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Vorlesung Vorlesung "Software-Engineering" Prof. Ralf Möller, TUHH, Arbeitsbereich STS z Vorige Vorlesung y. Software Product Lines x. Successful software production is more than just composing modules / components z Heute y. Software Reengineering for Product Lines yÜber das Bewußtwerden und Explizitmachen x. Process CMM (Capability Maturity Model) x. People CMM 1

What is a Product Line? “ A set of software-intensive systems that share a What is a Product Line? “ A set of software-intensive systems that share a common, managed feature set satisfying a particular market segment´s specific needs or mission and that are developed from a common set of core assets in a prescribed way”. 2

Core Assets z Basis for the software product line y Architecture y Reusable Components Core Assets z Basis for the software product line y Architecture y Reusable Components y Domain Models y Requirements y Schedules y Budgets y Test plans y Process descriptions y And more 3

Essential Product line activities 4 Essential Product line activities 4

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Management z Technical management: core assets development and product development activities z Organizational management: Management z Technical management: core assets development and product development activities z Organizational management: a funding model that ensures core asset evolution & orchestrates the technical activities and iterations between core asset development and product development. z Important! PRODUCT LINE MANAGER 7

Example z A company is producing a range of cell phones: y. Low-end models Example z A company is producing a range of cell phones: y. Low-end models support basic phone functionality such as placing and receiving calls, y. Mid-range models support all the basic features plus additional ones such as call waiting, y. High-end models include still more features such as email support, games, etc. 8

Example z Traditional approach to development: y. Every phone system developed in isolation - Example z Traditional approach to development: y. Every phone system developed in isolation - several separate systems, y. Separate development teams, y. No team communication and little code reuse, y. Separate documentation, y. Separate analysis, y. Different hardware, y. Different development tools, etc. 9

Example z Traditional approach results in: y. No common product vision, y. Reinvention and Example z Traditional approach results in: y. No common product vision, y. Reinvention and redevelopment of both hardware and software, y. Experience not shared among different teams, y. Slow response to changing market demands, y. Slow penetration into new markets, y. Maintenance difficulties, etc. 10

In General z Software is becoming a commodity – people want it customized to In General z Software is becoming a commodity – people want it customized to their particular needs. z Also, companies want to improve ROI buy reusing different assets. z This led to the product line approach as a form of large scale reuse. 11

Product Line z A product line is a set of products sharing common infrastructure. Product Line z A product line is a set of products sharing common infrastructure. z This infrastructure is a set of assets which encapsulate commonalities that can be reused among different existing and future products. z Therefore, ideally, developing a new product using product line approach consists out of reusing a large portion of existing assets and the development of variable new functionality. 12

PL Software Engineering Areas z Architecture development, z Requirements engineering, z Business domain analysis, PL Software Engineering Areas z Architecture development, z Requirements engineering, z Business domain analysis, z Component design and development, z Mining existing assets, z Software systems integration, etc. 13

PL vs. Low-Level Reuse z Traditional forms of reuse: frameworks, libraries, components, etc. z PL vs. Low-Level Reuse z Traditional forms of reuse: frameworks, libraries, components, etc. z Intended for a wide variety of products and code based. z Product lines introduce reuse of other artifacts but code. z Product line assets are intended for a close family of products, thus more specialized than the traditional ones. z Main distinction is in the fact that product line assets are developed with a clear vision of which products will be developed in the future. 14

PL Adoption Schemes z There are four main situations for adoption of product lines PL Adoption Schemes z There are four main situations for adoption of product lines engineering: y. Company starts a completely new product line, y. Company restructures already existing products and forms a product line (low amount of reengineering), y. Company performs major reengineering activity, and major modification of legacy systems to form a product line, and y. Company sets up a new product line based on an already existing one. z There can be also situations that combine several of previously mentioned situations. 15

