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Variety Among Technical / Technology Education Doctoral Programs Jim Flowers Edward Lazaros (Holly Baltzer) Variety Among Technical / Technology Education Doctoral Programs Jim Flowers Edward Lazaros (Holly Baltzer) Ball State University Presented through the Council on Technology Teacher Education at the International Technology Education Association Conference in Salt Lake City, UT, February 21, 2008 http: //jcflowers 1. iweb. bsu. edu/pres/2008 ITEA. ppt This study was funded in part through a CTTE research incentive grant.

3 – Phase Study 1. Perceived demand for an online or hybrid doctoral program 3 – Phase Study 1. Perceived demand for an online or hybrid doctoral program from a survey of prospective students 2. Hiring attitudes towards those with a doctoral degree earned online 3. Status of current doctoral programs

Phase 3: Results of telephone interviews with 19 program directors / chairs in 2006/2007 Phase 3: Results of telephone interviews with 19 program directors / chairs in 2006/2007 Baltzer, H. , Lazaros, E. , & Flowers, J. , (2007). Review of doctoral programs in technical education. J. of Industrial Teacher Education, 44(2), 37 -59.

Earlier Phases Flowers, J. , & Baltzer, H. (2006). Perceived demand for online and Earlier Phases Flowers, J. , & Baltzer, H. (2006). Perceived demand for online and hybrid doctoral programs in technical education. J. of Industrial Teacher Education, 43(4), 39 -56. Retrieved from http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/ejournals/JITE/v 43 n 4/pdf/flowers. pdf Flowers, J. , & Baltzer, H. (2006). Hiring technical education faculty: Vacancies, criteria, and attitudes toward online doctoral degrees. J. of Industrial Teacher Education, 43(3), 29 -44. Retrieved from http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/ejournals/JITE/v 43 n 3/pdf/flowers. pdf

Disturbing Trends Disturbing Trends

Doctoral Graduates in IA/TE Doctoral Graduates in IA/TE

Doctoral Graduates in IA/TE Doctoral Graduates in IA/TE

Difficulties in Hiring TE Faculty TE Search Failure Rates Source: Brown, D. (2002). Supply Difficulties in Hiring TE Faculty TE Search Failure Rates Source: Brown, D. (2002). Supply and Demand Analysis of Industrial Teacher Education Faculty. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(1), 60 -73.

Difficulties in Hiring TE Faculty Applicants per Position 75% of Brown’s (2002) respondents found Difficulties in Hiring TE Faculty Applicants per Position 75% of Brown’s (2002) respondents found the applicant pool “inadequate. ” Source: Brown, D. (2002). Supply and Demand Analysis of Industrial Teacher Education Faculty. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(1), 60 -73.

Possible Implications Not enough quality applicants for higher education positions – Failed searches? – Possible Implications Not enough quality applicants for higher education positions – Failed searches? – Lowering expectations? – Possible program closures? Less research in the field of technology education • Reed (2002) noted there was “a steady decline in graduate research” (p. 68)

Online Education in the US is growing – Enrollments are increasing. – Becoming a Online Education in the US is growing – Enrollments are increasing. – Becoming a part of many institutions long-term strategies However, it is not growing uniformly – Doctoral programs have the least program penetration (institutions offering the same program face-to-face and online. ) – Technical education fits this trend

2005 Program Penetration Rates the “proportion of institutions that offer a particular type of 2005 Program Penetration Rates the “proportion of institutions that offer a particular type of face-to-face course or program [and] provide the same type of offering online” (p. 5) Bachelor’s: 29. 9% Master’s: 43. 6% Doctoral: 12. 4% Source: Allen, I. E. , and Seaman, J. , (2005). Growing by degrees: Online education in the United States, 2005. Source: Allen, I. E. , and Seaman, J. , (2005). Growing Needham, MA: Sloan-C. Retrieved October 18, 2006 from http: //www. sloan-c. org/publications/survey/pdf/growing_by_degrees. pdf

