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Web Resource Evaluation Techniques Wolfgram Memorial Library Widener University Chester, PA 19013 Copyright 1996 Web Resource Evaluation Techniques Wolfgram Memorial Library Widener University Chester, PA 19013 Copyright 1996 -2005 by Jan Alexander & Marsha Ann Tate

Additional Web Evaluation Materials to accompany this presentation are available on the Wolfgram Library Additional Web Evaluation Materials to accompany this presentation are available on the Wolfgram Library Web site

Topics Covered • The Importance of Web Evaluation • Review of Five Traditional Evaluation Topics Covered • The Importance of Web Evaluation • Review of Five Traditional Evaluation Criteria • Adaptation of the Traditional Evaluation Criteria to Web Resources • Additional Challenges Posed by Web Resources and How to Cope with Them

Reliance Upon Web-based Information Increasing • Quality of Web resources varies tremendously • Criteria Reliance Upon Web-based Information Increasing • Quality of Web resources varies tremendously • Criteria needed to evaluate Web resources – Some traditional evaluation criteria still useful – New criteria also needed

Five Traditional Evaluation Criteria 1. Accuracy 2. Authority 3. Objectivity 4. Currency 5. Coverage Five Traditional Evaluation Criteria 1. Accuracy 2. Authority 3. Objectivity 4. Currency 5. Coverage

Criterion #1: Accuracy How reliable and free from error is the information? Are there Criterion #1: Accuracy How reliable and free from error is the information? Are there editors and fact checkers?

Accuracy of Web Resources • Almost anyone can publish on the Web • Many Accuracy of Web Resources • Almost anyone can publish on the Web • Many Web resources not verified by editors and/or fact checkers • Web standards to ensure accuracy not fully developed

Criterion #2: Authority What are the author’s qualifications for writing on the subject? Qualifications Criterion #2: Authority What are the author’s qualifications for writing on the subject? Qualifications How reputable is the publisher?

Authority of Web Resources • Often difficult to determine authorship of Web resources • Authority of Web Resources • Often difficult to determine authorship of Web resources • If author’s name listed, his/her qualifications frequently absent • Publisher responsibility often not indicated

Criterion #3: Objectivity • Is the information presented with a minimum of bias? • Criterion #3: Objectivity • Is the information presented with a minimum of bias? • To what extent is the information trying to sway the opinion of the audience?

Objectivity of Web Resources Web often functions as a “virtual soapbox” Goals/aims of persons Objectivity of Web Resources Web often functions as a “virtual soapbox” Goals/aims of persons or groups presenting material often not clearly stated WEB SOAP

Criterion #4: Currency Is the content of the work up-to-date? Is the publication date Criterion #4: Currency Is the content of the work up-to-date? Is the publication date clearly indicated?

Currency of Web Resources • Dates not always included on Web pages • If Currency of Web Resources • Dates not always included on Web pages • If included, a date may have various meanings: – Date first created – Date placed on Web – Date last revised

Criterion #5: Coverage • What topics are included in the work? • To what Criterion #5: Coverage • What topics are included in the work? • To what depth are topics explored?

Coverage of Web Resources • Web coverage may differ from print or other media Coverage of Web Resources • Web coverage may differ from print or other media coverage • Often hard to determine extent of Web coverage = ?

Use These Criteria to Evaluate Actual Web Pages 1. Accuracy 2. Authority 3. Objectivity Use These Criteria to Evaluate Actual Web Pages 1. Accuracy 2. Authority 3. Objectivity 4. Currency 5. Coverage World Wide Web

But Also Remember… The Web Presents Additional Evaluation Challenges But Also Remember… The Web Presents Additional Evaluation Challenges

Challenge: Use of Hypertext Links Quality of Web pages linked to original Web page Challenge: Use of Hypertext Links Quality of Web pages linked to original Web page may vary HIGH QUALITY WEB PAGE POOR QUALITY WEB PAGE LINKED TO

Coping Strategy: Use of Hypertext Links Evaluate each Web page independently Web Page A Coping Strategy: Use of Hypertext Links Evaluate each Web page independently Web Page A Web Page B Linked To

Challenge: Use of Frames Each Frame Displays a Separate Web Page Challenge: Use of Frames Each Frame Displays a Separate Web Page

