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Water Pollution & Solid Waste Pollution C 4 Urban Problems Cathy Phoebe Melissa Nicole Water Pollution & Solid Waste Pollution C 4 Urban Problems Cathy Phoebe Melissa Nicole Koffey

Water Pollution Water Pollution

Water Pollution The amount of exotic materials entering the water body reaches a level Water Pollution The amount of exotic materials entering the water body reaches a level that destroys the original usage Water pollution can destroy the marine/groundwater/fresh surface water system

Black spots of the sea pollution 1. 2. 3. 4. Northeastern part of the Black spots of the sea pollution 1. 2. 3. 4. Northeastern part of the Victoria Harbour Western coast of the Kowloon East Tolo Harbour Kowloon Bay

Causes 1. Residential sewage 2. Agricultural waste 3. Industrial sewage 4. Urban sewage 5. Causes 1. Residential sewage 2. Agricultural waste 3. Industrial sewage 4. Urban sewage 5. Silt by soil erosion 6. Others : reclamation, oil spillage, acid rain, etc.

1. Rapid development of infrastructure and reclamation Over West Kowloon: large scale reclamation projects 1. Rapid development of infrastructure and reclamation Over West Kowloon: large scale reclamation projects Reduces the size of harbour Affects the ability of transport and tidal washing Pollutants cannot be diluted or drifted away Reclamation in West Kowloon

2. Serious water pollution in the typhoon shelter storm water drains receive raw sewage 2. Serious water pollution in the typhoon shelter storm water drains receive raw sewage and industrial effluent via improper connections Some discharges are from vessels themselves. Some vessel users also dump garbage into the water. It has stagnant water flow Pollutants cannot be flushed out easily

3. Results of urbanization and industrialization Increasing size of population and the improving living 3. Results of urbanization and industrialization Increasing size of population and the improving living standard Waste and industrial sewage increase Affect the assimilate(同化) of the ocean Most obvious in the sheltered bay and inner bay which have slow water current The amount of pollutants has increased greatly

Economic impacts Decrease in irrigation water: Animal wastes / agro-chemicals contaminate ground water + Economic impacts Decrease in irrigation water: Animal wastes / agro-chemicals contaminate ground water + streams Farming productivity Inputs + costs increase Revenue

Economic impacts Decrease in industrial water supply for 1. low-value added industries 2. water-consuming Economic impacts Decrease in industrial water supply for 1. low-value added industries 2. water-consuming industries For example, bleaching & dyeing, paper-making industry, textile & clothing Daily operation is disrupted Hinder industrial production income for both the industry and the government

Social impacts Import of water decreases Import water from Dong Jiang If river is Social impacts Import of water decreases Import water from Dong Jiang If river is polluted, in water import Drinkable water 2004 only 1/3 cities in PRD had an adequate water supply Supply of water bills/ expenditure

 Affect human health HK imports tonnes of agricultural produce from PRD every day Affect human health HK imports tonnes of agricultural produce from PRD every day Water and soil pollution food safety problem affect our health

Environmental impacts Eutrophication Destroying ecosystem Nutrient increases Algal bloom Dissolved Oxygen level form anaerobic Environmental impacts Eutrophication Destroying ecosystem Nutrient increases Algal bloom Dissolved Oxygen level form anaerobic condition marine life suffocate loss of biodiversity Eutrophication Human losses Polluted water sources drinkable water Loss of income : e. g. fishing industry

 Food chain effect Biological magnification Pollutants flow from 1 trophic level to another Food chain effect Biological magnification Pollutants flow from 1 trophic level to another in the food chain Threatened the ecosystem Contaminated river = contains toxic chemicals + heavy metals Accumulated in marine life cause diseases fish die

Sewerage Master Plans (SMPs) provide a blueprint of the sewage infrastructure required to collect Sewerage Master Plans (SMPs) provide a blueprint of the sewage infrastructure required to collect sewage on a catchment-bycatchment basis and direct it to treatment facilities.

1. Sewage Charge 2. Trade Effluent Surcharge 1. SC is levied on all water 1. Sewage Charge 2. Trade Effluent Surcharge 1. SC is levied on all water users whose premises are connected to public sewers The amount is calculated according to a prescribed unit rate and the volume of water supplied to the premises (other than that supplied specifically for flushing purposes). 2. TES is the additional charge on top of SC for the cost incurred in treating effluents of strength typically stronger than domestic sewage

The Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) 1. Sewage collection 2. Sewage treatment 3. Sewage The Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) 1. Sewage collection 2. Sewage treatment 3. Sewage disposal strategy Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works

Chromium pollution in Pearl River Delta 21 st August 2011 cancer-causing chemicals, chromium(鉻渣) dumped Chromium pollution in Pearl River Delta 21 st August 2011 cancer-causing chemicals, chromium(鉻渣) dumped near a waterway in Yunnan Province (雲南) Nanpan River(南盤江), which is upstream of the Pearl River system The source of pollution is more than 2, 000 kilometres upstream from the mouth of the Pearl River.

