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1. After robbing much money from the bank, the thieves escaped, ____ to be found. A. nowhere B. everywhere C. wherever D. anywhere 2. The workers find themselves absolutely at _____ of their employers. A the kind B the cost C the expense D the mercy 3. －I enjoyed the food very much. －I’m glad you like it. Please drop in any time you like. －______. A．Is it all right? B．I’m afraid I won’t be free. C．Yes, I will. D．That’s great. √ √ √
4. There was a border _______ between the two countries. A. incident B. accident C. case D. affair 5. When he escaped from the prison, he _______ many other prisoners. A. made for B. set loose C. turned up D. took off 6. Mike didn’t notice Alice entering his room. He _____ a phone call. A．answered B．has answered C．was answering D．is answering √ √ √
7. I ____ a novel written by Bajin last night, and another night I will finish it. A read B have read C had read D was reading 8. The baby is generally healthy, but every now and then he _____ a cold. A do catch B did catch C done catch D does catch 9. It was the way he spoke _____ what he said that made his dad angry. A other than B or rather C rather than D or else √ √ √
10. I ____ with my grandpa because my parents have gone abroad on business. A stayed B am staying C have stayed D was staying 11. If you like, you can come here to read the books whenever _____. A you are convenient B you will be convenient C it is convenient to you D it will be convenient to you 12．“Can you make up a story ____ the words ____ on the blackboard? ” asked the teacher. A using; writing B using; written C used; writing D used; written √ √ √
13. －Haven’t we met each other at ____ party? －Yes, but I can’t remember whether it is on _____ Christmas when we were in college. A．a; the B．the; a C．a; a D．a; 不填 14． Please don’t forget to give the letter to Mary next time you ______ her. A. see B. will see C. have seen D. saw 15． It’s owing to the heavy rain _______ the football game has been canceled. A．that B. why C. how D. which √ √ √
1. wonder vt. & vi. 对……疑惑, 感到惊奇, 想知道 n. 惊讶, 惊叹; 奇迹 【用法】wonder 搭配使用的介词，以及引导从句时 引导词的选择。常用表达如下：wonder about/at…; wonder if /whether/who…; It is no wonder that… 【考例】--Few children are as bright as he is, and also, he works very hard. --It’s no ＿ that he always gets the first place in any examination. A. question B. doubt C. problem D. wonder 【点拨】答案是D。It’s no wonder that意为“毫无疑 问”，“难怪”。而There is no doubt that意为“毫不 怀疑”，“毫无疑问”。
2. at the mercy of 听任…摆布，在…面前无 能为力。 例如：They were lost at sea at the mercy of wind and weather. 【知识拓展】have/show mercy on sb. 宽恕或 怜悯某人；without mercy毫不容情地
3. aid n. / vt. 帮助, 援助 【用法】 with/without the aid of sth. /sb. aid somebody in/with (doing) sth. 4. departure n. 离开, 出发 【用法】搭配：departure for /departure of / departure from 【考例】I have not heard anything from him since his _______. A. departure B. fault C. foundation D. acceptance 【点拨】答案A
5. dilemma n. 进退两难的窘境 【用法】搭配: be in a dilemma /place sb. in a dilemma 陷入/置某人于进退两难之境。 6. be / get caught in 突然碰上……而受阻。 例如： On his way home he was caught in a traffic jam. 在回家途中，他碰上了交通阻塞。 【考例】On the way home, he ___ a heavy storm. A. caught B. was caught by C. caught hold of D. was caught in 【点拨】答案是D, 固定搭配用法的考测。
7. reference n. 【用法】① 提到，说到，涉及 如：Avoid (making ) any reference to his illness. 千万别提起他的病。 ②（向读者指示参考书，文章等的）附注，旁注 如：check your references 要核对引证的资料。 【知识拓展】refer v. 提到，说起，涉及；参考， 查询，常与to 连用。 如： When I said some people are stupid I wasn’t referring to you. 当我说某个人很愚蠢的时候，我 没有提到你。 If you don’t know what this means, please refer to the dictionary. 如果你不知道这是什么意思，请查 看字典。
1. We may well wonder how seamen explored the oceans before latitude and longitude made it possible to plot a ship’s position on a map. (Reading Para. 1) 【解析】how引导一个宾语从句，before引导 一个状语从句。在made it possible to plot a ship's position on a map结构中，it为形式宾 语，to plot a ship's position on a map为真 正的宾语。 【考测方向】it作形式主语/形式宾语的考测。 在英语中如充当主语或宾语是动词不定式、 动名词或名词性从句时，常用it作形式主语 或宾语，放在主语或宾语的位置上，而把真 正的主语或宾语放在句末，使句子结构更协 调，更平衡。
【常见表达】It is +adj. (for sb. ) to do sth. ; It is +adj. /n. + that 从句; 主语+make/think/find+ it +adj. +to do sth. 【迷你考题】The chairman thought necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. A．that B．it C．this D．him 【点拨】答案为B。 本题考查it作形式宾语的 用法，真正宾语是不定式短语。
2. The voyages of travelers before the 17 th century show that they were not at the mercy of the sea even though they did not have modern navigational aids. (Reading Para. 1) 【解析】that引导一个宾语从句，even though表示“即使”，引导让步状语从句。 【考测方向】一些与even有关表达的考测。 比如：even so 即使如此，即便这样； even if =even though 即使，尽管，引导让 步状语从句； even as正当……的时候, 引 导时间状语从句。
