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Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая космическая система «Арктика» Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Russian Federal Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая космическая система «Арктика» Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Russian Federal Space Agency High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica" State Centre on Space Hydrometeorology "Planeta" Lavochkin Association 1

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System "Arctica" космическая Satellite «Арктика» Mission objectives Monitoring of the Earth atmosphere and surface in Arctic region (inaccessible for observation from geostationary orbit) on the base of multispectral imaging with high temporal resolution (15 – 30 min). Providing heliogeophysical information in polar areas. Maintaining data collection system, telecommunication service for data exchange and retransmission. Search & Rescue service ( COSPAS-SARSAT ).

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System "Arctica" Main Tasks and Applications Utilization for analysis and forecasting : - weather in the regional (Arctic) and global scales; - ice coverage in Arctic; - aircrafts flight conditions (cloudiness, wind, streams and etc. ); - snow cover; - heliogeophysical conditions Monitoring of extremal phenomena (natural and antropogenic origin) Climate changes monitoring Data collection and retransmission from data collection platforms (ground-, sea- and air-based platforms) Dissemination of the satellite data, meteorological and heliogeophysical data

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System "Arctica" System General Design Spacecraft No. 2 Spacecraft No. 1 Command program data Hydro meteorological and helio-geophysical data Service data Ground control complex Ground Complex for the data receiving, processing and distribution

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System "Arctica" Ballistic configuration of the space system Spacecraft No. 2 Spacecraft No. 1 Parameter of the spacecraft orbits: - apogee altitude (α) ~ 40000 km; - perigee altitude (π) ~ 1000 km; - inclination (i) ~ 63 о; - orbital period - 12 hours Positional relationship of the spacecraft orbits: coincidence of ascending node (Ω) of the spacecraft No. 1 orbit and descending node ( ) of the spacecraft No. 2 orbit Location of the orbit operational parts: - beginning of the operational part of each spacecraft is 3. 2 hours before the apogee passing; - end of the operational part is 3. 2 hours after the apogee passing; - relative drift of the orbit operational parts of spacecraft No. 1 and spacecraft No. 2 equals 6 hours; - provides continuous observation of the arctic territories, located at the latitude, higher than 60 о N; - provides continuous radio visibility of the spacecrafts orbit operational parts at the ground stations in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk Ω

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbitsсистема «Арктика» космическая Satellite System "Arctica" Benefits of the high- elliptic orbits (HEO) at the Arctic region End of the operational part of High Elliptical orbit Beginning of the operational part of High Elliptical orbit 1. Providing the quasi-continuous observations for Arctic region (areas at latitudes higher than 60 о N). 2. The quasi- continuous observations need no more than 2 spacecrafts 70 - limiting angle of the available observation Available area for monitoring from HEO Available area formonitoring from GEO

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica" космическая система «Арктика» Comparison of the Arctic region viewing from the GEO ( "Electro-L") and HEO ( "Arctica" ) 1) View from "Electro-L " spacecraft 2) View from "Arctica " spacecraft 3) View from "Arctica " spacecraft 1) The “Electro-L” spacecraft is in the operation position on the geostationary orbit. 2) The “Arctica” spacecraft is approaching to beginning of the operational part of high-elliptic orbit. 3) The “Arctica” spacecraft is approaching to end of the operational part of high-elliptic orbit.

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica" космическая система «Арктика» Basic geostationary spacecraft "Electro-L " Orbit is geostationary one. Operational position of the spacecraft on geostationary orbit is 76 о W. Spacecraft mass in orbit – 1620 kg Payload mass – 435 kg Spacecraft orientation – three- axis stabilized platform Life time – 10 years Launcher – LV " Zenith" with "Fregat-SB" booster Launch date – 2008 Spacecraft structure: ü payload module, including : - multichannel scanner MSU-GS; - onboard radio engineering complex (OREC); - onboard data sampling system (ODSS); - heliogeophysical instrumentation complex (HPIC); ü orbital platform on the base of "Navigator " module