Solid Waste Pollution Solid Waste Pollution

Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) = Integrated waste mainly from city Sources: domestic, Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) = Integrated waste mainly from city Sources: domestic, industrial, commercial, construction MSW excludes construction waste In 2009, HK produced 13000 tons of MSW and construction waste every day

Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010 Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010

Main causes in HK 1. Household source (Newspaper, plastic lunch box, furniture) 2. Industrial Main causes in HK 1. Household source (Newspaper, plastic lunch box, furniture) 2. Industrial source (Clay and ash, toxic chemicals, metal, glass) 3. Agricultural source (Untreated livestock waste)

Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010 Disposal of solid waste at landfills in 2010

1. Increasing population In 2008, the per capita disposal rate of municipal solid waste 1. Increasing population In 2008, the per capita disposal rate of municipal solid waste was 1. 35 kg per day. HK population : 7, 108, 100 in 2010 Only 35% of Hong Kong’s domestic waste is recycled Landfills under great pressure

2. Urbanization Higher living standard more willing to buy To attract customers, producers tend 2. Urbanization Higher living standard more willing to buy To attract customers, producers tend to place much emphasis on packaging Increase usage of paper, cardboard, plastic, etc.

3. Industrialization Improved production method Productivity increased Technological advanced New products are introduced more 3. Industrialization Improved production method Productivity increased Technological advanced New products are introduced more frequently esp. the E-products More e-waste is produced More than 70, 000 tones e-waste per year Less then 2% is properly recycled and treated

Effect on Health Higher risk of respiratory problems Breathing in polluted dust or particles Effect on Health Higher risk of respiratory problems Breathing in polluted dust or particles Risk of causing cancer and skin diseases the leakage of toxic chemical of solid waste like lead Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil the poisoned soil will come into contact with the skin Chemical poisoning

Effect on Health A breeding ground for disease Create conditions favourable to the survival Effect on Health A breeding ground for disease Create conditions favourable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens when wastes ferment (發酵) Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers being the most vulnerable Hygienic problems as the smell attract the flies, mosquitoes and rats

Effect on Living Standard Visual pollution Ruin the beautiful scenery in the countryside Noise Effect on Living Standard Visual pollution Ruin the beautiful scenery in the countryside Noise and Air Pollution many heavy-duty vehicles moving in and out Bad smell of solid waste disturbe nearby residents for example, the residents of Lohas Park (日出康城) always complain the smell come from the landfill site in Tsuen Kwan O

Effect on Society(Environment) Contamination of our environment Mainly caused by toxic chemicals Heavy metals Effect on Society(Environment) Contamination of our environment Mainly caused by toxic chemicals Heavy metals in batteries, the chemicals in household cleaning Especially E-waste contains dangerous heavy metals (such as lead and mercury) Leach into the ground Poison the soil and the water nearby For example, leakage of impermeable liner in landfill will cause the chemicals leakage and soil contamination

 Water pollution Runoff from landfills Seepage from landfills into groundwater sources Water pollution Runoff from landfills Seepage from landfills into groundwater sources

 Ecosystem and food chain is upset Caused by water pollution Mercury accumulates in Ecosystem and food chain is upset Caused by water pollution Mercury accumulates in the tissues of animals up the food chain until it reaches toxic levels in large fish such as tuna and swordfish Roots of vegetation is poisoned and plants are killed by methane production (**Decomposing organic material in solid waste can create methane, an explosive gas that contributes 25 times more than carbon dioxide per ton to global warming)

Solution Solid waste pollution Solution Solid waste pollution

Landfill it is one of the oldest waste treatment it disposes waste by buried Landfill it is one of the oldest waste treatment it disposes waste by buried Steps 1)Weight collection vehicles collect waste from the city’ 2) Waste Collection Vehicle is Weighed at Weighbridge on Arrival 3) Waste Truck Unloads at the Tipping Face 4) The Vehicle Passes the Vehicle-Wash System after Unloading 5) The Vehicle is Weighed at Weighbridge on Departure

Advantages matters deposited in the landfill are degraded naturally it is more economical as Advantages matters deposited in the landfill are degraded naturally it is more economical as the operating cost is lower and the procedures are simple

Disadvantages Large scale deforestation is needed the landfill pollutes the environment and destroys the Disadvantages Large scale deforestation is needed the landfill pollutes the environment and destroys the ecosystem some waste include toxic materials and these toxic substance may leak into soil polluted water will leaked into soil the landfill has certain life expectancy Restriction to the land use development on the used landfill site Buildings cannot be erected in at least 20 years serious pollution to the surrounding environment e. g. noise and air pollution