【迷你考题】I’ll get there，_____ I have to sell my house to get enough money to go by air. A. even though B. even as C. now that D. even so 【点拨】答案A. 句意为：即使我卖掉房子， 我也会坐飞机到那里的。只有even though 有“即使，尽管”之意，故选A. 。
3. This seems to have been the first and most useful form of exploration which carried the minimum amount of risk. (Reading Para. 2) 【解析】to have been为不定式完成式，表 示动作已经发生。注意区别与不定式的一般 时to do表示“要做……，动作未发生”的用法。 比如: I just can’t seem to get it into his head that he has to plan things better. 我好像根本没法使他明白他做事必须加强计 划性。
【知识链接】 ①. 常用于“主语+be said +to have( been) done, ”相当于主动句“People say +that”结 构的句型有：be said, reported, thought, supposed, expected, believed considered, known。如： She was said to have met a fairy one day. 据 说有一天她碰到了一位仙女。
【迷你考题】Robert is said ______abroad，but I don't know what country he studied in. A．to have studied B．to study C．to be studying D．to have been studying 【点拨】答案A。考查不定式的时态，注意题 干中的studied in这一关键词所提供的信息 时态，说明Robert已去国外学习过了，故 该题用不定式的完成式，表示不定式的动 作先于谓语动词的动作，至于D项, 因为表 达的study 动作还在进行中，与studied in 时态信息不符，故不能选。
4. Or should one stay on the “Bounty” with the crew and face certain death from the British Navy if caught? (Using Language Para. 1) 【解析】if caught =if we were caught , 是状 语从句的省略现象。 【考测方向】状语从句省略用法的考测。状 语从句的省略原则主要是：如果从句中的 主语和主句中的主语一致，就可以经过一 定的变动把状语从句中的主语和谓语的一 部分或全部省略，从而使语言更加简洁、 明了。
比如： Though (it was)not large, the room was well lit. 房间虽不大却很亮堂。 As (it was) expected, the movement rapidly spread. 如预料的那样， 运动很快就展开了。 【迷你考题】Taking such kind of medicine, if ______ , will possibly do you great harm. A. continue B. to continue C. continued D. continuing 【点拨】答案是C。 该句为条件状语从句的省 略。 省略了主语taking such kind of medicine 以及is continued 被动结构中的助动词is , 保 留continued。
5. On our departure from Tahiti, some of the crew took over the ship. (Using Language Para. 1) 【解析】on+ n. / doing表示“一……就”。我们 一离开塔西提岛，一些船员就接管了轮船。 比如： On his arrival in Paris , he was caught and thrown into the prison. 他一到巴黎，就被 捕入狱了。 On hearing the good news , he jumped with joy. 他一听到那个好消息， 就高兴得跳了 起来。
【知识链接】“一……就”相应的表达：as soon as. . . ； the moment / minute / second / instant；hardly / scarcely …when …；no sooner … than … 【迷你考题】On ______the bad news, she couldn’t help____. A. hear; crying B. hearing; crying C. heard; cry D. hearing; to cry 【点拨】答案是B。意为：一听到那个坏消息，她 忍不住哭了起来。考测①on+ n. / doing表示“一 ……就”的用法。②can’t help +doing 表示“忍不 住做……” 的用法。
g Up min r Wa In pairs discuss these questions: 1 What is a navigator? A navigator explores new routes across the sea. 2 What is the difference between a navigator and an explorer? A navigator explores the sea; an explorer discovers new places on land.
3 Look at these famous people. Are they navigators or explorers? What do you know about them? Navigator sea nautical instruments find new islands or continents Navigator is someone who finds the position and plots the course of a ship, an aircraft, a car, etc, using maps and instruments.
Explorer land use of compass and landmarks find new places within an already identified island or continent Explorer is someone who travels into or through a place in order to learn about it. Very often navigators are also explorers.
Pre-reading • Look at the pictures. Then answer the questions. 1 How do you think seamen found their way before modern accurate methods of navigation were invented? Kept close to the shore, used nature such as the sun, wind, birds, tide, etc, to help them, and used some of the instruments including a compass, astrolabe, etc.
2 Which do you think was easier to work out: latitude or longitude? Latitude, because it was used to measure how far you had travelled from land on a straight line. It was discovered a long time before longitude.
3 Can you identify these early navigational instruments seamen used and explain how they are used? compass (in ancient China) 1 _____________ 2 _____ astrolabe 3 _____ sextant sea / nautical / marine chart 4 ____________ 4 Which ones do you think are still used today? Sea charts are still used today.
Comprehending 1 Read the passage and answer the following questions. 1 What is the use of a bearing circle, astrolabe, quadrant or sextant? ( B) What is the use of a compass? (A ) A to set the course of the ship B to measure the position of the ship C to measure the speed of the ship D to tell the time
2 Why are speed and time important in working out the longitude of a ship? Speed and time are important in finding out the longitude of a ship because the earth moves fifteen degrees westwards every hour. If you know your direction, speed and time, you can work out the approximate longitude or change in your position in relation to the stars.