Coping Strategy: Use of Frames Evaluate Each Frame Independently Coping Strategy: Use of Frames Evaluate Each Frame Independently

Challenge: Search Engines Can Retrieve Web Pages Out of Context Challenge: Search Engines Can Retrieve Web Pages Out of Context

Coping Strategy: Search Engines Can Retrieve Web Pages Out of Context Always try to Coping Strategy: Search Engines Can Retrieve Web Pages Out of Context Always try to return to the “home page” to determine source of information

Challenge: Marketing-Oriented Web Pages • In other media, there usually are clear visual and/or Challenge: Marketing-Oriented Web Pages • In other media, there usually are clear visual and/or audio distinctions between advertising and information d Off Soun The E ARTICL AD And Now a Word From Our Sponsors

Challenge: Marketing-Oriented Web Pages On the Web, distinctions between advertising and information can become Challenge: Marketing-Oriented Web Pages On the Web, distinctions between advertising and information can become extremely blurred Informa tion Ads WEB Entertainment

Coping Strategy: Marketing-Oriented Web Pages Try to determine if advertising and informational content are Coping Strategy: Marketing-Oriented Web Pages Try to determine if advertising and informational content are supplied by the same person or organization n formatio In Informa tion Person or Organization Advertisi ng tising Adver

Challenge: Blending of Entertainment, Information, and Advertising The Web has brought “infomercial” concept to Challenge: Blending of Entertainment, Information, and Advertising The Web has brought “infomercial” concept to new heights

Coping Strategy: Blending of Entertainment, Information, and Advertising CAVEAT EMPTOR Coping Strategy: Blending of Entertainment, Information, and Advertising CAVEAT EMPTOR

Challenge: Software Requirements May Limit Access to Information • Full access may require additional Challenge: Software Requirements May Limit Access to Information • Full access may require additional software • Browsers may alter the appearance of Web Pages WEB Information

Coping Strategy: Software Requirements May Limit Access to Information Be aware that software limitations Coping Strategy: Software Requirements May Limit Access to Information Be aware that software limitations may: – Alter how much information is obtainable – Alter the obtained appearance of information

Challenge: Instability of Web Pages May Move or Disappear Without Notice User may not Challenge: Instability of Web Pages May Move or Disappear Without Notice User may not be able to refer back to a Web page

Coping Strategy: Instability of Web Pages ä Try to determine the stability of your Coping Strategy: Instability of Web Pages ä Try to determine the stability of your source ä Document source to the fullest extent possible du ww r. e idene w. w

Challenge: Web Pages Susceptible to Alteration • Accidental alteration • Deliberate alteration Challenge: Web Pages Susceptible to Alteration • Accidental alteration • Deliberate alteration

Coping Strategy: Web Pages Susceptible to Alteration Attempt to verify information using other sources Coping Strategy: Web Pages Susceptible to Alteration Attempt to verify information using other sources New York Times

ULTIMATE CHALLENGE Applying This Knowledge When Using the Web as a Research Tool W ULTIMATE CHALLENGE Applying This Knowledge When Using the Web as a Research Tool W E B

Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 1: Identify type of page WEB PAGE Step 2: Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 1: Identify type of page WEB PAGE Step 2: Use appropriate checklist Step 3: Based on checklist criteria, determine relative quality of page CHECKLIST

Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 1: Identify the Type of Web Page • • Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 1: Identify the Type of Web Page • • • Advocacy Business/Marketing Informational News Personal Entertainment ?

Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 2: Use the Appropriate Checklist CHECKLIST 1. yes 2. Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 2: Use the Appropriate Checklist CHECKLIST 1. yes 2. no 3. yes 4. yes 5. no Answer Questions With “Yes” or “No”

Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 3: Based on the checklist criteria, determine the relative Web Page Evaluation Procedure Step 3: Based on the checklist criteria, determine the relative quality of the Web page The greater number of checklist questions answered “yes”, the more likely the page is of higher informational quality.

Conclusion • Web evaluation techniques are in development • Technology is outpacing ability to Conclusion • Web evaluation techniques are in development • Technology is outpacing ability to create standards and guidelines • Establishing evaluation procedures will be an ongoing evolutionary process