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica" космическая система «Арктика» Basic high-apogee spacecraft "Spectr-R " Main performances of the spacecraft: Orbit: - apogee ~ 330000 km; - perigee ~ 600 km; - inclination ~ 51, 3° Orbital mass of the spacecraft – 3660 km Payload module mass – 2500 kg Antenna diameter – 10 m Spacecraft orientation – in three axes Life – 3 -5 years Launcher – LV " Zenith" with "Fregat-SB" booster Launch is planned on 2008 Spacecraft structure: ü Payload module, including: - scientific instrumentation complex on the base of space radio telescope; - high data rate radio complex (VIRK); ü Orbital platform on base of the “Navigator” module with high energy parameters

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System "Arctica " космическая Satellite «Арктика» Principles of design and main parameters of the "Arctica" meteorological spacecraft Spacecraft "Spectr-R " Spacecraft "Electro-L " Target instrumentation complex Orbital platform Spacecraft "Arctica " Orbit is geostationary one High Elliptical orbit: apogee ~ 40000 km; perigee ~ 1000 km; inclination ~ 63 о Structure of the target instrumentation complex : - multi channel scanner MSU-GSM; - heliogeophysical instrumentation complex (GGAK); - onboard radioengineering complex (BRTK); - onboard data acquisition system (BSSD-M). Orbit – High Elliptical: apogee ~ 330000 km; perigee ~ 600 km; inclination ~ 51 о Orbital mass of the spacecraft – 1850 kg Target instrumentation mass - 550 kg Spacecraft orientation – in three axes Life – 7 years Launcher – LV " Soyuz-2(1 a) " with "Fregat " booster

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica " космическая система «Арктика» General view of the "Arctica " spacecraft

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System "Arctica " космическая Satellite «Арктика» Payload module of the "Arctica " spacecraft Receiving Antenna NA-1 GALS NTS OMZ GGAK-E BRTK Lavochkin Association Transmitting Directional Antenna NA-4 BRTK Lavochkin Association Low Gain Antenna BAKIS ISP-2 M GGAK-E NTS OMZ Lavochkin Association MSU-GSM 2 complete sets RNII KP NTS OMZ Solar Cosmic Rays GGAK-E Magnetometer GGAK-E Transmitting Directional Antenna NA-2 BRTK Lavochkin Association High Gain Antenna BRTK Lavochkin Association Installed to the BMSS DIR-E SKIF-6 GGAK-E Transmitting Directional Antenna NA 3 VUSS-E GGAK-E NTS OMZ BRTK Lavochkin Association NTS OMZ

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System "Arctica " космическая Satellite «Арктика» Orbital platform of the "Arctica" spacecraft on the "Navigator" module base Electrization control system Automatic control and stabilization complex of the power supply system Novosibirsky State University Scientific production centre “Polus”, Omsk Telemetry Public corporation “Izhevsky radiozavod” Antenna feeder system Onboard control complex Propulsion system Moscow Experimental Design Bureau “Mars” Onboard cable network, the spacecraft structure Lavochkin Association, Khimki Solar array attitude control system Antenna feeder system Accumulator battery Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPP VNIIEM, Moscow Public corporation “Saturn”, Krasnodar Thermal control system Lavochkin Association, Khimki Correction and stabilisation Propulsion system thrusters Federal State Unitary Enterprise Experimental Design Bureau “Fakel”, Kaliningrad Solar array Payload DIREGGAK-E NTS OMZ VUSS-E GGAK-E NTS OMZ Scientific production association PM, Krasnoyarsk Onboard equipment Of the command-measuring system, RNII KP, Moscow

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica " космическая система «Арктика» Performance characteristics of the MSU-GSM instrument: Coverage area – whole visible Earth disk (20 х20 deg. ); Number of the spectral channels 10 (2 channels – visible band, 8 channels – IR band); Resolution – Optical Band - 1 км, IR – 4 km; Survey periodicity (clock round) – 15. . . 30 minutes.

