- Количество слайдов: 31
Virtual Communities jmd – 2007 Notes are extracted from: Stephens, Michael (2007). Recent Research on Virtual Communities. Accessed: 25. 04. 07 http: //webjunction. org/do/Display. Content? id=11258
Defining Virtual Community n n Howard Rheingold (1993): “Social aggregators that emerge from the Net when enough people carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal relationships in cyberspace. ” (p. 5).
Social Activity of VCs n n n Goal of the community Methods of creating the group Evolution of the community q Based on Wenger’s Social Learning Theory (1998)
Henri & Pudelko’s 4 Types of VCs n France Henri and Bétrice Pudelko (2003) presented a concise, useful typology for virtual communities, comprised of four distinct categories and descriptions of the exchanges that occur within them: q q Community of interest - Information exchange about a topic Goal-oriented community of interest - Sharing of diverse perspectives and production of objects commissioned by the mandate. Learner's community - Participation to the realization of a collective educational project. Community of practice - Professional practice development through sharing knowledge among members of a professional community
Community of Interest Active Community of Interest Sites – many of these are goal oriented Coalfiel d Forum Wearabl e Tags NERAF West Forum EBC South Forum SNCWD Youth. Net Facebook: http: //www. studentaffairs. com/vcs/2006 entries/Ball. Stat e. University_wallaert_entry. ppt There are so many tools to support the building of virtual communities right now, and they all take time. It takes time to talk with people, and then when you do establish a larger network of contacts, these people in turn expect you to "keep in touch". Facebook can be attractive to those that want to establish a network quickly on a specific topic of interest. You can say it is based on the concept of Communities of Interest. Co. I are formed by members from different background, that come together under a common goal or interest. The Co. I can be loosely formed and temporary, and Facebook would support these types of communities.
Learner’s Community NMC Campus in Second Life and supporting blog http: //sl. nmc. org/ Second Life is a 3 D platform that supports unnumbered virtual communities. Individual members have accounts and are represented by avatars (your virtual character) These characters can be members of groups, can send IM to members of the groups, can read the profiles provided by group members, can receive notices of group activities.
Community of Practice
The VC Debate: Are virtual communities really and truly communities? n n Baker & Ward (2002) When the excitement of a common tie wears off, users realize virtual communities “offer thin communion without additional geographic or physical linkages” (p. 221).
The Internet Enhances Community n “The virtual community does not include identification with place, but it does require common ties and social interaction. ” (p. 375) n Wired communities are informed n A new communication tool n However: narrow communication usually on a specific topic Driskell & Lyon 2002
Simultaneous & Ongoing:
Information Behavior in Virtual Communities No Flaming No Spamming No Phishing
Burnett (2002) n n Gary Burnett, a professor at the University of Florida, says, people who do not interact but just read posts are known as lurkers. Those invisible participants in the community, he states, read what others have written "without also writing themselves constitute significant information-gathering activities. " The interactive behavior is more interesting. Two types of behavior: q q Hostile Positive or Interactive
Positive Interactive Behavior
Mynatt et al. (1998) n n Strong sense of “place” as newer tools for moving and communication emerge Identified 5 affordances (support) of the technologies that drive VCs
Persistance n n Can be measured Ebb and flow of use Chats may be rapid Postings may be slower
Periodicity n n n VCs have a sense of time unique to each environment E-mail response time may be longer than a chat room Participants know these rhythms
Boundaries n n n VC space may have auditoriums, smaller forums and private rooms. Participants can move between them Information does not transfer between areas, must be carried
Engagement n n Number of participants (1 to 1, many) Degree of participation Style of interaction Opportunity (scheduled, ad hoc)
Authoring n n n Participants create content and space Avatars and signature files Policies and norms are designed and created (FAQs)
Future Research n n n Wellman & Gulia’s Literature Review (1997) included interviews and personal experiences Anecdote should be replaced with evidence Offered 7 questions to study VCs
7 Questions to Define VCs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Are relationships on the Net narrow and specialized or broadly based? How does the Net affect people’s ability to sustain weaker, less intimate, relationships and to develop new ones? What is the nature of support on the Net? Are strong, intimate relationships possible online? How does high involvement in online communities affect participation in real world communities? What levels of diversity are there in online communities? Are virtual communities truly communities?
Blogs & the Blosphere as VC n n n Budding collaborative technologies such as blogs (Blanchard, 2004) and wikis (Ciffolilli, 2003), Web sites created by multiple authors in an encyclopedic format, offer new cyberspaces to apply and test theories. Blogs have many similarities to VCs Potential to evolve into beneficial, selfsustaining communities
Lawley (2004) n 5 approaches to studying blogs: q q q study of the form itself study of interactions between blogs and blog authors ethnographic studies of blog clusters and communities analysis of the content and style used in Web logs study of the use of Web logs as tools in specific organizational contexts
Wikis as VC n n n Wiki: Collaborative Web site Ciffolilli (2003) examined retention of members for the wikipedia Determined wikis can succeed as sustainable communities with a good balance of member interaction and policy
Smart Mobs n Rheingold (2002) book Smart Mobs, ponders where new technologies will take us. Smart mobs, a recent off-shoot of interaction online, are planned events created by those "who are able to act in concert even if they don't know each other" (p. xii) by using networked devices such as cell phones, PDAs and laptops and Internet.
References Baker, P. M. A. , & Ward, A. C. (2002). Bridging temporal and spatial gaps: the role of information and communication technologies in defining communities. Information, Communication & Society, 5(2), 207 -224. Blanchard, A. (2004). Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the Julie/Julia Project. Retrieved October 1, 2004, from http: //blog. lib. umn. edu/blogosphere/blogs_as_virtual. html Burnett, G. (2000). Information exchange in virtual communities: a typology. Retrieved August 31, 2004, from http: //informationr. net/ir/5 -4/paper 82. html Burnett, G. (2002). The Scattered members of an invisible republic: virtual communities and Paul Ricoeur’s Hermeneutics. The Library Quarterly, 72(2), 155 -178.
References Burnett, G. , Dickey, M. H. , Kazmer, M. , & Chudoba, K. (2003). Inscription and interpretation of text: a cultural hermeneutic examination of virtual community. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from http: //Information. R. net/ir/9 -1/paper 162. html Ciffolilli, A. (2003). Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of Members in virtual communities: the case of wikipedia. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from http: //firstmonday. org/issues/issue 8_12/ciffolilli/index. html Driskell, R. B. , & Lyon, L. (2002). Are virtual communities true communities? Examining the environments and elements of community. City & Community, 1(4), 373 -390. Henri, F. , & Pudelko, B. (2003). Understanding and analysing activity and learning in virtual communities. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (19), 474 -487.
References Lawley, E. (2004). Blog research issues. Retrieved September 28, 2004, from http: //www. corante. com/many/archives/2004/06/24/blog_research_iss ues. php Long, B. , & Baecker, R. (1997). A Taxonomy of Internet Connection Tools. Paper presented at the Web. Net '97, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mynatt, E. , O'Day, V. , Adler, A. , & Ito, M. (1998). Networked communities: Something old, something new, something borrowed. . . Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (7), 123 -156.
References Rheingold, H. (1993). The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. New York: Harper. Perennial. Rheingold, H. (2002). Smart Mobs The Next Social Revolution. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing. Stephens, Michael (2007). Recent Research on Virtual Communities. http: //webjunction. org/do/Display. Content? id=11258 Wellman, B. , & Gulia, M. (1999). Net surfers don't ride alone: Virtual communities as communities. Retrieved September 24, 2004, from http: //www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman/publications/netsurfers. pdf