3 Why is the position of the sun and various stars useful for working out latitude? The position of the sun and stars are useful for working out latitude because they are fixed points in the sky and their movements in relation to the earth are already known. So they can be used to measure a ship's position.
2 Suppose you were a sea captain aiming to sail round Africa. Discuss in groups: 1 What skills would you seek in your sailors? The sailors would need to be excellent navigators, able to cope with both hot and cold weather, experienced in sailing through very bad weather and able to co-operate in a team.
2 What problems would you anticipate for this journey? I would anticipate very hot weather (around the equator), cold weather (around the Cape of Good Hope), very stormy seas (around the Cape), and problems with food and water (unless helped by local natives the water may be contaminated and the food scarce), etc.
3 What would you do if you came across the following problems during your voyage? Read the chart below and fill in your plans of action to deal with them. What would you do if: Plan of action wait till the storm is You were far from over, and then find land a storm arose. your new position and return to your original course
use knots to find your You knew your speed and work out latitude but didn't your approximate know your longitude use the compass and the astrolabe, You were blown offquadrant or sextant to course. find out your position, return to your former course
You were offshore but you needed more food and water. You wanted to keep a straight course. follow nesting birds to shore; look for special cloud formations or fog over streams to find land use a compass
You were lost with no land in sight. measure your position using the sun or stars; look for sea birds, cloud formations, fog or seaweed to show that land is nearby
4 Read the passage again and use the information to analyse the navigational skills. Write the answers in your own words. Using nature 1 To find the ship's position at sea a sailor used the North Star and the sun.
2 A sailor knew that land was nearby if he saw _______________ fresh seaweed, nesting birds returning ____________. home in the evening or fog 3 Sailors used ____________ sea currents or tides and winds to increase their speed.
Using instruments 4 There were two methods to find longitude: measuring time and speed 1 _____________ compass and complicated 2 ____________ mathematical tables __________.
5 Write down the working principles of the following instruments: • Beating circle: to compare the height of the sun now _________________ with the position of the 'sun at midday _______________. • Astrolabe: _________________ to compare the position of the ship in _______________. relation to some stars or the sun
• Quadrant: a more precise form of the astrolabe, to _________________ measure how high stars are above the _________________ horizon, and compare that measurement _________________ with previous measurements (using the _________________ ship as one of the fixed points to find its _________________ position) ____.
• Sextant: ___________________ an updated version of the quadrant and so it ___________________ was more accurate, to measure the angle ___________________ between two fixed points outside the ship ___________________ (using two mirrors to find the ship's _____. position) 5 Imagine you are on a boat with twenty-nine other people. You have a small box for your personal things but it can only hold ten items. What would you need for a week's journey across the North Sea to England?
Category Items Category Clothes shirt, trousers Shoes waterproof boots Tools scissors, knife Hygiene Bedding Games soap blanket cards, chess Items Medicines sea-sick tablets, cold medicine Books novels, essay collections
Learning about Language 1 Replace the words underlined by ones of similar meaning from the reading passage. 1 Seeing the dark clouds above him, George hurried for home. overhead 2 Sailing a boat alone far away from the shore made Flora's parents worry about her safety. offshore
3 Clare, would you please put your bicycle alongside next to the others in the shed? simplified 4 "Why don't you plot a more simple route minimum with the smallest number of stops? " asked Mary. voyage 5 Setting out on a long journey by sea with seamen unskilled sailors would be dangerous especially if there were no modern navigational instruments.
2 Find the words from the reading passage that are the opposite of these compound words. ______ anywhere nowhere ______ upload download outward ______ inward ______ unreliable ______ land flower seaweed shortcoming ______ strong point
3 Write down the words you know, which are related to navigation and sea. Navigation Sea seaman, seaweed, navigate, navigational seafood, shore, (instruments: compass, offshore, onshore, bearing circle, astrolabe, beach-ball quadrant, sextant), sail, seabed, sea-bird, sailor, voyage, latitude, seagull, sea shell, longitude, equator, horizon, seaside, sea water, captain, sailor, land, island, seasick, coast, set sail, nautical middles, coastline, coastal, explore, exploration tide, wave, current,
4 Complete the following paragraph with the words below. Samuel the sailor was extremely good at plotting his course using the stars as a reference. One day he was determined to set _______ voyage out on a _______ across an unknown sea to an unknown continent. He set out with his instruments so he would not be at the _____ mercy of the sea. He found on his ____ outward journey a rocky island. It seemed to be covered in nests. Suddenly, as Samuel looked, an enormous bird swooped down
and picked him up as if he were a / an awkward parcel. It ____ its speed and accelerate ______ rose straight up into the air so as to reach the _______ place on the rocks where its nest precise lay. Once there, it shook itself and threw Samuel in the approximate direction of the _____ nowhere nest. There seemed to be ____ to hide seaweed but then he noticed lots of ____ on his left and quickly hid under it. The bird landed randomly nearby and pecked _____ at the rocks. Samuel rolled over swiftly and found himself at the edge of the cliff. He looked
down slowly with a beating heart. Below him was his boat lying ____ the alongside shore! "How lucky I am!" Samuel thought to himself. He then gave a mighty leap and landed in it. Once inside he could safely sail away.
