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Vehicular Communication Eco-Systems Ralf G. Herrtwich Group Research and Advanced Engineering Infotainment and Telematics Vehicular Communication Eco-Systems Ralf G. Herrtwich Group Research and Advanced Engineering Infotainment and Telematics GR/PT Madrid 30 Oct 2009 Daimler 2009 /

Towards an Internet of Things In a world where everything is networked, the vehicle Towards an Internet of Things In a world where everything is networked, the vehicle will not be left out. Daimler 2009 2

Networked Vehicle Applications Networked applications can target both the vehicle and its users. Vehicle Networked Vehicle Applications Networked applications can target both the vehicle and its users. Vehicle tracking Electronic tolling Real-time traffic E-mail access Usercentric In-Car Info Mobility Drivecentric Comfort Vehiclecentric Maintenance Safety Security Tele-diagnosis Daimler 2009 Efficiency Information Productivity Entertainment Remote unlock Hazard warning Local weather Internet radio 3

Issues and Questions 1. IP it is: Cars on the Internet • • • Issues and Questions 1. IP it is: Cars on the Internet • • • The general idea of a networked vehicle is not new. What has changed recently to make this a worthwhile topic again? Why is it happening now? 2. IP and below: Communication Scenarios and Networks • • • Several forms of vehicular communication exist. Which communication platforms are likely to be used? Where will we see them being deployed? 3. IP and above: Networked Applications and Middleware • • • Rather than just enabling a fixed set of networked applications, communication is a means to update these applications. Which middleware is needed to support flexible networked vehicular applications? Will this result in an eco-system of software for networked cars? Daimler 2009 4

IP it is: Cars on the Internet IP it is: Cars on the Internet

At Mercedes-Benz, we invented Internet cars 10 years ago. Daimler 2009 6 At Mercedes-Benz, we invented Internet cars 10 years ago. Daimler 2009 6

Yet to this very day, communication on the road remains a bit oldfashioned. Wake Yet to this very day, communication on the road remains a bit oldfashioned. Wake Up! Daimler 2009 7

But finally, Internet cars make their appearance on our roadways. Daimler 2009 8 But finally, Internet cars make their appearance on our roadways. Daimler 2009 8

What made it so hard? Daimler 2009 (1) Use cases were debated heavily. (2) What made it so hard? Daimler 2009 (1) Use cases were debated heavily. (2) Mobile browsing was not much fun. (3) Cellular bandwidth was scarce. (4) Coverage was limited. (5) Mobile communication was costly. (6) On-board hardware was problematic. (7)(7) Back-end processes were challenging for automotive manufacturers. (8)(8) Security issues were scary. (9)(9) A customer’s device might do the job. 9

What changed? Daimler 2009 (1) There were no itself is use cases. Connectivity compelling What changed? Daimler 2009 (1) There were no itself is use cases. Connectivity compelling use enough. (2) Mobile browsing wasnow much fun. Mobile browsing is not feasible. (3) Cellular bandwidth wasok and getting Cellular bandwidth is scarce. (4)better. Coverage was limited. (4) Mobile communication was costly. Coverage is ok in most countries. (5) On-board hardware was problematic. Flat rates made costs deterministic. (6) Back-end processes were challenging for Interfacing to consumer devices is key. (7)(7) Even automotive manufacturers get a automotive manufacturers. grip on running servers. (8) Security issues were scary. (8)(8) Security alternatives. (9) There were bettercan be managed. (9)(9) Vehicle interfacing has (10) The business case was not there. benefits. (10) The vehicle needs to be 10

IP and below: Communication Scenarios and Networks IP and below: Communication Scenarios and Networks

Scenario 1: Vehicle to Vehicle Connectivity Friend finder Hazard warning Virtual platooning … Daimler Scenario 1: Vehicle to Vehicle Connectivity Friend finder Hazard warning Virtual platooning … Daimler 2009 12

Scenario 2: Vehicle to Infrastructure Connectivity Red light alert Green driving advice Tolling … Scenario 2: Vehicle to Infrastructure Connectivity Red light alert Green driving advice Tolling … Daimler 2009 13

Scenario 3: Vehicle to Web Connectivity Local search News, weather Data uploads … Daimler Scenario 3: Vehicle to Web Connectivity Local search News, weather Data uploads … Daimler 2009 14

Vehicle to Web Connectivity: Architecture Special HMI for safe access while driving Integrated Services Vehicle to Web Connectivity: Architecture Special HMI for safe access while driving Integrated Services Content Gateway Formatting and filtering for Secured connection convenient browsing (VPN) in parked vehicle Daimler 2009 Internet 15