Phase 3 Goal To record a “snapshot” of existing programs and assess the readiness Phase 3 Goal To record a “snapshot” of existing programs and assess the readiness of the field for distance doctoral programs according to TE doctoral program directors / chairs. – – – Program Characteristics Themes and Directions Faculty Vacancies & Hiring Criteria Online Elements Obstacles, Solutions, & Opportunities Recommendations from Chairs/Program Directors

Target Audience Those designing/implementing doctoral programs Future applicants for faculty positions Those contemplating doctoral Target Audience Those designing/implementing doctoral programs Future applicants for faculty positions Those contemplating doctoral study

Methodology Investigation of Online Materials Telephone Interviews of Chairs or Doctoral Program Directors in Methodology Investigation of Online Materials Telephone Interviews of Chairs or Doctoral Program Directors in 2006 / 2007 – One of two interviewers – Discussion among three researchers, including identification of themes and classification of data, until consensus

Sample List of Ph. D and Ed. D programs – Industrial Teacher Education Directory Sample List of Ph. D and Ed. D programs – Industrial Teacher Education Directory for 2005 -2006 – www. petersons. com – www. gradschools. com One chair/coordinator per institution 23 verified doctoral programs 19 agreed to participate in telephone interviews

Sincere thanks go to the chairs / directors at the following institutions. Sincere thanks go to the chairs / directors at the following institutions.

Participating Institutions Clemson University – Ph. D and Ed. D in Workforce Education and Participating Institutions Clemson University – Ph. D and Ed. D in Workforce Education and Development Indiana State University – Ph. D in Technology Management (Consortium) North Carolina State University – Ed. D in Technology Education Oklahoma State University – Ph. D in Education, option in Occupational Education Old Dominion University – Ph. D in Education, concentration in Occupational & Technical Studies

Participating Institutions Purdue University – Ph. D in Curriculum & Instruction, concentration in Career Participating Institutions Purdue University – Ph. D in Curriculum & Instruction, concentration in Career & Technical Education Southern Illinois University Carbondale – Ph. D in Education, concentration in Workforce Education The Ohio State University – Ph. D in Integrated Mathematics, Science, & Technology Education University of British Columbia – Ph. D and Ed. D in Curriculum Studies, concentration in Technology University of Georgia – Ph. D and Ed. D in Workforce Education

Participating Institutions University of Manitoba – Ph. D in Education, area in Technology or Participating Institutions University of Manitoba – Ph. D in Education, area in Technology or Technology Education University of Minnesota – Ph. D and Ed. D in Work & Human Resource Education University of Nevada-Las Vegas – Ph. D Higher Education, Workforce Education & Development University of North Texas – Ph. D and Ed. D in Applied Technology & Performance Improvement University of South Florida – Ph. D in Curriculum & Instruction, concentration in Career & Workforce Ed.

Participating Institutions Utah State University – Ph. D and Ed. D in Education (Curriculum Participating Institutions Utah State University – Ph. D and Ed. D in Education (Curriculum & Instruction), emphasis in Engineering & Technology Ed. Valdosta State University – Ed. D in Adult & Career Education Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University – Ph. D and Ed. D in Curriculum & Instruction, concentration in Technology Education Western Michigan University – Ph. D in Educational Leadership, Concentration in Career & Technical Education

Degree Type (N = 19) Degree Type – 10 Ph. D only – 2 Degree Type (N = 19) Degree Type – 10 Ph. D only – 2 Ed. D only – 7 Ed. D and Ph. D – Some noted the phasing out of Ed. D Consortium Program

Program Themes What is the primary theme, or what sets apart the respondents doctoral Program Themes What is the primary theme, or what sets apart the respondents doctoral program? ” (n=17, multiple responses were possible) Educational Studies Research STEM Integration Private Sector Technical/Industrial Student-Centered Program Technology and Society 6 3 2 2 1

Program Evolution How is the respondent’s program evolving or what new directions is the Program Evolution How is the respondent’s program evolving or what new directions is the program taking? (n = 17, multiple responses were possible) STEM 4 Research 4 Introducing online elements 3 Improving quality of teaching and curriculum 3 Attracting international students 3 Changing from an Ed. D to a Ph. D 3 Workforce training 2 Leadership 1

