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VERBALS October, 2013
What is a verbal? • A verbal is a verb functioning as some other part of speech. • There are three types of verbals: Gerunds, Infinitives, Participles.
What is a Gerund? Gerund is a word that ends with - ing • A verb functioning as a noun. • It can be anything as a noun is: - Subject - Direct object - Indirect object - Object of a preposition - Predicate nominative - Predicate appositional
Examples Subject: Talking loudly always attracts attention. Direct object: Everyone in my family enjoys watching the series. Indirect object: He gave voting for class president careful thought.
Examples Continued Object of a preposition: She worked eight hours without taking a break. Predicate nominative: A great thrill for her was winning the state tennis tournament. Apposition: Dad’s hobby, carving wooden soldiers, has taught him much about history.
What is a gerund phrase? • A group of words beginning with a gerund and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects and/or prepositional phrases. My teacher likes questioning us on our math skills.
Gerund Punctuation • A gerund never requires any punctuation with it (an exception would be a gerund set off by commas because it is an appositive, not because it is a gerund). My favourite sport, running track, is a great exercise.
Gerund Forms Active Passive Indefinite writing being written Perfect having been written having written
Activities Age and Gerunds 1 -3 4 -7 8 -10 11 -13 14 -16 17 -20 What activities do you enjoy doing. . . on weekends? when you are alone? in class? to relax? with friends? for exercise? when you are on vacation? during holidays? for fun?
Photographic Memory Remember + Gerund to recall a memory
«About Me» • I really enjoy • I can’t stand • I don’t mind • I usually avoid • I often miss living with my brother watching television touching a chalk board staying alone doing the dishes after meal
What is an Infinitive? It is the simplest verb form that usually begins with to. • It is used as a - a noun - an adjective - an adverb
Examples It can be - subject: To wait seemed foolish when action was required. - direct object: Everyone wanted to go. - subject complement: His ambition was to fly. - modifying adjective: He lacked the strength to resist. - modifying adverb: We must study to learn.
What is an infinitive phrase? • It is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and followed most often by modifying direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases: We intended to leave early.
Infinitive Forms Active Indefinite Continuous Perfect Continuous Passive to + V to be +3 f. V be + Ving ---- to have + 3 f V to have been+3 f. V to have been +Ving ---
Infinitive Punctuation • If the Infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for the infinitive phrase unless it is used as an appositive that is non-essential. To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.
Activities «Do It Yourself, Mr. Bean. » 1. He puts some balloons on the door. . . 2. He puts some music on. . . 3. The hats have letters on them. . . 4. He shakes hands. . 5. He cuts up a tree and puts it on a plate. . . 6. He puts some sugar in some vinegar. . 7. He steals his neighbour’s birdfeeder. . . 8. His guest changes the time on the clock to midnight. . . 9. He holds hands with his guests. . . 10. He turns off the light. . . 11. He takes out another clock. . . a). . to say ‘hello’. b). . to represent people’s names. c). . to eat the peanuts inside. d). . for people to eat. e). . to replace the wine. f). . to go to sleep. g). . to end the party early. h). . to sing a traditional song. i). . to check the time. j). . to celebrate New Year. k). . to dance to.
Possible Solutions • Your co-workers have designed a website. They made it really clean, minimalist, and dark. However, their customer asked them to redesign it and make it more user-friendly. Your friends came to you for advice. • You've got an opportunity to change the appearance of your working space. Suggest three ways to make it more comfortable. • Your team is going to present the project you were working on. The project manager comes up to you and asks how to make the presentation more interesting and fun. You can buy new computers to make work more effective.
What is a Participle? It is a verb functioning as an adjective (a word that modifies a noun or pronoun). In present tense it ends in –ing. In past tense it ends in –ed or has V-3
What is a participle phrase? It is a group of words consisting of a participle and modifiers and/or direct objects, indirect objects, and/or prepositional phrases. Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the water.
Participle Punctuation • When a participle phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase: Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed. If a participle phrase comes at the end and directly follows the word it modifiers, you should not use a comma: They often saw Paul wandering through the streets.
Participle Punctuation • If the participle or participle phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for the infinitive phrase unless it is used as an appositive that is non-essential: Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep. The girl swimming in the pool is my friend.
Present Participle Forms Active Indefinite Perfect Ving Passive being 3 f V having been 3 f V
Past Participle Forms Active ----- Passive 3 f V Ved
Causative Verbs let + person + verb - "to allow someone to do something. “ - John let me drive his new car. make + person + verb - "to force someone to do something. “- My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. have + person + verb -"to give someone the responsibility to do something. “ - Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. get + person + to + verb - "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something. “ - Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible.
Activities • Who’s the Boss? subject + causative verb + object + past participle + (agent). supervisors supervisor, office manager, project manager, vicepresident, director, CEO, owner, company president, program coordinator, executive chef, chief of staff, head designer. places restaurant, clothing store, car factory, language school, advertising agency
Neighborhood Gossip A asks B (on the left): Have you heard about Mr. Jones? B replies: No, what? / No, tell me. A then shares the gossip: Mr. Jones let his dog eat all the flowers in Mrs. Greenwood’s garden. B reacts appropriately: Oh my! Really? Etc. B to C (on the left): Guess what? Mr. Jones let his dog eat all the flowers in Mrs. Greenwood’s garden…and you know what else? Mrs. Greenwood got her son to build a fence around her garden so the dog can’t get in anymore.
Gerunds vs Infinitives Some verbs followed by gerunds Some verbs followed by infinitives admit, appreciate, avoid, can’t help, consider, deny, dislike, discuss, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, keep on, mind, miss, practice, prefer, put off, quit, recall, recollect, suggest, talk about, think about can’t afford, agree, appear, begin claim, choose, dare, demand, decide, expect, deserve, fail, happen, hesitate, manage, mean, need, offer, plan, promise, refuse, swear, threaten, want, wish, would like, would love
Gerunds vs Infinitives Common verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds no difference meaning is different begin, start, continue, like, love, prefer, hate, can’t stand, can’t bear remember, forget, regret, try, stop, intend, advise
Gerunds vs Infinitives • Use Gerunds to refer to actions that are: vivid, real, ongoing in the present or competed in the past • Use Infinitives to refer to actions that are: hypothetical, unfulfilled or future- oriented.
Grammar Casino № The Sentence 1 She dreads coming to class. 2 They delayed issuing the press statement as long as they could. 3 He resents to have to report to the police each day. 4 They can’t afford to buy a new car. 5 She promised telling me her secret. 6 She refuses paying up. 7 They enjoy to be praised. 8 Please avoid to use bad language. 9 He forgot buying a ticket. Your Bet
10 He failed passing the math exam. 11 She threatened to make a fuss. 12 He deserves to be shot. 13 He denied eating the last piece of cake. 14 She wishes to ask you a favour. 15 He missed having somebody to dislike.