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Výukový materiál zpracován v rámci projektu EU peníze školám Číslo projektu CZ. 1. 07/1. 5. 00/34. 0028 Číslo materiálu VY_32_INOVACE_176 Název školy Gymnázium, Tachov, Pionýrská 1370 Autor Mgr. Eleonora Klasová Předmět Anglický jazyk Ročník 4. Datum vytvoření 11. 5. 2014 Anotace Metodický pokyn Výklad nové látky – Relative clauses, s příklady a následními cvičeními - prezentace je určena jako výklad do hodiny i jako materiál k samostudiu Pokud není uvedeno jinak, použitý materiál je z vlastních zdrojů autora.
RELATIVE CLAUSES • We use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something. • E. g. We bought a new house. It is very modern. We bought a new house that is very modern. John lives in London. He enjoys living in London. John lives in London, which he enjoys. • Relative pronouns we use are: • who, which, that • who/that - for people • which/that – for things • We can also use: whose - for possessions, where - for places, when - for time.
• Some more examples: Paul is the man who has that fierce dog. Sam is annoyed with the man who stole her wallet. Jim is a boy that plays the drums. The woman that lived here before is a writer. The children saw the spacecraft which landed on the moon. There are many restaurants which do Saturday lunches. It is the film that I saw yesterday. We met in the town where we studied. The winter when we met was very cold and cruel.
There are two types of relatives clauses - Defining and Non -defining clauses. Defining relative clauses are used to identify the person or thing we are talking about. • We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. In defining relative clauses we learn which woman, car, etc. the speaker is talking about. • Examples: • I spoke to the woman who lives next door. • Did you see the man that came this morning? • The car which was parked outside belongs to my brother.
• Leaving out who, which, that. • who, which, that can be the subject or object of a defining relative clause. • Example: Paul is the boy who gave me the ring. Here, who is the subject , so we can´t leave it out. /Paul gave me it/. • When who, that, which are objects, we often leave them out. Example: Peter is the boy /who/ we met yesterday. That man is the friend /who/ I invited to my birthday party. Here who is the object so we can leave it out.
• Join sentences using who, which or that: 1/ I spoke to a woman. She bought the house. 2/ Did you see the letter? It came yesterday. 3/ The man was very nice. He interviewed me. 4/ The keys have disappeared. They were on a coffee table. 5/ That is the woman. She works in the bank. 6/ What is the name of that girl? She telephoned you. 7/ What happened to the boy? He was in your class? 8/ They are the people. They offered Jim their help. 9/ The car has now been repaired. It was broken. 10/ Most of the students are very nice. They study in our school.
Answers: 1/ I spoke to a woman who bought the house. 2/ Did you see the letter that came yesterday? 3/ The man who interviewed me was very nice. 4/ The keys which were on a coffee table have disappeared. 5/ That is the woman who works in the bank. 6/ What is the name of that girl who telephoned you. 7/ What happened to the boy who was in your class? 8/ They are the people who offered Jim their help. 9/ The car that was broken has now been repaired. 10/ Most of the students who study in our school are very nice.
Non-defining relative clauses • Relative pronouns who, who which introduce nondefining relative clauses. These sentences give us extra, but not absolutely necessary information. • Examples: His sister, who is 30, 30 lives next door to me. /We know we are talking about his sister. The age is additional information. / Mike showed me his certificate, which was on the wall. /The fact that the certificate was on the wall is additional information. /
• Non-defining clauses are more common in formal writing. • The non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. • We do not use the relative pronoun that in non-defining relative clauses. • !!! We cannot leave out who or which in non-defining relative clauses.
• Complete the exercise with commas and relative pronouns: 1/ My parents. . ……are both journalists. . now work in Prague. 2/ The people. . ……are my neighbours. . helped us to move. 3/ Have you still got the money. . ……I gave you? 4/ Prague. . …… has a population over a million. . is our capital. 5/ Eve’s brother. . ……I know for 5 years. . is a very clever boy. 6/ The TV set. . ……was broken. . has been repaired. 7/ Peter. . ……. is my best friend. . decided to live in Prague. 8/ Our house. . ……is in the centre. . Is over 50 years old. 9/ The boy. . ……lives next door. . is my new schoolmate. 10/ She gave me the key. . ……I put into my pocket.
Whose in defining and non-defining clauses • We use whose when we talk about possessions. It replaces his, her, their… It cannot be left out. • Do not confuse whose with who’s!!! • Example: I have got an English neighbour whose house was burgled. /=I have got an English neighbour. His house was burgled. /
Answers: 1/ My parents, who are both journalists, now work in Prague. 2/ The people, who are my neighbours, helped us to move. 3/ Have you still got the money, which I gave you? 4/ Prague, which has a population over a million, is our capital. 5/ Eve’s brother, who I know for 5 years, is a very clever boy. 6/ The TV set, which was broken, has been repaired. 7/ Peter, who is my best friend, decided to live in Prague. 8/ Our house, which is in the centre, is over 50 years old. 9/ The boy, who lives next door, is my new schoolmate. 10/ She gave me the key, which I put into my pocket.