Students & Faculty Full time doctoral students – Mean = 45. 1, SD = Students & Faculty Full time doctoral students – Mean = 45. 1, SD = 41. 2, n = 15 – without consortium, mean = 37. 4, SD = 27. 4, range = 5 to 82 Doctoral enrollment is reported as – Growing: 7 – Stable: 8 – Shrinking: 3 Number of doctoral faculty – Mean = 10. 9, SD = 11. 1, n = 15, range = 1 to 40 Ratio of 3. 4 students per faculty – this overlooks other faculty assignments

Faculty Vacancies The average number of current tenure track faculty vacancies per department was Faculty Vacancies The average number of current tenure track faculty vacancies per department was 1. 2 (SD = 1. 3, n = 15). The average for contract faculty was 0. 5 (SD = 1. 2, n = 12). The predicted number of vacancies for tenure track faculty over the next 5 years ranged from 0 to 30, with an average of 5. 0 (SD = 7. 2, n = 15), or 1. 0 per year. For contract faculty over the next five years the average was 3. 3 (SD = 3. 6, n = 9), or. 72 per year.

Hiring Criteria Main Hiring Criteria for a Tenure Track Position (n = 16, multiple Hiring Criteria Main Hiring Criteria for a Tenure Track Position (n = 16, multiple responses were possible) Research and publications 11 Holds a terminal degree 6 Teaching experience or formal teaching preparation 5 Industry experience 5 Personality and fit 3 Specifically public school teaching experience 3 Service 2 Grants and funding 2 Enthusiasm and dedication 2 Knowledge of distance education technologies 1 Knowledge of state educational law and mandates 1 Good recommendations 1

Teaching Load The teaching load varied from 1. 5 to 4 three-credit courses per Teaching Load The teaching load varied from 1. 5 to 4 three-credit courses per semester with a mean of 2. 56. Faculty Load Reported as Number of Three Credit Hour Courses Per Semester (n = 18, Mean = 2. 56). Courses Programs 1. 0 0 1. 5 1 2. 0 8 2. 5 1 3. 0 6 3. 5 0 4. 0 2

Emphasis placed on research, teaching, and service for a new faculty member Mean Research Emphasis placed on research, teaching, and service for a new faculty member Mean Research / Teaching / Service emphases were 46% / 36% / 18% but research ranged from 25% to 80%. – (25 / 54 / 21% at Bach & Masters institutions)

Hiring Preferences 11 of 15 reportedly preferred a candidate with a face-to-face degree. – Hiring Preferences 11 of 15 reportedly preferred a candidate with a face-to-face degree. – F 2 F over hybrid; hybrid over online Quality of program/institution was mentioned by some over delivery method.

Online Elements 11/17 use faculty-at-adistance 11/18 offer at least one grad class by DE Online Elements 11/17 use faculty-at-adistance 11/18 offer at least one grad class by DE 7/16 plan to offer more online grad classes

Transitioning to an Online Program 7/16 suggested their program could be transitioned to an Transitioning to an Online Program 7/16 suggested their program could be transitioned to an online or nearly online model. Old Dominion has transitioned to DE.

How much is an online doctorate program needed by the field? Mean of 4. How much is an online doctorate program needed by the field? Mean of 4. 2 (n=15) on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 10 (extremely) Reasons: – Perceived weakness – Inability of DE to provide rich experience – Would not be received as well during hiring

Comments “Don't. Try to figure out a hybrid design. You've got to get people Comments “Don't. Try to figure out a hybrid design. You've got to get people on campus. Even the informal things that happen are priceless, discussions over coffee, for example. . . ” “Don't promise more than what you can deliver. Be honest about what an online degree will actually do for them. If a person wants a doctorate degree to get a pay raise at the secondary level, an online degree is good. If they want to get a doctorate degree to go to the next level in their career an online degree will not get that for them…”

