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VAD/SGAS-Tagung uni basel 16. Mai 2008 Change and persistence in crisis : a gender VAD/SGAS-Tagung uni basel 16. Mai 2008 Change and persistence in crisis : a gender case study in Western Ivory Coast Thomas Bearth thomas. [email protected] ch

Zoom 3 - Tura – das „Trapez“ Zoom 3 - Tura – das „Trapez“

Zoom 4 -Kpata (Dorfebene) Zoom 4 -Kpata (Dorfebene)

19. 9. 2002 – 16. 4. 2007 19. 9. 2002 – 16. 4. 2007

Crisis and gender How crisis affects In the context of - Gender relations Gerontocratic Crisis and gender How crisis affects In the context of - Gender relations Gerontocratic rule - Gender discourse Economic disaster - Gender taboo Loyalty to rule vs. Survival need Crisis & conflict - Economic power relation Female exclusion from public arena - Empowerment of women Resilience of tradition - Urban poverty Crisis as a learning experience Konon, Action Research (RANT)

Women in the gerontocratic system • Control of all aspects of public life by Women in the gerontocratic system • Control of all aspects of public life by male elders • Nature of this control: includes occult power. • Violation of rules tends to be sanctioned as sorcery. • Lñáñá as a resource.

Gender divide as a sacral institution • Religious institutions translated into taboos which dominate Gender divide as a sacral institution • Religious institutions translated into taboos which dominate social life. • The sacred is gendered • Hence: Gender is sacred • The sacred is excluded from the class of negotiables • ‘The social is embedded in the « sacred » ’ • The sacred as pretext for maintaining control.

Die Palaverhütte: Think tank (M) lokaler Entscheidungen Die Palaverhütte – Afrikas „think tank“ ist Die Palaverhütte: Think tank (M) lokaler Entscheidungen Die Palaverhütte – Afrikas „think tank“ ist männlich

Dual-gendered distribution of sacred institutions The limits of „apatam-centered research strategies“ Nach Gonnin 1986: Dual-gendered distribution of sacred institutions The limits of „apatam-centered research strategies“ Nach Gonnin 1986: 213

Communicative spaces-1 Communicative spaces-1

Communicative spaces-2 Communicative spaces-2

Dual-gendered economy • Rights of property in the exogamous clan: – Bride-price (law of Dual-gendered economy • Rights of property in the exogamous clan: – Bride-price (law of transitivity) – Transmission by patrilineal descent (agnatic law) • Division of labour, dual-gender system – Male revenue (cash crop) – Female revenue for zñáän ‘soup’ – Male control over F+M revenue – Loophole: F economic activity + associations

Being a Tura women means to cope with 3 -fold marginalisation • - Tura Being a Tura women means to cope with 3 -fold marginalisation • - Tura = minority, isolated, remote, retarded. Quote Dantomba • - as a woman within Tura society. Her place is not in the public space (apatam, palaber hut), but in the houseu • - latency, in school. Limited right to own resources. « Speaking a minority language compounds the marginalisation of being a woman. » (Robinson 1996 : 216)

Socio-political effects of crisis Institutional vacuum Compensation Disappearance of state government Strengthening of traditional Socio-political effects of crisis Institutional vacuum Compensation Disappearance of state government Strengthening of traditional authority Zero mobility French-speaking administration and institutions vanish School system collapses Revitalization of Tura culture Celebrations Tura Language festival

Cycle of secondary poverty induced by war (gwili) and isolation Breakdown of local economy Cycle of secondary poverty induced by war (gwili) and isolation Breakdown of local economy male economy female economy PRE-CRISIS cash crops garden produce CRISIS Export routes Markets dried closed out Palm leave brooms joint male-female activity (video FEB. 2005) only income-generating activity left (DG-203, 205, passim)

Palm leaves for economic survival Palm leaves for economic survival

Palm leave brooms industry Kpata, February 2005 Palm leave brooms industry Kpata, February 2005