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Mining for Product Lines z Reuse existing components / apps? z Hardly possible without Mining for Product Lines z Reuse existing components / apps? z Hardly possible without modification z Variability does not come for free z Consequence: Reengineering required 17

Software Re-engineering z. Reorganising and modifying existing software systems to make them more maintainable Software Re-engineering z. Reorganising and modifying existing software systems to make them more maintainable z"the examination of a subject system to reconstitute it in a new form and the subsequent implementation of the new form. [Elliot. Chikofsky and James. Cross, Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery: A Taxonomy, IEEE Software 7(1): 13 -17, 1990. ] 18

What is Reengineering? z Reengineering changes a “bad” design into a good design z What is Reengineering? z Reengineering changes a “bad” design into a good design z Change an existing design instead of throwing it out z Often difficult, since changes often affect the whole system z Reengineering patterns: solutions to recurring reengineering problems 19

Why use Reengineering Patterns? z New technology z Unexpected change in requirements z Repair Why use Reengineering Patterns? z New technology z Unexpected change in requirements z Repair fault in original design z Software Integration 20

A Reengineering Pattern z Transforms inheritance into composition z Why? y. Overuse of inheritance A Reengineering Pattern z Transforms inheritance into composition z Why? y. Overuse of inheritance in legacy OO systems y. Loosen coupling to increase flexibility y. Allows components to be replaced without affecting all the subclasses 21

A Reengineering Pattern z When should it be applied? y. If you want more A Reengineering Pattern z When should it be applied? y. If you want more flexibility (Bridge pattern) y. If you want more extensibility (Strategy pattern) y. If you want to eliminate a large number of conditional statements (State pattern) z Should not be applied if efficiency is the issue 22

Software Reengineering Process Model (1) z Inventory analysis y sorting active software applications by Software Reengineering Process Model (1) z Inventory analysis y sorting active software applications by business criticality, longevity, current maintainability, and other local criteria y helps to identify reengineering candidates z Document restructuring options y live with weak documentation y update poor documents if they are used y fully rewrite the documentation for critical systems focusing on the "essential minimum" 23

Software Reengineering Process Model (2) z Reverse engineering y process of design recovery y Software Reengineering Process Model (2) z Reverse engineering y process of design recovery y analyzing a program in an effort to create a representation of the program at some abstraction level higher than source code z Code restructuring y source code is analyzed and violations of structured programming practices are noted and repaired y revised code needs to be reviewed and tested 24

Software Reengineering Process Model (3) z Data restructuring y usually requires full reverse engineering Software Reengineering Process Model (3) z Data restructuring y usually requires full reverse engineering y current data architecture is dissected y data models are defined y existing data structures are reviewed for quality z Forward engineering y sometimes called reclamation or renovation y recovers design information from existing source code y uses this design information to reconstitute the existing system to improve its overall quality or performance 25

Forward Engineering and Reengineering 26 Forward Engineering and Reengineering 26

Reverse Engineering z Analyzing software with a view to understanding its design and specification Reverse Engineering z Analyzing software with a view to understanding its design and specification z May be part of the reengineering process z May be used to specify a system for prior to reimplementation z Program understanding tools may be useful (browsers, crossreference generators, etc. ) 27

Reverse Engineering Concepts (1) z Abstraction level y ideally want to be able to Reverse Engineering Concepts (1) z Abstraction level y ideally want to be able to derive design information at the highest level possible z Completeness y level of detail provided at a given abstraction level z Interactivity y degree to which humans are integrated with automated reverse engineering tools 28

Reverse Engineering Concepts (2) z Directionality y one-way means the software engineer doing the Reverse Engineering Concepts (2) z Directionality y one-way means the software engineer doing the maintenance activity is given all information extracted from source code y two-way means the information is fed to a reengineering tool that attempts to regenerate the old program z Extract abstractions y meaningful specification of processing performed is derived from old source code 29