Program Obstacles (n Historic = 16, n Present = 14, multiple responses were possible) Program Obstacles (n Historic = 16, n Present = 14, multiple responses were possible) Historic Present Too few staff & faculty; too many students 9 8 Lack of administrative support 6 5 Lack of funding for students 2 3 Lack of organization 1 3 University requirements outside department 2 Broaden course offerings 2 Increasing student costs 1 Lack of program philosophy 1 Changing field 2 Attrition 2 Disagreement within faculty 1 Losing organizational history 1

Reported Solutions (n Historic = 9, n Present = 10, multiple responses were possible) Reported Solutions (n Historic = 9, n Present = 10, multiple responses were possible) Historic Present Fundamental change in the program 2 4 More funding 1 4 Increase faculty or limit number of students 4 2 Change in administration Add alternative course delivery 2 1 1 More funding for students 1 Increase course offerings 1 Ways of better meeting student needs 1 Revise course cancellation requirements 1 More research 1

Program Opportunities Funding and grants Fundamental change in program itself Partnering with other universities Program Opportunities Funding and grants Fundamental change in program itself Partnering with other universities or programs Increase the number of students 11 4 3 3 Ways of better meeting student needs Partnering with state agencies Increase admission selectivity Attract and accommodate international students Funding for distance elements 2 1 1

Recommendations for newly forming F 2 F doctoral TE programs. (n = 15, multiple Recommendations for newly forming F 2 F doctoral TE programs. (n = 15, multiple responses were possible) A research emphasis 6 Administration support and funding 3 Focus on college faculty preparation 3 Ways of better meeting student needs 2 Increase online elements 2 Better allocation of resources 2 Emphasize leadership 1 Shift to regional institutions 1 Better marketing 1 Increase admission selectivity 1 Attract international students 1

Respondents’ Recommendations A Research Emphasis – “We have to prepare doctoral students to be Respondents’ Recommendations A Research Emphasis – “We have to prepare doctoral students to be future researchers. We have a pitiful research database. They have to be articulate, they have to communicate well, and their research has to be respected. Otherwise we are dead, and should be. ”

Respondents’ Recommendations More support, promotion, etc. – “You have to have a commitment from Respondents’ Recommendations More support, promotion, etc. – “You have to have a commitment from the administration for financial support. We have more programs than we know what to do with and no infrastructure has changed. You need support staff, travel funds, graduate assistants. Just more faculty doesn't help. Promotion of the program is important and funds need to be allocated for it. ”

Respondents’ recommendations for newly forming online doctoral TE programs. (n = 16, multiple responses Respondents’ recommendations for newly forming online doctoral TE programs. (n = 16, multiple responses were possible) Consider hybrid, blended or consortiums 6 Bad idea 3 Use various and appropriate instructional technologies 3 Must have quality assurances 3 Provide meaningful interactions 3 Rigorous admissions requirements 2 Be honest about hiring bias 2 Provide many student resources 1 Base degree on research and scholarship 1 Must have program support 1 Student-centered education 1 Must have high quality professors 1

Respondents’ Recommendations Demand quality – “I don’t like it. Don’t compromise quality. ” Respondents’ Recommendations Demand quality – “I don’t like it. Don’t compromise quality. ”

Conclusions Diversity among programs – Size, Theme, Loads, Research Emphasis Preference for F 2 Conclusions Diversity among programs – Size, Theme, Loads, Research Emphasis Preference for F 2 F with pockets of acceptance – Quality concerns Opportunities

Variety Among Technical / Technology Education Doctoral Programs Jim Flowers Edward Lazaros (Holly Baltzer) Variety Among Technical / Technology Education Doctoral Programs Jim Flowers Edward Lazaros (Holly Baltzer) Ball State University Presented through the Council on Technology Teacher Education at the International Technology Education Association Conference in Salt Lake City, UT, February 21, 2008 http: //jcflowers 1. iweb. bsu. edu/pres/2008 ITEA. ppt This study was funded in part through a CTTE research incentive grant.