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WEB MOB Development of Researchers Mobility Policy Guidelines for the Region of Western Balkans WEB MOB Development of Researchers Mobility Policy Guidelines for the Region of Western Balkans Zorica Korac, Regional Environmental Center 19 April 2007, Sarajevo www. rec. org

Mobility of Researchers in Serbia • “Brain drain” in Serbia is • No official Mobility of Researchers in Serbia • “Brain drain” in Serbia is • No official data available on high, estimations vary; • Around 8% of the top university students leave Serbia; • A poll conducted among 3, 200 young people between the ages of 16 and 35 found that as many as 43% are ready to leave if they find the opportunity to do so. the number of researchers coming to Serbia, however, there is a general agreement that the number is low. www. rec. org

Research and academic organizations • University of Belgrade (established in 1838) • 31 faculties Research and academic organizations • University of Belgrade (established in 1838) • 31 faculties • 61 research centers, 86 institutes, 190 laboratories • 78000 students • University of Novi Sad (established in 1960) • 13 faculties • 41500 students • University of Nis (established in 1965) • 13 faculties • 11 faculties are located in Nis, the Faculty of Technology is in Leskovac and the Teacher-Training Faculty in. Vranje. • 26. 300 students • University of Kragujevac (established in 1976) • 11 faculties • 14000 students • University of Priština (established in 1970) • Two separate institutions recognized by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) • Around 30000 students • University Novi Pazar (established in 2002) • 4 faculties www. rec. org

www. rec. org www. rec. org

 • • Incoming mobility of researchers in Serbia is influenced by a number • • Incoming mobility of researchers in Serbia is influenced by a number of factors: administrative obstacles (the process of obtaining residence and work permits, recognition of degrees), ongoing reform of educational system (unresolved issues remain), lack of attractive research opportunities due to the low researchers’ salaries and the lack of English language courses at Universities, low awareness about the importance of foreign researchers’ inflow. www. rec. org

 • The overall percentage levels of state funding for education (3. 2% in • The overall percentage levels of state funding for education (3. 2% in • • • 1999) and research (0. 32% in 2004) are very low in European terms (5. 7% OECD average and 1. 9% EU average in 2001 respectively); R&D Funding level rose from 0. 1% of GDP in 2000, to 0. 32% of GDP (€ 54, 63 million) in 2004; R&D public spending in Serbia is set to increase to 1. 4% in 2010. The funding model is based on existing and historical parameters, rather than future strategic options. Funding is sent directly to the internal units of the university for use in a highly prescribed way; The link between the university, its students and current and potential employers needs to be strengthened, more strategic links should be established with these external partners; The S&T policy was based on the “push” technology model. The technology development was not initiated by actual industry requirements, but by anticipations and projections of individual researchers who expected that “their” technologies would be needed in industry; European University Association, Institutional evaluations of Universities in Serbia 2001 - 2002 www. rec. org

 • Scientific program on molecular biology and • endocrinology at the Institute for • Scientific program on molecular biology and • endocrinology at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences in Vinca (research in biomedicine and genetics) has a long tradition; the Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering. The Vinca Institute has also undertaken a number of projects in the field of sustainable energy development, clean coal technologies, biomass conversion, waste conversion, solar energy conversion in electric energy, etc. UNESCO, 2005. Science, Technology and Economic Development in South Eastern Europe URL: www. unesco. org/science/psd/publications/s&t_series. pdf www. rec. org

Reform of educational system - unresolved issues • The May 2002 Law on Higher Reform of educational system - unresolved issues • The May 2002 Law on Higher Education positive developments. • However, it did not integrate each individual university, which is still no more than a weak conglomerate of highly autonomous faculties and other bodies (such a move must come from a top-down legislative decision, since there are too many vested interests in the current fragmented structures for this radical change to be possible as an initiative from within the university only); • Lack of interdisciplinary studies; www. rec. org

 • The existing academic degree granted with a diploma was • • transformed • The existing academic degree granted with a diploma was • • transformed into a bachelor and the programs were shortened from 4 to 3 years. The degree granted with a ‘magistratura’ was mostly transformed into a master's degree, achieved after 5 years of study. Ph. D degree remained. Although The Law on Higher Education says that universities have to recognize the equivalency of diplomas and titles, faculties want students to enroll in the fifth year - new master program, and pay for it (around one thousand euros each), in order to get the diploma. www. rec. org

 • Students who are already enrolled in the program of old • • • Students who are already enrolled in the program of old • • Master studies (Magistarske studije), which last two years, and are more complex than the new Master studies. It is not clear yet if these students will just have to write the final Ph. D theses, (because they have already finished all the exams) or they will go directly to the second or third year of a new Ph. D program. Many universities lack effective management information systems for the collection and use of data; very high tuition fees www. rec. org