Revising useful structures 1 Read the information below and learn more about Captain Cook. Then underline the predicates in the sentences. 1 James Cook was a great English navigator and Pacific Ocean expedition leader. 2 He had not only an outstanding ability in navigation and exploration, but also a real concern for sailors' health. He carried out compulsory dietary reforms that were copied by many other ship captains.
3 He had led three great Pacific voyages during his life. 4 In his first Pacific voyage in 1769, James Cook rounded Cape Horn, then spent six months charting New Zealand, and finally explored and claimed possession of eastern Australia. 5 In 1772, Captain Cook set sail to look for a "theorized great southern continent". Although they could not manage to reach the Antarctic owing to the ice, he predicted that if it did exist, it would have to be a wasteland.
6 In 1776, Captain Cook started his third Pacific voyage, searching for the Northwest Passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Unfortunately, he was killed in a dispute with Hawaiian natives and his men's attempt at the Northwest Passage was unsuccessful. However, this voyage is still recognized as especially significant in the history of the discovery of the west coast of North America.
2 Complete the following dialogue, using verbs in their proper forms. Remember to read the conversation before and after each blank before you fill it in. Susan: Do you think you'll be going to that pop concert next week? Clare: No. Let's forget about that as it'll soon be time for our exams. Susan: ______________ Do you need to do more revision?
Clare: I don't really think I need to do more revision. I've done enough but it'll help me forget the concert you'll be enjoying. Susan: Is there another reason why you don't ______________ want to come to the concert? _______________ Clare: Actually there is a reason. I don't think I'm going to have enough money even though I've been saving especially for this occasion. Susan: ________________ Perhaps I can help you. I always earn extra money by cleaning cars. My ________________ father always pays me when I clean his ________________.
Clare: Well, thank you for offering to help me. I'll happily clean your father's car if he'll pay me too. Susan: ________________ I'm sure he will. He’s always been kind to my friends. ________________ Clare: I hope you'll thank him for me. I'd never be allowed to clean my father's car. He is so proud of it he won't let anyone touch it. Susan: ________________ Oh this is my father's fourth car so the excitement has worn off a little. ________________
Clare: His fourth car? My goodness. He must have been earning a lot of money to have owned so many. Susan: ________________ I suppose so. He has his own business so he needs a car for his work. _______________ Clare: Oh I see! That explains things. Please would you phone him now and ask him when it would be convenient for me to clean it? Susan: ______________ Of course I'll do that right away.
Clare: That's so kind of you. Now while I'm doing the cleaning perhaps you can order our tickets for the concert. I'll go and get ready to begin work. See you soon. Thanks and goodbye.
NGUAGE ING LA US 1 When Captain Bligh returned home he was treated as a hero. It was discussed whether he should receive a special medal or not. Get into groups of four and discuss these questions. Then role-play the dialogue.
1 Sample dialogue Li Pei (LP), Du Zhou (DZ), Wen Fuqing (WF) and Liu Yongfu (LY) are discussing the journey and Captain Bligh's leadership qualities. LP: Why are you convinced that this journey shows the greatest navigational skill? I'm sure there must have been others that were as good, if not better! DZ: Do you know of many other sea voyages of this kind?
WF: Well, there's that journey by Shackleton from Elephant Island in the Antarctic to get help from another island with a whaling station. He wanted to rescue his men. The weather was terrible and he was in an open boat, too. LY: How can you think that journey was more difficult? It didn't last very long. Captain's Bligh's journey lasted over forty days, was very hot and they had very little food and water. It was because Captain Bligh was a great leader that they survived.
DZ: Now that I've heard about it I am very impressed. All those men pushed together in a very small boat, it must have been terrible for them to stay friendly. Meanwhile they were being driven mad by lack of fresh water and there was all that salt water all around them. That's the reason I think it was the greatest sea escape.
LP: When you put it that way I suppose it was a great achievement. Captain Bligh was certainly excellent in the way he kept the men occupied and tried to take their minds off their troubles. In addition he treated everyone the same when it came to food or water. So I think you are right and it was the greatest example of navigational skill against the odds! Do you agree? DZ, WF and LY (together): Yes. We do.
2 Sample dialogue DZ: What leadership qualities do you think Captain Bligh showed? LP: Since he had such violent disagreements with his crew, I think he was a bad leader. WF: Do you really? He does seem to have had a bad temper so that has given him a bad reputation. However, he was also kind to his men at other times so I think he was a reasonable leader. LY: What did he do?
WF: He provided cabbage so the sailors would not get ill and made them dance so that they would stay healthy. That shows he was a good leader. DZ: Yes indeed. That is one good quality. However having a bad temper and getting angry quickly shows a bad quality. WF: Now think about the voyage to Timor. On that journey he was fair with the food, kept everyone occupied working out the boat's position, and kept the crew cheerful. The fact that he tried so hard to build co-operative behavior shows good leadership qualities.
