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Выполнил ученик 9 Б класса МБОУ СОШ № 135 Бардин Максим
What is a book? What is a literary genres? Books history Modern technology Collection of books Classification of books Interesting facts
The book - one of the types of printed materials: non-periodical publication, consisting of stitched paper sheets (pages) or notebooks, which is applied by printing or handwritten text and graphic way (illustration) information that is more than the amount of forty-eight pages, and usually, hardcover.
Literary genres (from Fr. Genre genus, species) historically folding group of literary works, combining a collection of formal and substantive properties (as opposed to literary forms, the allocation of which is based only on formal attributes). The term is often wrongly equated with the term "type of literature. “ If folk genre-defining stage of extraliterary (religious) situation, the literature genre gets its characteristic spirit of his own literary norms codified rhetoric. The whole range of antique genres prevailing before rotation was then vigorously reconsidered under its influence.
Oral transmission - the most ancient way of transferring knowledge in the history of mankind. After the invention of writing systems ancient civilizations, people started using to write almost everything on which you can write - clay tablets, tree bark, metal sheets, etc.
The methods used for the printing of books and Bind practically not subjected to any changes in the period from XV to the XX century. While in the process of gradually introduced some means of automation, in 1900, the print mechanism still had a lot to do with the machine Gutenberg. Today the manufacture of books most frequently used technology offset printing or lithography , in which paint print form transferred to the paper through the intermediate cylinder.
Collection of books can be both private (collection) and public (library). Have a similar meeting was the first time the privilege of the nobility and the wealthy, as well as monasteries and universities. With the cheapening of books and increasing their numbers have proliferated and public libraries, to make the book accessible to the masses. However, because of various reasons (speed access, tastes, considerations of prestige), some preferred (and prefer) to have their own (personal) library.
In XX century librarians faced with the problem of keeping track of the many books that produced each year worldwide. In this regard, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions has developed several tools to solve this problem, and including - International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). According to him , each assigned publication International Standard Book Number ISBN, respectively , is a unique identifier for each edition, produced in any country, if the publisher accepts this standard. Support system has been a special community ISBN. The identifier consists of four parts: country code Code publisher code name checksum, which can take values from 0 to 9 and X (10). Besides ISBN, there are other classification systems - for example, BBC or UDC.
The largest book in the world is Codex Gigas (Codex Gigas) - handwritten grand arch beginning of the XIII century (640 (624) pages, binding size - 92 cm in height, 50 cm in width, thickness of the book - 22 cm, weight - 75 kg). The smallest book in the world  is "Chameleon" Anton Chekhov size 0, 9 × 0, 9 mm. It contains 30 pages of 11 lines of text on each, 3 color illustrations. The book was printed and bound AI Konenko in 1996 in Omsk Russia. Brewster Cale is going to open in Britain the world's first archive of all printed books.
People without books would be very boring.
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