Case in Hong Kong 環保署正視 日出康城臭味投訴 將軍澳港鐵康城站上蓋物業,日出康城第一期首都於今年 6月正式入伙,由於物業與將軍澳堆 填區只相隔不足一公里,西貢區議員,以至環保署近日已開始收到居民投訴指受臭味滋 擾。有議員形容,日出康城快成為「臭味之城」,環保署有責任盡快改善。 日出康城與將軍澳堆填區相距只有850米,中間只有一個 業邨相隔。 首都業主陳先生表示,入伙前已知道屋苑與堆填區接近,故買樓時都曾駕車到地盤附近視察, 當時都沒發現特別臭味,但大雨過後不時嗅到濃烈的垃圾氣味,造成頗大的困擾。 Case in Hong Kong 環保署正視 日出康城臭味投訴 將軍澳港鐵康城站上蓋物業,日出康城第一期首都於今年 6月正式入伙,由於物業與將軍澳堆 填區只相隔不足一公里,西貢區議員,以至環保署近日已開始收到居民投訴指受臭味滋 擾。有議員形容,日出康城快成為「臭味之城」,環保署有責任盡快改善。 日出康城與將軍澳堆填區相距只有850米,中間只有一個 業邨相隔。 首都業主陳先生表示,入伙前已知道屋苑與堆填區接近,故買樓時都曾駕車到地盤附近視察, 當時都沒發現特別臭味,但大雨過後不時嗅到濃烈的垃圾氣味,造成頗大的困擾。 西貢區議員吳雪山表示,首都入伙只有個多月,其辦事處 已接獲十多宗居民不滿堆填區臭 味的投訴,來自將軍澳 業邨的投訴亦有所增加,但將軍澳南部屋苑,例如寶盈花園、維景 灣畔的投訴則減少,他分析道:「除首都 5座外,領都十座愈建愈高,好似形成一道屏風,阻 隔臭味吹入將軍澳南,但苦了首都及 業邨的居民及 友。」 環保署於去年指示了堆填區承辦商實施多項額外措施,包括在特殊廢物槽上加上活動覆蓋、 在已填埋及覆蓋的廢物上敷設額外不透氣頂層及額外安裝抽氣管道和流動堆填氣燃燒爐。以 上的進一步改善氣味管理措施已大部分完成。 吳雪山亦表示,西貢區議會轄下的臭味監測小組,早前已委託顧問公司及大學研究解決臭味 問題的方法,並已聘請數十名大學生,用嗅覺偵察將軍澳一帶的臭味,以便搜集更多數據。 環保署設置的電子鼻,預計可在年底投入服務。 (本報記者鄞志輝報道)

Incineration It is a kind of Thermal waste treatment It involve combustion of organic Incineration It is a kind of Thermal waste treatment It involve combustion of organic substance of solid waste Advantages: - it is possible to recycle the heat energy to generate renewable electricity -it can reduce the volume of the solid waste to 10% of the orginal size -lengthen the life of landfill -It can decompose the part of the toxic materials into CO 2 - limited space is used

Incineration Disadvantages it is possible to release toxic materials and carcinogen, especially when there Incineration Disadvantages it is possible to release toxic materials and carcinogen, especially when there are operating problems of the incinerators heavy metal, dioxins and so on it will seriously hinder the health of nearby residents hinder the natural scenery the remaining ashes of the wastes will release more toxic substance than the ashes large scale release of CO 2 which will speed up the greenhouse effect Because of the higher toxic content , the cost of the waste treatment will be much higher, for around 8 times

Example The Hong Kong government planned to set up an incinerator in Shek Kwa Example The Hong Kong government planned to set up an incinerator in Shek Kwa Chau to solve the rising solid waste problem it will combust around 3000 tonnes of solid waste per day the heat it released will be used to generate electricity of 100 thousand household Incinerator planned in Shek Kwu Chau

Education Advantages to encourage the 4 R, Recycle, Reuse, Reduce, Replace to save energy Education Advantages to encourage the 4 R, Recycle, Reuse, Reduce, Replace to save energy for treating the wastes to reduce the emission of toxic and greenhouse gases during waste treatment to conserve the natural resources it is the minimum cost for solid waste disposal it will promote the local economy by developing the recycling industry it can save the space for the solid waste treatment plants and the landfill so reduce the landuse conflict more job opportunities can be provided by the recycling industry , esp. for the low skilled labour

Disadvantages possible pollution to the surrounding environment accumulation of wastes possible release of toxic Disadvantages possible pollution to the surrounding environment accumulation of wastes possible release of toxic substance during the recycle BFRs from the electronic devices like the LED monitors from different manufactures like HP, IBM and so on is easily found from the recycling areas. It will damage the brain development and IQ of human local recycling may not be economical special technology is needed for some recycling high labour cost, high land rent, insufficient supply of the recyclable materials the Recycling industry may still require additional spaces

Example: Hong Kong Eco. Park Aim: to promote the local recycling and environmental industry Example: Hong Kong Eco. Park Aim: to promote the local recycling and environmental industry provide lower land rent to the recycling industries Infrastructures are provided e. g. private pier , managing service Build-in environmental protection measures can reduce the production cost of operators Phase 1&2 of Eco. Park