LP: Indeed he did. That is why some people regard him as a hero. LY: Well, he seems contradictory. He is a good leader in a crisis and a bad one the rest of the time. DZ: No, no! That seems a bit cruel although it was due to his bad temper the crew took over the ship. It was also due to his good temper that the crew survived in the small boat. I think Liu Yongfu is right.
He was good in a crisis because he was fair with the food, encouraged team spirit, made people cheerful and used his skills to get them home. But he was a bad leader in a general situation because he got angry over small things (like accusing people of stealing food or disobeying him) and was too easy-going in Tahiti (where he let the men relax too much so they did not want to go back to England). LP: He was a strange mixture indeed!
A sample letter report Dear Sir, I think Captain Bligh should certainly receive a special medal for his amazing voyage across the sea to Timor. This is a journey that could not have been completed without great navigational skill. In addition Captain Bligh did not lose one man. First, he showed his leadership qualities by sharing the food and water fairly with the men in the boat. Everyone was treated equally and this made for good feeling between the members of the boat.
Second, he kept everyone in the boat cheerful by discussing what they would do when they arrived safely. No one was allowed to think about what might happen if they did not arrive! Third, he kept them occupied by organizing the complicated mathematical calculations needed to find their position at sea. The crew who had taken over the "Bounty" had left Captain Bligh with only a quadrant and a compass. This meant that numerous: calculations were needed to find their correct
position. Captain Bligh encouraged the crew in the boat to take measurements regularly and each person was given a different responsibility for working out these measurements. This activity was important because it stopped the men from thinking about how little food and water there was. So I hope you will give Captain Bligh this medal. He has shown leadership, fairness and concern for his crew and helped them return to England safely. Yours, (your name)
Listening and speaking 1 Read these words and then listen to the tape. Circle those aids that early sailors used to find their way. compass maps fish movements stars weather waves currents clouds rainfall birds other ships mountains
2 Listen to the tape again and fill in the chart. Sailors from Sea or Skills Ocean Phoenicia Mediterra- Used the sky to find nean their way Norway Polynesia North Watched birds to find land. Pacific Studied the waves of the ocean.
3 These are some Viking sailing directions from Norway to Greenland. Use the information from the listening to explain these sailing strategies. 1 __________________ Vikings used to prefer to sail following the coastline so they could check that they __________________ were on the correct route. __________________ 2 __________________ Vikings used birds, and natural features like mountains, to direct their ships. __________________
seamen sayings 4 * to Polynesianwith theirhad traditionalyou help them sailing. Can explain what they mean? 1 "If you can read the ocean, you will never be lost. ” • Study the waves so that you can read what will happen in the weather or when land is close. 2 "Watch for when the sun grows. ” • The position of the morning sun on the horizon can help you check your course.
3 "The stars are the eyes of Heaven. ” • The stars can give you information about your position and can help you "see" where you are. 4 "When the bird flies out to sea, the sea will grow calm. ” • Birds do not fly out to sea if a storm is coming so a bird flying away from the shore means good weather.
Listening 1 Before listening to the tape, look at the map below. Then write down which new places Zheng He might have visited on his seven voyages.
Zheng He’s Voyage By 刘超英
nautical chart By 刘超英
LISTENING TEXT WHO WAS ZHENG HE? (Li Huaying = LH, Celia Main = CM) LH: The most famous Chinese navigator was Zheng He. He lived from 1371 to 1433 and made seven voyages around the South China Sea, across to India and even as far as the eastern coast of Africa. It was the 600 th anniversary of these voyages in 2005. CM: Are there other famous Chinese navigators or is he the only one?
LH: He is the only one we've got evidence for. CM: So there may have been others? LH: We don't know. That's because a later Emperor may have destroyed a lot of evidence of other voyages. CM: I see. Where did Zheng He go? LH: The documents tell us that he was born in Yunnan. He built a pillar to record his achievements. It states that he made seven voyages and visited more than thirty countries.
He said that the Emperor ordered him to show the strength of Chinese power and meet "foreigners from beyond the seas". So he went to unknown places and set up trade. CM: Tell me about his voyages. LH: Well, on his first voyage he visited Calicut in India. The people there were very impressed and a little frightened when they saw so many large ships. So the ruler wisely decided to make friends with these strangers.
He gave Zheng He many scarves made of gold and decorated with jewels. Then he entertained him and his men with music and songs. CM: Did he go to other places? LH: Yes, on other voyages he visited Champa, and Sumatra near China, Hormuz, and Aden in the Persian Gulf and Mogadishu in Africa. Zheng He opened diplomatic relations with them and gave them presents.
CM: What did the Chinese offer as gifts? LH: Zheng He found that foreign kings particularly admired Chinese porcelain and silk. So that's why his ships were filled with those things. CM: I see. Is that why they say his ships were so large? LH: Yes, t suppose so. When he returned from India he brought a giraffe for the Emperor as a present. So his ships must have been large. CM: Some writers say that the ships could carry as many as 20, 000 people altogether.
