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Vittoria International School, Torino Chemistry course Biological molecules and food The chemistry of macromolecules Professor Elena V. Tibaldi
When we buy food we find a table called “nutrition facts” what are those names listed? lipids carbohydrates proteins vitamins
Carbohydrates are the most important molecules for energy production Plants are able to produce glucose through photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O + solar energy Glucose + O 2 Animals need to eat food to get glucose for the cells
Carbohydrates and energy production Energy is produced in the cells through a process called cell respiration Glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Muscle cells are plenty of mitochondria they need a lot of energy!
Carbohydrates maltose glucose lactose galactose disaccharides monosaccharides sucrose fructose cellulose glycogen starch polisaccharides
High levels of glucose in blood danger Eccess glucose in bloodstream diabetes Glucose test www. nlm. nih. gov/. . . /ency/fullsize/19825. jpg www. nlm. nih. gov/. . . /ency/fullsize/18029. jpg
Lipids triglycerides phospholipids • long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen • insoluble in water steroids types cholesterol waxes energy storage structural hormone precursor thermal insulation functions vitamine precursor mechanical protection impermeabilization
Triglycerides • made of glycerol and three fatty acids • insoluble in water • energy storage and impermeabilization • oil if liquid at RT (ie olive oil) and fat is solid at RT (ie butter) myoptumhealth. com
Phospholipids • Formed by a hydrophilic head (glycerol and phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (fatty acids) • Produced in liver • Main constituent of cell membrane lipid bilayer
Waxes 1) Insoluble in water protection and impermeabilization Bird feathers Upper surface of leaves 2) Fruit impermeabilization (apples, pear, cherries) 3) Bees use them to build the hive
Cholesterol • in animal cell membrane • vitamin D precursor (bones and teeth) • produced by liver www. lowercholesterolldl. com
High cholesterol levels danger! In blood: atherosclerotic plaques build up in artery walls medicalimages. allrefer. com hubpages. com In liver: gallstone formation
Proteins • Chain of aminoacids • Found in eggs, meat, fish, milk and derivatives, vegetables and cereals immune defense transport membrane receptor muscle contraction structural functions regulatory enzymatic
Vitamins Many different types: • vit A (retinol) • vit B complex • vit C (ascorbic acid) • vit D (important for bones and teeth) • vit K (produced by bacterial flora) In vegetables, fruit, fish, meat, cereals phentermine. bz/tag/natural-vitamins
Breakfast is a very important meal During breakfast we need to get at least 20% of daily values Breakfast should be abondant, but easy to digest Cereals, rusks, milk and coffee and fruits should be preferable to butter, croissants and cakes! Have a good and healthy day!