Reverse Engineering Process 30 Reverse Engineering Process 30

Reverse Engineering Activities (1) z Understanding process y source code is analyzed at varying Reverse Engineering Activities (1) z Understanding process y source code is analyzed at varying levels of detail x system x program x component x pattern x statement y to understand procedural abstractions and overall functionality 31

Reverse Engineering Activities (2) z Understanding data y internal data structures y database structure Reverse Engineering Activities (2) z Understanding data y internal data structures y database structure z User interfaces y what are the basic actions (e. g. key strokes or mouse operations) processed by the interface? y what is a compact description of the system's behavioral response to these actions? y what concept of equivalence of interfaces is relevant? 32

Reverse Engineering Applicability z Reverse engineering often precedes reengineering z Sometimes reverse engineering is Reverse Engineering Applicability z Reverse engineering often precedes reengineering z Sometimes reverse engineering is preferred y if the specification and design of a system needs to be defined prior using them as input to the requirements specification process for a replacement systems y if the design and specification for a system is needed to support program maintenance activities 33

Reengineering Vorgehensmodell: Horseshoe Model 34 Reengineering Vorgehensmodell: Horseshoe Model 34

Über das Bewußtwerden und Explizitmachen z Phasen der Software-Entwicklung z Organisationsprinzipien z Projektmanagement z Über das Bewußtwerden und Explizitmachen z Phasen der Software-Entwicklung z Organisationsprinzipien z Projektmanagement z Vorgehensmodelle z. . . -> Software Engineering ist mehr als Programmentwicklung z It‘s all about processes. . . and people. 35

Processes: The SEI process maturity model 36 Processes: The SEI process maturity model 36

Maturity model levels z Initial y. Essentially uncontrolled z Repeatable y. Product management procedures Maturity model levels z Initial y. Essentially uncontrolled z Repeatable y. Product management procedures defined and used z Defined y. Process management procedures and strategies defined and used z Managed y. Quality management strategies defined and used z Optimising y. Process improvement strategies defined and used 37

Key process areas 38 Key process areas 38

SEI model problems z It focuses on project management rather than product development. z SEI model problems z It focuses on project management rather than product development. z It ignores the use of technologies such as rapid prototyping. z It does not incorporate risk analysis as a key process area z It does not define its domain of applicability 39

The CMM and ISO 9000 z There is a clear correlation between the key The CMM and ISO 9000 z There is a clear correlation between the key processes in the CMM and the quality management processes in ISO 9000 z The CMM is more detailed and prescriptive and includes a framework for improvement z Organisations rated as level 2 in the CMM are likely to be ISO 9000 compliant 40

Capability assessment z An important role of the SEI is to use the CMM Capability assessment z An important role of the SEI is to use the CMM to assess the capabilities of contractors bidding for US government defence contracts z The model is intended to represent organisational capability not the practices used in particular projects z Within the same organisation, there are often wide variations in processes used z Capability assessment is questionnaire-based 41

The capability assessment process 42 The capability assessment process 42

The People Capability Maturity Model z Intended as a framework for managing the development The People Capability Maturity Model z Intended as a framework for managing the development of people involved in software development z Five stage model y Initial. Ad-hoc people management y Repeatable. Policies developed for capability improvement y Defined. Standardised people management across the organisation y Managed. Quantitative goals for people management in place y Optimizing. Continuous focus on improving individual competence and workforce motivation 43

The People Capability Maturity Model 44 The People Capability Maturity Model 44

P-CMM Objectives z To improve organisational capability by improving workforce capability z To ensure P-CMM Objectives z To improve organisational capability by improving workforce capability z To ensure that software development capability is not reliant on a small number of individuals z To align the motivation of individuals with that of the organisation z To help retain people with critical knowledge and skills 45

Software-Engineering 2004 z Das war‘s. z Viel Erfolg bei den Prüfungen. . . 46 Software-Engineering 2004 z Das war‘s. z Viel Erfolg bei den Prüfungen. . . 46