LH: And other writers say Zheng He was eight feet tall! We shouldn't believe everything writers tell us. Obviously they wanted to show important Zheng He was. Undoubtedly the ships were large--- but perhaps not that large! CM: I see. That makes sense. Well, thank you for telling me about Zheng He. He sounds a fascinating man. may vary. Answers
2 Listen to the tape for the first time and tick those ports and islands mentioned in the text. Then check to see how many you got right out of the six in the pre-listening activity. 1 ______ 2 _______ Calicut Champa Sumatra Hormuz 3 ______ 4 _______ Aden Mogadishu 5 ______ 6 _______ 3 Read the statements and listen to the tape for the second time. Then complete the chart.
Statement Evidence 1 He is the only 15 th century Chinese navigator we know. No reports of other navigators for this period have survived.
2 He came from Yunnan Province. It was written in documents. 3 His ships were very large. The writers mention it in the books. 4 He was very important. He made seven voyages and visited more than thirty countries.
5 Foreign kings Zheng He remarks how liked Chinese much the foreign kings porcelain and silk. liked porcelain and silk. 6 He returned with 1 He brought a giraffe for the Emperor from strange presents for Africa. the Emperor. 2 He brought scarves of fine gold decorated with pearls and precious stones.
4 Listen to the tape for the third time and finish these sentences so that they show cause and effect. 1 The Emperor wanted to demonstrate Chinese power abroad so he sent Zheng He with a large fleet of ships to visit new places in neighbouring countries. 2 When he died Zheng He wanted people to know how successful he had been so he put up a pillar describing all his achievements.
3 The writers wanted people to believe that Zheng He's ships were large so that they would believe that he really had achieved great things and gone to many foreign countries. 4 The writers wanted people to believe Zheng He was very important so they described him as being eight feet tall.
Talking May the strangest argument win! The following information given may help you make your arguments well.
Possible arguments for the voyages Possible arguments against the voyages Armies to the north of The government China are a constant and can remove pirates very real threat. They from the seas. had wars with the Then they can tax Chinese army in the past the traders more. and may do so again if China is not prepared.
The voyages are very impressive and make people in distant lands recognize the greatness of China. To defend China against the armies from the north is very costly and needs many soldiers. There' will be no money for a fleet. There is little reason to If we do not continue foreign trade. continue the China is so large that it voyages we will does not need foreign lose diplomatic and trade to develop trading connections. economically.
Sample debate (Em = Emperor) Em: Those against the voyages may make their arguments now. S 1: Your Excellency, we would like to suggest that you do not continue with these voyages. They are expensive and take many soldiers, who could be protecting Chinese borders, away on trading expeditions. This means our people are left exposed to attacks by armies from the north.
S 2: We are a great country and do not need to trade with other foreign countries to succeed economically. Selling goods within our borders is quite enough to secure our future. So, Your Excellency, there seems to be no reason to continue these voyages. Em: Thank you. Now let me hear the arguments of those who want these voyages to continue.
S 3: Thank you, Your Excellency. These voyages are very impressive and many people are now able to recognize the greatness of China. They help build diplomatic relations with other countries. What is more, we can cooperate with other countries to clear the South China Sea of pirates and other troublesome people. S 4: In addition these links can help us with our foreign trade. We can sell many things to these countries. Their rulers often ask for more silk and porcelain goods and are very eager for our
friendship and co-operation. With our foreign trade connections we can increase our position in this area and spread our influence even wider. Em: Thank you for your advice. I have thought for a long time on this matter and I agree that trade with other countries is good. We can use this opportunity to spread the greatness of China and to increase our influence in this region. It would also help our people if we cleared the South China Sea of pirates. They cause difficulties to our fishermen and traders
and hurt many innocent lives. As for our northern border, I will secure that by using other troops and make sure we will be secure in the future. Thank you for your help. The voyages will continue!
USING words AND expressions 1 Look at each sentence. Complete it with a word opposite in meaning to the one underlined in the sentence. EXAMPLE: The return voyage was calm, but during the outward voyage we had one storm after another. 1 When the dawn appeared and outlined the African mountains, they were very beautiful, dusk but at ____ the mountains appeared dark and very frightening.
2 On the arrival of the Queen of England everyone bowed, but on her _____. departure everyone waved her goodbye instead. 3 Relaxation exercises are a good way to calm one's mind, but too much exercise brings too much ____. tension
4 When climbing the mountain we had to slow down before we reached the top, but on the way down we accelerated all the _____ way. 5 To buy a new car every year would represent a life of luxury, but not to have hardship one is no ____ when there are so many buses and taxis.
2 Use the words or phrases below in their proper forms to complete the passage. survival portable starvation incident jaws of death compulsory crew parcel thirst dilemma psychologically foresee Last year I had a bad experience in the jungle of South America. We had set out portable with a ____ compass, which was _____ for locating the source of the compulsory survival local river. Our depended _______ on
our navigating skills, but what nobody could have ______ was that we would foreseen break our compass. Without it, I, as leader, dilemma was on the horns of a _______. Should we wait for rescue or continue our expedition and perhaps get lost? My decision was made when Starvation we counted our food supplies. _____ was not going to be a problem, but _______ was thirst something that we were going to have to deal psychologically with _______. So we waited where we were. Luckily the police sent a small parcel airplane to find us and drop us a _______ of
supplies and a new compass. When we eventually arrived back from our journey, crew the air _______ congratulated us on our escape from the ______. Only their jaws of death help combined with our self-control and incident determination prevented this _______ from becoming a disaster!
