UN/CEFACT Jon Bosak, Tim Bray Microsoft Various XML Initiator W 3 C SOAP eb. XML © Marc Haines 14

Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Food Chain Globalizer ISO (ISO-15445) Standardizer Web Services Standards • Standardization Process – The Food Chain Globalizer ISO (ISO-15445) Standardizer Initiator W 3 C XHTML CERN Tim Berners-Lee HTML 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 15

Web Services Standards • The Standards Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM Web Services Standards • The Standards Semantic Web UBL IFX ACORD HL 7 GJXDM WS-BPEL WS-Eventing WS-Reliability WS-Adressing WS-Security SOAP-MTOM XML Schema 19 -May-2005 eb. XML SOAP XSLT OWL/S RDF WSDL eb. XML Registry Messaging UDDI XML Encryption © Marc Haines 16

Web Services Standards • XML Foundation – XML Base • A language to define Web Services Standards • XML Foundation – XML Base • A language to define other languages – XML-based languages share a common alphabet and a few syntactical base rules but have very different vocabularies • Based on SGML – XML Schema – XSL – XML Encryption –… 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 17

Web Services Standards • XML Foundation – XML Base (XML 1. 1, Feb. 2004) Web Services Standards • XML Foundation – XML Base (XML 1. 1, Feb. 2004) – Document Definition • XML Schema (XSL 1. 0, 1. 1 working draft) • DTD • Relax NG – Document Presentation / Transformation • XSL – XSLT (2. 0) , FO, XPath (2. 0) • XQuery (1. 0) – Security • XML Encryption (1. 0? , W 3 C recommendation Dec. 2002) 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 18

Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – SOAP – WSDL – UDDI Registry Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – SOAP – WSDL – UDDI Registry UDDI Publish Provider WSDL 19 -May-2005 Find Bind Consumer SOAP © Marc Haines 19

Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – SOAP • Organization – W 3 Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – SOAP • Organization – W 3 C • Status – SOAP 1. 2: Recommendation since June 2003 • Elements – SOAP Messaging Framework and Adjuncts – XML-binary Optimized Packaging – SOAP Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism – Resource Representation SOAP Header Block » Recommendations since Jan. 2005 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 20

Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – SOAP • SOAP 1. 2 is Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – SOAP • SOAP 1. 2 is the current W 3 C “standard” – – – Changed fault handling Array serialization HTTP media type … SOAP is no longer “Simple Object Access Protocol” • SOAP 1. 1 is recommended by the WS-I for interoperabiltiy – Few implementations of SOAP 1. 2 in development tools • SOAP is no longer “Simple Object Access Protocol” 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 21

Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – WSDL • Organization – W 3 Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – WSDL • Organization – W 3 C • Status – WSDL 1. 1: Only W 3 C Note (This is the one right now!) – WSDL 1. 2: Working Draft in June 2003, but was never ratified – WSDL 2. 0: Working Draft since May 2005 • Elements – Core Language – Adjuncts » SOAP and HTTP bindings » Predefined Message Patterns 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 22

Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – UDDI [Universal Description, Discovery and Integration] Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – UDDI [Universal Description, Discovery and Integration] • Organization – OASIS • Status – UDDI v 3 is OASIS Standard since February 2005 • Elements – All in one specification (3. 0. 2) 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 23

Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – UDDI • Interestingly listed both under Web Services Standards • Web Services Core – UDDI • Interestingly listed both under Web Services and but e. Commerce on OASIS Web site! – Along with eb. XML and UBL – Business entity is key element in registry – UDDI may be used to discover other interfaces than WSDL • Only 22% of all Web services are publicized using UDDI [according to a recent Web. Services. org survey] – Most Web services implementations involve only 1 -5 services – Web services “power users” (>50 services) do use UDDI to manage and publicize their services 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 24

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Security – WS-Reliability – WS-BPEL – Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Security – WS-Reliability – WS-BPEL – WS-Eventing – WS-Adressing – WS-Policy –… 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 25

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Security • Organization – OASIS • Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Security • Organization – OASIS • Status – WS-Security 1. 0: OASIS Standard since March 2004 • Elements – Message Security 1. 0 » SAML Token Profile (Oasis standard Dec. 2004) » SOAP with Attachments [Sw. A] (Committee Draft) – Username. Token Profile 1. 0 – X. 509 Certificate Token Profile » X. 509 is a UN/ITU-T standard for PKI 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 26

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Reliability • Organization – OASIS (Web Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Reliability • Organization – OASIS (Web Services Reliable Messaging TC) • Status – WS-Reliability 1. 1: OASIS Standard since Nov. 2004 • Elements – WS-Reliable Messaging » The other proposal for reliable messaging » “More commonalities than differences with WS-Reliabilty” » Who wins? ? ? 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 27

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-BPEL [Business Process Execution Language] • Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-BPEL [Business Process Execution Language] • Organization – OASIS • Status – WS-BPEL 2. 0: Working Draft since February 2005 » Formerly BPEL 4 WS 1. 1 » Initiative from IBM, SAP, Siebel, BEA, Microsoft 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 28

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Eventing • Organization – Industry Consortium Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Eventing • Organization – Industry Consortium » IBM, BEA, Computer Associates, Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, TIBCO Software • Status – Public draft release • Purpose – The WS-Eventing specification defines a baseline set of operations that allow Web services to provide asynchronous notifications to interested parties. 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 29

