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UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 8 th UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 8 th International Symposium “Metrology of Time and Space“ St. Petersburg, 14 - 16 September 2016, Plenary Session Andreas Bauch, Jürgen Becker, Dirk Piester, Thomas Polewka, Dieter Sibold, Stefan Weyers

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination § By UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination § By law, PTB is responsible for the realization and dissemination of the time unit and of legal time within Germany. § UTC(PTB) is the basis of all activities in this regard. § Dissemination is accomplished via radio transmitter DCF 77, NTP and telephone. § The realization of UTC(PTB) has to be reliable, redundant, and easy to be operated. § UTC(PTB) shall be predictable and the scale unit shall comply with the SI second (with small deviations). 14. 09. 2016 2 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Four active UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Four active hydrogen masers used as needed 14. 09. 2016 3 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Realization of UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Realization of UTC(PTB) 2010 - 2016 internal Calculation of steering: daily external sources monthly X monthly/(weekly) X δf. Steer = δf. Ref + δf. Rate + δf. Offset 14. 09. 2016 4 TA(PTB) St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Literature on UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Literature on details: Bauch et al. , Generation of UTC(PTB) as a fountain-clock based time scale , Metrologia 49 (2012) 180– 188 Bauch et al. , A Status Report on Time Scale Generation in PTB, Proc. 2015 IFCS/EFTF 379 – 384. Rovera et al. , UTC(OP) based on LNE-SYRTE atomic fountain PFS, Metrologia 53 (2016) S 81–S 88 Calculation of steering: daily monthly/(weekly) δf. Steer = δf. Ref + δf. Rate + δf. Offset 14. 09. 2016 5 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination δf. Ref: UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination δf. Ref: represents frequency offset between AHM and steering references Which averaging time? depends on instability of the maser and the steering references, on the reliability of data delivery Calculation of steering: daily monthly X monthly/(weekly) X δf. Steer = δf. Ref + δf. Rate + δf. Offset 14. 09. 2016 6 TA(PTB) St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination δf. Rate UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination δf. Rate : represents rate offset between steering references and TAI Available monthly PTB: use TAI scale interval d from Circular. T, Section 3, apply during next month OP: mean rate of UTC(OP) – UTC, predict for the next month Calculation of steering: daily monthly X monthly/(weekly) X δf. Steer = δf. Ref + δf. Rate + δf. Offset 14. 09. 2016 7 TA(PTB) St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination δf. Offset UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination δf. Offset : suppression of time difference UTC-UTC(k) at the end of the month available monthly Calculation of steering: daily monthly X monthly/(weekly) X δf. Steer = δf. Ref + δf. Rate + δf. Offset 14. 09. 2016 8 TA(PTB) St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination PTB: Calculation UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination PTB: Calculation of δf. Steer five times in parallel, depending on available references: CSF 1, CSF 2 , mean (CSF 1+CSF 2), CS 2, mean(CS 1, CS 2, 3 x 5071) With adapted avg. times, clock rates from r. TAI, weights based on stability during three months Selection of δf. Steer based on priorization Calculation of steering: daily monthly X monthly/(weekly) X δf. Steer = δf. Ref + δf. Rate + δf. Offset 14. 09. 2016 9 TA(PTB) St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination The group UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination The group of AHM at PTB, photo 05. Sept. 2016 14. 09. 2016 10 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Stable masers UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Stable masers simplify time scale generation. . mod. ADEV Comparison of AHM in PTB and OP using GPS, evaluated via PPP and IPPP MJD 57183 to MJD 57197 Credit: Julia Leute Gerard Petit, CNES (GINS) /s Literature on IPPP: 14. 09. 2016 Gérard Petit, Amale Kanj, Sylvain Loyer, Jérôme Delporte, Flavien Mercier and Félix Perosanz, 1 × 10− 16 frequency transfer by GPS PPP with integer ambiguity resolution, Metrologia 52 (2015) 301– 309 11 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Maser frequency UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Maser frequency drift 1. 1 x 10 -16 / day 14. 09. 2016 12 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 14. 09. UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 14. 09. 2016 13 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 14. 09. UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 14. 09. 2016 14 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 14. 09. UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 14. 09. 2016 15 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Start steering UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Start steering via fountain 14. 09. 2016 16 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Documentation of UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Documentation of daily mean values in PTB‘s Time Service Bulletin Provision of CGGTTS and RINEX files from all PTB receivers at ftp. ptb. de/pub/time/GNSS UTC(PTB) – GPStime UTC(PTB)-GST 14. 09. 2016 17 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Future service: UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination Future service: Providing the difference between GPStime and Galileo System Time GST 14. 09. 2016 18 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination List of UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination List of services offered by PTB in the context of dissemination of legal time Method WEB NTP PTP DCF 77 Telephonetime service GNSS Roll of PTB provider provider Monitoring usage global On campus Europa Germany global accuracy 1 s 1 ms 1 µs 50 µs 1 s 10 ns Users / requests ? ca. 3 x 108 per day internal ca. 108 receivers 1800 calls per day Specialized user 14. 09. 2016 19 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 2000 PTB UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination 2000 PTB telephone time service Calls per day 1800 2009 14. 09. 2016 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 20 2016 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination DCF 77 UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination DCF 77 about 108 receivers Service contractually secured until 2021 14. 09. 2016 21 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination PTB‘s public UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination PTB‘s public NTP server architecture – status today Current Activities at PTB : for details contact Dieter Sibold 14. 09. 2016 22 St. Petersburg, 2016

UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination httpps: //uhr. UTC(PTB) as the basis for legal time in Germany: realization and dissemination httpps: //uhr. ptb. de 14. 09. 2016 23 St. Petersburg, 2016

The End Time keeping is a team business: Fountains at PTB: Stefan Weyers, Vladi The End Time keeping is a team business: Fountains at PTB: Stefan Weyers, Vladi Gerginov, Michael Kazda Operation of PTB clocks, daily supervision of equipment and software operations: Christof Richter, Egle Staliuniene 14. 09. 2016 24 St. Petersburg, 2016