3 Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and phrase in brackets. 1 渐渐地，我习惯了学校的常规。既然我 已经上了高级班，就可以自己制定学习计 划了。(gradually； routine) I have gradually accepted / got used to the routine at school now that I am in the advanced class and can make my own study plan.
2 让那个女孩来拍广告有一个不利条件， 就是她方方的下巴使她看上去不大友好。 (drawback；jaw) The drawback of using that girl for the advertising was her square jaw which made her look unfriendly. 3 数学是一门需要精密准确 作的学科。 (mathematics；precise) Mathematics is a subject which demands precise and accurate work.
4 在公园里，我看见一个小男孩手持风筝 线，风筝在他的头顶上正由风摆布，忽上 忽下。(overhead；at the mercy of ) In the park I saw a small boy holding the string of a kite overhead, which was rising and falling at the mercy of the wind. 5 那个探险家想成为第一个到达南极的人 以确保他在历史上的地位。(secure；pole) That explorer wanted to secure his place in history by being the first man to reach the South Pole.
6 王先生每月往银行里存款，好攒钱买 一所公寓，以尽他对家庭的责任。 (deposit；responsibility) Mr Wang made a deposit into the bank every month to save for a flat so that he could fulfil his responsibility to his family.
USING STRUCTURES • Read this passage and then fill in the missing predicates using the verbs in brackets. In 1909 a disagreement _____ (arise) over arose who had been the first person to reach the North Pole. This geographical point to the can be found north of the earth ______ (can, find) floats among the ice and snow that _____ (float) on the northern sea. Three men _____ (make) made the same claim: Frederick Cook, Matthew Hensen and Robert Peary.
The first to suggest that he ______ had reached (reach) the North Pole was Frederick Cook. His claim was soon found (find) to be false _____ when the photographs he _______ (use) as had used evidence ______ (prove) to be fakes. The proved second ____ (be) Matthew Hensen, a black was American explorer of the Arctic. He was the servant of the third candidate, Robert Peary had been travelling and ________ (travel) with him stated across the Arctic for twenty years. He _____ (state) that he and Robert Peary had both ______ reached (reach) the North Pole together.
The American Congress, however, declared _______ (declare) that Peary was the true winner of this race to be the first American to reach the North seemed Pole. It ______ (seem) that although Hensen and Peary travelled together, Peary ______ (refuse) to allow Hensen to join in his success. refused Evidence that Hensen ____ (be) there (such as was his 110 photographs) all mysteriously disappeared (disappear). It seems we ____ may _____ (may) never know exactly which American(s) reached the North Pole first. But the Inuit ___ are (be) certain that they ______ (live) there will be living is solved long after the problem ____ (solve).
LISTENING TASK 1 Listen to the tape and put these sentences in the correct order. (A) 1 Sindbad spent his money foolishly. (C) 2 One day he landed on an island. ( I ) 3 He sold his goods and returned home. (B) 4 He decided to become a merchant. (D) 5 The island was really a whale.
(G) 6 He was captured. ( F) 7 He drifted to another island. (H) 8 The king gave him a job. ( E 9 He was thrown into the sea when the ) whale sank.
LISTENING TEXT SINDBAD'S FIRST ADVENTURE Once there lived a rich merchant called Sindbad. One evening as they were eating dinner, his friends asked him how he had become so rich. Sindbad smiled. "listen, " he said, "and I'll tell you my adventures. This is the first one? "My father was rich but I spent his money unwisely and was soon left with nothing. At last I decided to trade in foreign lands. So I bought some goods and set out. We sailed many days from island to island. I sold goods and bought others. Then, at last we came to a
beautiful island decided to visit it. The passengers began to make a fire to cook dinner. We ate and drank happily. Then I went to explore the island. I had not gone far when I heard the captain calling us back to the ship. "Come quickly. This isn't an island but a giant whale! It has been floating so long on the sea that sand has settled on its back and trees have grown there. The fire woke it up and soon it will sink under the waves and you'll drown?
Everyone rushed to the ship leaving everything behind. Some reached it safely but not all. Suddenly the island shook beneath our feet and sank under the water. I was thrown into the sea, but I managed to grab a piece of wood. Meanwhile the captain set sail, leaving me alone. I thought I would die! I drifted on the sea until I came to another island. I was safe! But my troubles weren't over, for I was suddenly seized by five men. They dragged me into bushes and held me there. Then I noticed that nearby was a horse tied to a tree. We waited until it grew dark.
Then out of the sea came some enormous seahorses. They approached the real horse cautiously while the men rushed out to catch them. Most escaped but they captured one. They took me back to the king. Later I found that they kept the seahorses to produce strong young horses to sell. I worked for the king who was good to me. My job was to tell him of any foreign ship that came to his island. One day some foreign merchants came to sell goods.
I asked the captain where he was going. 'Tm going to Baghdad; he said, "I've some goods that belonged to a merchant called Sindbad. I'm taking them back. " I couldn't believe my ears. Immediately I explained who I was, and proved to them that I WAS Sindbad. Then I sold my goods and returned to Baghdad a rich man. This was the first of my adventures. Come back tomorrow to hear the second one. "
2 Listen to the tape again and answer these questions. 1 Do you think this story could be true? Why? The story could not be true because: A whale would not remain still long enough for trees to grow on its back; Sea horses do not have the build or size of real horses; Sea horses cannot be used to produce stronger horses than real horses.