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Addressing • Organization – W 3 Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Addressing • Organization – W 3 C » Submitted by BEA, IBM, Microsoft, SAP and Sun (3/2004) • Status – WS-Addressing 1. 0: Working Draft since March 2005 • Purpose – Web Services Addressing provides transport-neutral mechanisms to address Web services and messages. 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 30

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Policy [Web Services Policy Framework] • Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-Policy [Web Services Policy Framework] • Organization – Industry Consortium » BEA, IBM, Microsoft, SAP • Status – WS-Policy 1. 1: Initial public draft • Purpose – The Web Services Policy Framework (WS-Policy) provides a general purpose model and corresponding syntax to describe and communicate the policies of a Web Service. 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 31

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-I • “The guardian of interoperability” Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-I • “The guardian of interoperability” – Does not create any specifications/standards – Picks “mature standards” and assembles them in an profile with some extra rules for interoperability » Basic Profile 1. 1 (Final, Aug. 2004) » Simple SOAP Binding Profile (Final, Aug. 2004) » Basic Security Profile 1. 0 (Draft, Jan. 2005) – Does not guarantee interoperability, but it’s the best bet! » Provides testing tools for interoperability – Lag behind standards organizations » SOAP 1. 1 in current profile, but 1. 2 is current W 3 C recommendation 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 32

Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-I • Basic Profile – – Web Services Standards • Commercial Web Services – WS-I • Basic Profile – – Messaging: Description: Publication and Discovery: Security: SOAP 1. 1 WSDL 1. 1 UDDI 2. 0 TLS 1. 0 / SSL 3. 0 • Basic Security Profile – Transport Layer – SOAP Message Security 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines TLS 1. 0 / SSL 3. 0 WS-Security 1. 0 XML Signature XML Encryption 33

Web Services Standards • Payload / Vertical Standards – Pick your industry … • Web Services Standards • Payload / Vertical Standards – Pick your industry … • Chemical – CIDX • Energy / Oil – POSC • Justice – GJXDM, Legal. XML • Insurance – ACORD • Finance – IFX What about your industry? • Healthcare – HL 7 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 34

Web Services Standards • Payload / Vertical Standards – UBL (Universal Business Language) • Web Services Standards • Payload / Vertical Standards – UBL (Universal Business Language) • Organization – OASIS • Status – UBL 1. 0: OASIS Standard • Purpose – While industry-specific data formats have the advantage of maximal optimization for their business context, the existence of different formats to accomplish the same purpose in different business domains is attended by a number of significant disadvantages as well. […] The OASIS Universal Business Language (UBL) is intended to help solve these problems by defining a generic XML interchange format for business documents that can be extended to meet the requirements of particular industries. 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 35

Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML – Rosetta. Net – Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML – Rosetta. Net – UCCNet 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 36

Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML • Standard – OASIS Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML • Standard – OASIS & UN/CEFACT (1999) ISO 15000 (2004) • Purpose – “The eb. XML initiative was conceived due to the widely held need to enable enterprises of any size and in any geographical location to conduct business electronically in a simple, cheap reliable way. ” • History – Response to EDI costs – Developed pre-Web services » SOAP still controlled by Microsoft – Adopted in a variety of industries, particularly strong in Asia. 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 37

Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML Web Services XML eb. Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML Web Services XML eb. XML-MSG* SOAP eb. XML-RIM/RS UDDI Reliability eb. XML-MSG WS-Reliability Security eb. XML-MSG WS-Security Process eb. XML- BP WS-BPEL Payload Core Components not specified Interop. eb. XML IIC WS-I Syntax Messaging Registry 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 38

Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML • Dual Transport Support Web Services Standards • Competing Standards Universes – eb. XML • Dual Transport Support – “Health Level Seven (HL 7) recently announced that two Version 3 (V 3) transport specifications - Web Services and eb. XML - have passed the ballot stage and have been approved as Draft Standards for Trial Use (DSTUs). ” (Ann Arbor, Mich. -- April 27, 2004 -- Health Level Seven, Inc. ) – Same for other industries (AIAG etc. ) • Multiple Registries – UDDI and eb. XML Registries • Convergence/Overlap of eb. XML and Web Services? – eb. XML can leverage SOAP 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 39

Web Services Standards • Web Services Utopia – Semantic Web • The goal of Web Services Standards • Web Services Utopia – Semantic Web • The goal of the Semantic Web is to develop enabling standards and technologies designed to help machines understand more information on the Web so that they can support richer discovery, data integration, navigation, and automation of tasks. […] (Berners-Lee, 2001) 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 40

Web Services Standards • Web Services Utopia – Semantic Web • Many proposed WSDL/UDDI Web Services Standards • Web Services Utopia – Semantic Web • Many proposed WSDL/UDDI extensions/alternatives – e. g. DAML [DARPA Agent Markup Language] • OWL-S [Web Ontology Language for Services] – Semantic Markup for Web Services – OWL is a W 3 C recommendation (Feb. 2004) • RDF [Resource Description Framework] – RDF/XML is a W 3 C recommendation (Feb. 2004) 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 41

Web Services Standards • Standardization – Resources • Standardization Organizations – – www. w Web Services Standards • Standardization – Resources • Standardization Organizations – – www. w 3 c. org www. oasis-open. org www. ws-i. org http: //www. unece. org/cefact/ • Other – www. ebxml. org – http: //www. ibm. com/developerworks/webservices/library/ – www. marchaines. com/standards 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 42

Web Services Standards • Questions – Which are the important standards for you? – Web Services Standards • Questions – Which are the important standards for you? – How much should you care about standards development/maturity? –… 19 -May-2005 © Marc Haines 43