- Количество слайдов: 6
Vitruvius The Ten Books On Architecture Translated by Morris Hickey Morgan A Dover publication of 1960 originally published in 1914 by Harvard University Press Purpose: -A comprehensive tool for Caesar Augustus to enable his buildings worthy throughout the Empire, in great praise of Caesar. -For Vitruvius to rise to posterity In history -a return of gratitude for his pension Context / History: 1 st Century BC -Vitruvius worked under Augustus’ Father -Worked building and repairing artillery -Found opportunity to write on architecture in retirement as not to interrupt Imperator Caesar Augustus
Scope of the Books (Contents) Book I: Preface Book III: Intro Book V: Intro -Education of The Architect -Fundamental Principles of Arch. -Departments of Architecture; -Site of A City; -City Walls; -Directions of Streets with remarks on the wind; -Sites for public Buildings -On Symmetry: Temples and the Human body -Classification of Temples -Proportion of intercolumniation and of columns -Foundation and Substructures of Temples -Proportions of the base, capitals, and entablatures of the Ionic Order -The Forum and the Basilica -The Treasury, Prison, and Senate house -The Theatre: Site, Foundations and Acoustics -Harmonics -Sounding Vessels in the Theatre -Plan of the Theatre -Greek Theatres -Acoustics of the site of a theatre -Colonnades and Walks -Baths -The Palestra -Harbors, Breakwaters, and Shipyards Book II: Intro -The Origin of the Dwelling House -Primordial Substance according to the physicists -Brick -Sand -Lime -Pozzolana -Stone -Methods for building walls -Timber -Highland lowland fir Book IV: Intro -Origins of the Three orders and proportions of the Corinthian -The Ornaments of the orders -Proportions of the Doric Temples -The Cella and The Pronaos -How the Temple should face -The doorways of Temples -Tuscan Temples -Circular Temples and other varieties -Altars Book VI: Intro -On Climate and determining the style of the house -Symmetry, and Modifications I it to fit the site -Proportions of the principle Rooms -Proper exposure of the different rooms -How the rooms should be suited to the station of the owner -The Farmhouse -The Greek House - On Foundations and Substructures
Scope of the Books Book VII: Intro Book VIII: Intro Book X: Intro -Floors -The Slaking of lime for stucco -Vaultings and stucco work -On stucco work in damp places, and on decoration of dining rooms -The decadence of the fresco painting -Marble for use in stucco -Natural Colors -Cinnabar and Quiksilver -Cinnabar (cont. ) -Artificial colors. Black -Blue. Burnt Ochre -White lead, Verdigris, and artificial sandarach -Purple -Substitutes for purple, yellow ochre, Malachite green, and indigo -How to find water -Rainwater -Various properties of different waters -Tests of good water -leveling and leveling instruments -Aqueducts, wells, and cisterns -Machines and implements -Hoisting machines -The elements of motion -Engines for raising water -Water wheels and water mills -The water screw -The pump of Ctesibus -The water organ -The hodometer -Catapults or scorpiones -Ballistae -The stringing and tuning of catapults -Seige machines -The Tortoise -Hegetor’s Tortoise -Measures of defense -Note on scamilli impares -Index Book IX: Intro -The Zodiac and the planets -The phases of the moon -The course of the sun through the twelve signs -The Northern Constellations -The Southern Constellations -Astrology and the weather prognostics -The Analemma and its applications -Sundials and Water clocks
The Triad I. Strength, Durability, Firmness, Firmitas “foundations carried to solid ground” II. Convenience, Utility, Commodity, Utilitas “No hindrance to use” III. Beauty, Delight, Venustas due proportion and correct principles of symmetry Figure 9 p. 20 from: Architectural Theory Vol. 1 The Vutruvian Fallacy, David Smith Capon, Pub. John Wiley & Sons
Proportions “a correspondence among the measures of the members of an entire work” Vitruvian Man: -Book III, chapter I, part 2 -The guide for which interrelated measures were presented to the ancients from nature Perfect number 10; 6; 6 + 10, -ancients: 10 fingers -Plato: composition of 10 digits -mathematicians: 1/6 ; 1/3 ; ½ ; 2/3 ; 5/6 ; 6 -Vitruvius adds them together to get perfect number 16 Temples -Built to conform to symmetry and proportion. The column base is module when derived from proper division of width of each temple style. ex. Tetrastyle divided into 11. 5 parts Hexastyle divided into 18 parts Octastyle divided into 24. 5 parts 1 part = column base width “Uomo Vitruviano” Leonardo Da Vinci, plate from p. 2 of David Smith Capon
What still holds true Vitruvius states that man is imitative and teachable and supreme to all other animals. As is presented in the origins of the dwelling House. Fire gave comfort and man started to gather this gathering led to the building of shelters that were a joy of conversation and greater detail was added through time. Greater knowledge came as man learned from each other and from nature. The architecture that Vitruvius prescripts is highly dependent on nature from its site to proper proportions of the 4 elements in materials to the relation of human proportions in aesthetics and use.