Base Technology 1: Cellular Communication Technology: • • 2 G and 3 G networks Base Technology 1: Cellular Communication Technology: • • 2 G and 3 G networks built around the world with varying degrees of coverage and performance 4 G networks (Long-term evolution, LTE) scheduled to gradually appear around the world in 2012 with prospects of broad coverage („digital dividend“) and significantly improved performance (100 Mbit/s) Advantages: • • • Networks exist or are being built for reasons beyond automotive User-provided equipment can possibly be used for vehicular communication Embedded equipment is also feasible (automotive-grade SIM chips etc. ) Issues: • • Performance Pricing Roaming Addressing (geo-casting, vehicle-to-vehicle message relay) Best for vehicle-to-web, potential for vehicle-to-vehicle. Daimler 2009 16

Base Technology 2: DSRC (Dedicated Short-Range Communication) Technology: • • • WLAN variant (IEEE Base Technology 2: DSRC (Dedicated Short-Range Communication) Technology: • • • WLAN variant (IEEE 802. 11 p at 5. 9 GHz) for localized ad-hoc networking between • On-board units (OBUs) in vehicles • Road-side units (RSUs) on the street, typically combined with traffic lights or automated road signs Frequencies set aside in triad countries Networks (with the exception of Japan) yet to be built Advantages: • • • Designed for vehicular communication Dedicated spectrum Low latency Issues: • • Dedicated equipment in vehicles needed No infrastructure built yet Best for vehicle-to-infrastructure, good for vehicle-to-vehicle. Dual approaches of 4 G and DSRC are likely. Daimler 2009 17

IP and above: Networked Applications and Middleware IP and above: Networked Applications and Middleware

Moving Into the Cloud Connectivity leads to a migration of features from devices into Moving Into the Cloud Connectivity leads to a migration of features from devices into the cloud – regardless of the device. Head-Unit Daimler 2009 PND Smartphone 19

Applications or Services? Similar implementation options exist for networked vehicle applications as for all Applications or Services? Similar implementation options exist for networked vehicle applications as for all other distributed systems. Applets Thick client Thin client Install before use Install when used Native on OS Executed in browser Some function while disconnected Daimler 2009 Services Works only when connected 20

my. COMAND System concept: • • World’s first Internet-only head-unit designed with 4 G my. COMAND System concept: • • World’s first Internet-only head-unit designed with 4 G cellular networks in mind All software provided over the air All features implemented as Internet services State-of-the-art HMI Features: • • • Internet radio instead of FM/AM tuners Server and You. Tube access instead of CDs and DVDs Voice over IP instead of traditional voice calling Goole maps instead of on-board navigation Trip. Assist to tie together all localized content: • Streetview • Wikipedia • Weather • Parking • Reservations • Ratings Daimler 2009 21

From Systems via Platforms to Eco-systems A fresh start: • • A lack of From Systems via Platforms to Eco-systems A fresh start: • • A lack of stable platforms limits re-use and code sharing in telematics today. Cloud-based telematics systems require new platforms anyway. Why not „do it right“ for the next generation of telematics systems? Tomorrow: Feature and OS Bundle Operating System Board Support Package (BSP) Hardware All-in-one Bundle Feature Software Operating System Development Tools Feature Software HMI and Feature Bundle HMI Software System Integration HMI Software Development Tools Today: Board Support Package (BSP) Hardware But which platform to choose? Daimler 2009 22

Intel GENIVI Daimler 2009 23 Intel GENIVI Daimler 2009 23

Microsoft Auto Daimler 2009 24 Microsoft Auto Daimler 2009 24

Google Android Daimler 2009 25 Google Android Daimler 2009 25

Conclusion Conclusion

Perspective What is clear? • • • Vehicle connectivity is happening. Two complimentary communication Perspective What is clear? • • • Vehicle connectivity is happening. Two complimentary communication systems form its base. Cloud computing approaches lead to new vehicle software architectures. What is yet unclear? • • • Will all of this be limited to the infotainment and telematics domain? Will a generalized interface to vehicle data/vehicles functions be opened up? Which platform (= eco-system) will prevail? But finally, also a word of caution: • • • We often think of Apple‘s success when it comes to eco-systems. Not all eco-systems are as vast. # Telematics units << # i. Pods So, will this become an eco-niche rather than an eco-system? Daimler 2009 27