PBI is emblematic of unsustainability both in ecological and economica terms • 1 palm PBI is emblematic of unsustainability both in ecological and economica terms • 1 palm tree yields: 2 -3 brooms, 10 h work + 1 -4 h transport on foot, producer price: 8 c/piece. 3 years needed for recovery (if at all); 3 years yield from palm oil sales is 10 times as much! • Palm tree by-products - soap and potassum (salt substitute) - must now be bought on the market. • The palm-tree eco-system of small mammals (protein source) is destroyed. Þ PBI money increases dependency from money and destroys basis for sustainable income. Þ The women know it. (We know this from LLH-1. )

Local analysis-1 (men) • Listening to what men are saying • Miõn' koá yaa Local analysis-1 (men) • Listening to what men are saying • Miõn' koá yaa eá ko lääleá wöàöà koá aà peì zeá yñáin eá ñàñn ko miõn leàeà zaâa yaáan-le-gä-le All that is left of our „maleness“ now is the word in our mouth. Even for 50 cfa to buy tobacco, we depend on them. • •

Local analysis-2 (women) Listening to what women are saying. Ko väaánwñáñá' go le any Local analysis-2 (women) Listening to what women are saying. Ko väaánwñáñá' go le any other incomegenerating activity We palm-broom-F 1 make TM. 4. Ko väaánwñáñá’ go laâ, le ko suáuàkpñáñá lõ laaá, le ko aàng gba wñáññá buubuunñáboà-aá laâa We make brooms DEF and we driedcassava buy CONT, and we them give money 10 -10 -little-PL

Local analysis-3 (all) • Ale-kõàõà aàa bhe le. • “Its manner does not exist. Local analysis-3 (all) • Ale-kõàõà aàa bhe le. • “Its manner does not exist. ” F/M: There is no alternative (to the PBI) Old men: There is no alternative (to relinquishing our authority).

From dependency to poverty: re-alignment of gender roles • The Pre-war economic system, or From dependency to poverty: re-alignment of gender roles • The Pre-war economic system, or what remains of it, is shaken to its foundations. • Strategies for coping with poverty fail: system of inter-gender borrowing • New: self-diagnosed poverty • Women’s new role as the only provider in accordance with traditional role images • Radical reversal of dependency relations

Communicative spaces-3 Sitting in the old man’s place Communicative spaces-3 Sitting in the old man’s place

2007: 2 years later Pre-postcrisis? Coffee + PBI (still!) + Firewood 2007: 2 years later Pre-postcrisis? Coffee + PBI (still!) + Firewood

A paradigm of change and persistence Changes due to crisis Change and persistence in A paradigm of change and persistence Changes due to crisis Change and persistence in gender relations Inversion of economic dependency Claim to ownership of acquired relations property Female control of economic survival resources No attempt to conquer public space Recognition of female economic prominence by men The prison doors are open, but … Recognition of male dominance as a prerequisite to female initiative (Singo 2007: 236) Urban context (AGRA Project) Women’s association in Abidjan Idem

Attempts at explanation • Entrenchment of tribal • Non negotiable Oideology knowledge • Socialization Attempts at explanation • Entrenchment of tribal • Non negotiable Oideology knowledge • Socialization • In-group solidarity • Strategy • Success story of indirect strategies • Economic • Extreme poverty: codepence, defies change

Learning from crisis? • Integrating crisis experience • Negotiating scope of negotiation • Expanding Learning from crisis? • Integrating crisis experience • Negotiating scope of negotiation • Expanding scope of negotiation • Kono Ditomba • Ditomba 0701. doc

To learn more Dynamiques du genre : le cas toura. Stratégies de survie en To learn more Dynamiques du genre : le cas toura. Stratégies de survie en temps de crise. Abidjan : Editions Livres Sud (EDILIS). Avec des contributions de Joseph Baya, Thomas Bearth, Rose Marie Beck, Mohamed Doumbia, Douoh Honorine Guéli, S. Jacques Silué, Geneviève Singo, Lydie Vé Kouadio. Préface François A. Adopo. 286 p. + iv planches couleur. ISBN : 978 -2 -915403 -64 -0 Vente en librairie : 7500 cfa. Vente en Europe : 24 € (www. soumbala. com).

www. lagsus. de Thanks to the Volkswagen Foundation for sponsoring LAGSUS IN A TIME www. lagsus. de Thanks to the Volkswagen Foundation for sponsoring LAGSUS IN A TIME OF CRISIS Language, Gender & Sustainability Thank you for your attention