2 Which part do you find is the most unlikely? The ideas of the students may vary. The most important thing is to make sure they have a reason for their ideas.
3 Identify two aspects of animal behavior that are not true. Why? These aspects of animal behavior are not true. Whales resting so long on the surface of the ocean. Whales have to keep returning to the surface of the sea to breathe but then they must return under the water to keep their skin wet. It would be impossible for a whale to remain on the water so long that soil accumulated and trees grew there.
Sea horses being able to live and move on land in the sea. Sea horses are small creatures made of shell or bone and about the size of a hand. They have no legs but move along by pushing their tail up and down and curling it up between pushes. Their heads resemble the knights of chessmen sets. Sea horses cannot breed with land horses to produce stronger land horses.
4 What is the coincidence in the story? Explain it. The coincidence was that Sindbad met some people from his home. He wanted to go home, and they were looking for him.
READING TASK 1 Now that you have read some of Sindbad's story it is your task to complete it in an exciting way. First, in pairs, sort out the structure of the story. Structure of the Information story need gained 1 Beginning Hero Sindbad Baghdad Place Type of fiction writing
2 Develop- Place 1 on an unknown island ment Sindbad is left behind What happens by the ship, sees a bird and ties himself to its leg to escape. Place 2 on a high hill What Sindbad unties himself happens and sees the hill is covered in diamonds.
2 Now in pairs you are going to devise an ending for the story. Remember that you want the escape to be as exciting as possible but without using magic. Be prepared to tell your ending together to the rest of the class.
3 Ending Place Sindbad falls down a hole and lands on the beach. how it ends Ship passing by rescues him. hero’s situation Rich (diamonds); Back to Baghdad
SPEAKING TASK • Now you are ready to make your own Sindbad story. It will be his third adventure. • • Questions given to the students Where does the story start? Why does Sindbad leave Baghdad this time? What happens on the voyage? Where does the adventure take place? How does he find riches? What problem does he have? How does he escape?
• Sample dialogue S 1: Where do you think Sindbad should go this time? He seems to have travelled to tropical islands and other strange places. Perhaps he should go to Antartica this time. S 2: A good idea. He can set off from Baghdad and get carried by a strong wind to colder parts. His ship can be hit by an iceberg and he is the only survivor on an iceberg. S 1: That sounds wonderful. Which animals live in Antarctica?
S 2: Penguins seem to be the only animals that live there. Perhaps they can mistake him for food and drag him across the ice to their nests. S 1: There he discovers that the penguins use gold to line their nests and if he can get some and get away he will become rich again.
S 2: Good thinking. Perhaps another iceberg can hit the place where the penguins live. It rocks the nests and releases the gold. In addition it exposes an old and abandoned boat covered by ice and snow and forgotten by its owners. Sindbad can use that to sail back to Baghdad. S 1: Great! Let's get writing.
WRITING TASK Now begin to write your own Sindbad story. Use the stories you have read and heard to improve your writing. Follow the process set out below (given in the text book p. 65). • Sample Writing One warm sunny day Sindbad was sitting in its Baghdad home when a messenger came banging on his door. He carried a letter from the government begging Sindbad to join an
expedition bound for the islands where he had earlier found so many diamonds. He quickly agreed. The day he set sail was fine and the wind strong. It carded the ship rapidly out of the harbor and into the open sea. Once there it changed into a howling gale which tore at the ship's sails and dragged it southwards. The sailors were very frightened and went below for safety but Sindbad remained on deck looking at the waves. It was lucky he did, for no sooner had the sailors gone below than the ship hit an enormous iceberg and immediately sank. All were drowned
except Sindbad who was able to crawl onto the iceberg before his ship sank. He lay there in fear for some hours. Later he became so hungry that he was forced to move around on the iceberg searching for food. But, alas, only penguins live in Antarctica so Sindbad remained hungry. Just as he had curled himself up into a ball to try and go to sleep and forget his problems, he felt himself being pulled across the ice. A large penguin was towing him like a boat behind it and towards a large
nest. Inside the nest he placed the terrified Sindbad, next to three small baby penguins. The mother penguin then began to feed the babies and kept trying to peck Sindbad and remove some flesh from his body. This action was extremely painful and to avoid it Sindbad tried to hide in the bottom of the nest. As he did so, he noticed that the bottom of the nest shone with a yellow glow and as he explored further he soon found that the glow came from gold. It seemed that the penguins lined their nests with gold!
Sindbad struggled to collect some gold for himself but his efforts were in vain. Then suddenly an iceberg hit the place where the nest lay so firmly that the nest broke apart, the gold was revealed and the penguins were thrown into the sea. Sindbad grabbed the gold and looked around for a means of escape.
Suddenly he saw the unmistakable outline of a ship covered by ice and snow but still seaworthy. Sindbad quickly uncovered it and seizing the oars began to row to the north. Before too long he was picked up by another ship and returned to Baghdad, covered in glory and rich once again.