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica " космическая система «Арктика» Heliogeophysical measurements complex (GGAK-E) The GGAK-E set includes 7 sensors: SKIF-6 – spectrometer of the corpuscular emission with particle energy in the following ranges 0, 05… 20, 0 ke. V; 0, 03… 1, 5 Me. V; 0, 5… 30, 0 Me. V; SKL-E – spectrometer of the solar cosmic rays with particle energy in the following ranges 1… 12 Me. V, 30, 0… 300, 0 Me. V, 350, 0 Me. V; GALS-E – detector of the galaxy cosmic rays with particles energy in the range 600 Me. V; ISP-2 M – measurements of the solar constant in the range 0, 2 -100 microns; DIR-E - measurements of the solar X-rays with energy in the range 3 -10 ke. V; VUSS-E - measurements of the solar UV radiation at the Hydrogen resonant line НLa (121, 6 nm); FM-E – magnetometer for the magnetic field intensity measurement in the range 300 nanotesla.

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits система System "Arctica " космическая Satellite «Арктика» Schedule of the spacecraft activities for the "Arctica" space system Phase/stage of the Project Draft Proposal release on the Space System Presentation of the Draft Proposal. Development of the Project Specification for the Preliminary Design Release and Presentation of Preliminary Design. Approval of the Project Specifications on the Space System Components Development of the work documentation on update of the used experimental items and the “Electro-L” and “Spectr-R” spacecrafts models , production of models of the new designed onboard instruments and units of the spacecrafts. Development of the work documentation on the equipment of Ground Control Complex and Ground Complex on the Data Receiving, Processing and Distribution of the Space Complexes “Electro-L” and “Spectr-R” Update of the existing onboard and ground hardware and software for the “Arctica” Space system and development of the new ones. Update of the mockups and experimental models of the Space System. Autonomous and complex testing, update of the work documentation on the flight models. Production of the hardware, ground autonomous and complex testing of the flight hardware set. Launch of the spacecrafts. Flight tests of the Space System with the spacecraft No. 1. Update of the work documentation using flight tests results and production and launch of the spacecraft No. 2.

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica " космическая система «Арктика» Cost of the space system establishment The cost estimation includes following items: - cost of the development work on the target instrumentation production………. . . . . 140 millions of roubles; - cost of the development work on the orbital platform production …………………. ……. . 220 millions of roubles; - cost of the two flight spacecraft production and their preparation for launch…………… 1400 millions of roubles; - cost of the Ground spacecraft control complex production establishment …. . . . . ……. 40 millions of roubles; - cost of the Ground complex for the data receiving, processing and distribution of the 1 st stage……. . ……… 400 millions of roubles; ---------------Total: 2200 millions of roubles

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica " космическая система «Арктика» Budget expenses for the "Arctica " system development, millions of roubles 980 675 Costs of the spacecraft delivery to the orbits and risk insurance are not presented in the diagram 285 180 70 10 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System Высокоэллиптическая гидрометеорологическая High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica " космическая система «Арктика» Conclusions 1. To a great extent the progress of global and regional numerical weather forecasting, as well as providing safety navigation along Northern Sea Route together with many other Earth monitoring problems depends on the capabilities to provide hydrometeorological information for the Arctic region (at the latitudes higher than 60 deg. N) in quasi-continuous mode with high temporal resolution. 2. Geostationary meteorological satellites cannot provide such information and therefore the proposed "Arctica" system should supplement existing global satellite observation system. 3. Russia has great experience on design and exploitation HEO satellite systems, as well as the technical stock on the development of "Electro-L" and "Spectr-R" type spacecrafts. Based on this Roscosmos and Roshydromet (as responsible Russian governmental bodies) propose to realize "Arctica" project in the frame of wide international cooperation.