Focal Points • Serbian Government http: //www. srbija. sr. gov. yu/pages/intro. php? id=5 • Focal Points • Serbian Government http: //www. srbija. sr. gov. yu/pages/intro. php? id=5 • • • (basic facts, statistics, districts, constitution) Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection http: //www. mntr. sr. gov. yu/eng/ Department of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Ministry of Education and Sports http: //www. mps. sr. gov. yu/code/navigate. php? Id=306 Ministry of Foreign Affairs http: //www. mfa. gov. yu/index. html -Consular Affaires (Visas Regime, List of Border Crossings, Travel Documents, Customs Formalities) http: //www. mfa. gov. yu/Consularaffairs. htm -International bilateral treaties in the field of cultural, educational and scientific cooperation http: //www. mfa. gov. yu/Culture_Education. htm www. rec. org

 • National ENIC/NARIC office for recognition of academic and professional qualification -National Information • National ENIC/NARIC office for recognition of academic and professional qualification -National Information Centre, National Education Bodies, System of Education, University Education, Post-secondary Non-university Education, Recognized Higher Education Institutions, Policies and Procedures for the Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, Diploma Supplement Information URL: http: //www. enicnaric. net/members. asp? country=Serbia www. rec. org

Department of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation, Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection is Department of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation, Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection is in charge with following issues: • International, scientific, technological, bilateral and multilateral • • cooperation. Projects and programs of European Community in domains of scientific and technological researches. Cooperation with organizations and agencies from United Nations system. Cooperation with foreign scientific, government and non government organizations and associations. Cooperation with our scientists and experts in Diaspora. Preparations of programs for scientific and technical cooperation. Making of the contracts, agreements, conventions and the other general acts with regard to the international scientific cooperation. Department of International Research and Technology Cooperation provides information on activities under FP 7, COST and EUREKA program. http: //www. mntr. sr. gov. yu/eng/index. php? option=com_content& task=category§ionid=9&id=41&Itemid=45 www. rec. org

Bilateral Cooperation • Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection funds projects of scientific and Bilateral Cooperation • Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection funds projects of scientific and technological cooperation between Serbian and foreign scientific and research organizations on the base of bilateral agreements -France -Greece -India -Israel -China -Macedonia -Germany -Slovakia -Slovenia -Suisse http: //www. mntr. sr. gov. yu/eng/index. php? option=co m_content&task=view&id=104&Itemid=45 Multilateral Cooperation http: //www. mntr. sr. gov. yu/eng/index. php? option=co m_content&task=view&id=155&Itemid=45 www. rec. org

Lack of information about: • Living conditions: Social Insurance, Health & Medical Care, Banks, Lack of information about: • Living conditions: Social Insurance, Health & Medical Care, Banks, Taxation, Retirement & Pension Rights, Justice • Social issues: Personal & Family Life, Voting Right, Driving & Traffic Regulations, Recreation & Free Time, Consumer Affairs www. rec. org

 • Legislation on employment of foreigners (in Serbian) • • • URL: http: • Legislation on employment of foreigners (in Serbian) • • • URL: http: //www. kombeg. org. yu/poslovanjebg/zaposljavanje_stranac. htm Law on Higher Education (in English) URL: http: //www. mps. sr. gov. yu/code/navigate. php? Id=436 Law on Scientific Research (in Serbian) URL: http: //www. mntr. sr. gov. yu/uploads/articles/nauka_zakon_nid. pdf Law on Pension Insurance http: //www. parlament. sr. gov. yu/content/cir/akta_detalji. asp? Id=7 5&t=Z# Law on patents (in Serbian): http: //www. yupat. sv. gov. yu/pdf/ser/propisi/patenti_zakon. pdf Law on innovations (in Serbian): http: //www. mntr. sr. gov. yu/uploads/articles/nauka_z_inovac_del. pdf www. rec. org

 • University of Montenegro (established in 1974) • 18 faculties • in nine • University of Montenegro (established in 1974) • 18 faculties • in nine towns: Podgorica, Nikšic, Cetinje, Kotor, Herceg Novi, Bar, Bijelo Polje, Budva and Berane • The University includes three institutes: • Institute for Foreign Languages - Podgorica • Institute for Maritime Biology - Kotor • Institute for History – Podgorica Student Prospectus in English, can be downloaded from: http: //www. ir. cg. ac. yu/engleski/prospekt. pdf Department of International Relations: http: //www. ir. cg. ac. yu/ www. rec. org

Local workshop -12 March 2007, Kopaonik - Side event at Yu. Info Conference • Local workshop -12 March 2007, Kopaonik - Side event at Yu. Info Conference • Mr Dimitrios Sanopoulos, CERTH - keynote presentation at the • • • opening of the conference "FP 7 Specific Programme People - Policies and Marie Curie Actions" Opening statements of Mr Ivan Videnovic, Assistant Minister, manager of the Department of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation, Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection, who emphasized that the findings of WEB-MOB project will be of great help to the Ministry in its efforts to overcome the obstacles to mobility in Serbia. Bulgarian experiences in researchers mobility, the presentation by Ms Elisaveta Gurova from University of Sofia, Bulgarian Mobility NCP. Mr Miroslav Trajanovic - Researchers mobility in Serbia Mr Neven Duic - Researchers mobility in Croatia Mr Milan Zdravkovic – WEB MOB Portal www. rec. org