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Using IT as a Competitive Weapon Group 2 n Joe Brennan n Michelle Goff Using IT as a Competitive Weapon Group 2 n Joe Brennan n Michelle Goff n Bruce Eli Johnson n Laura Paulick n Kenny Yeung

Col. John Boyd USAF n n n Father of the F-15 Father of the Col. John Boyd USAF n n n Father of the F-15 Father of the F-16 Aerial Attack Study – First Training manual for fighter Pilots n Patterns Of Conflict – Concept of “fourth generation warfare” – “Asymmetric Warfare”

American F 86 Saber vs. Soviet MIG-15 10 -1 kill ratio in Korea, why? American F 86 Saber vs. Soviet MIG-15 10 -1 kill ratio in Korea, why?

OODA Loop n Observe Orient Decide Act – Saber pilots sat higher, joystick was OODA Loop n Observe Orient Decide Act – Saber pilots sat higher, joystick was hydraulic. – “We have to get inside their decision cycle”

OODA Loop OODA Loop

OODA Loop n Information Technology that moves one through the OODA loop faster will OODA Loop n Information Technology that moves one through the OODA loop faster will give a Competitive Advantage and be a weapon.

Optimizing the Value Chain “How Information Technology Gives you Competitive Advantage” Michael E. Porter Optimizing the Value Chain “How Information Technology Gives you Competitive Advantage” Michael E. Porter and Victor E. Millar Harvard Business Review 1985 n Value Chain – Activities connected by linkages n n Tradeoffs Coordination – Physical and Information component n n To gain competitive advantage over rivals a company must either perform these activities at a lower cost or perform them in a way that leads to differentiation and a premium price. Information Technology – allows you to build more value into the product – helps to exploit the linkages – improve coordination

Nature of IT Review 9/28/2003 CONTRIBUTION COMMODITY DIFFERENTIATOR CRITICAL Critical Commodities *** Critical USEFUL Nature of IT Review 9/28/2003 CONTRIBUTION COMMODITY DIFFERENTIATOR CRITICAL Critical Commodities *** Critical USEFUL Useful Commodities Differentiators *** Eliminate/Migrate

Nature of IT Review 9/28/2003 n Critical-differentiators serve to differentiate a company from their Nature of IT Review 9/28/2003 n Critical-differentiators serve to differentiate a company from their competitors in the minds of their customers. Focus on service excellence. n Critical-commodities are systems that everyone in the industry has, but whose operations are critical. Focus on service excellence. n Useful commodities are standardized IT products and services. Focus on low costs. n Useful differentiators are expensive distractions which need to be eliminated or migrated

IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE n Owens & Minor – Joe Brennan n Political Fund-raising IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE n Owens & Minor – Joe Brennan n Political Fund-raising – Laura Paulick n On. Star – Michelle Goff – Bruce Eli Johnson n Conclusion – Bruce Eli Johnson – Kenny Yeung

IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OWENS & MINOR IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OWENS & MINOR

Owens & Minor Background 118 year old distributor of medical and surgical supplies. n Owens & Minor Background 118 year old distributor of medical and surgical supplies. n Fortune 500 company headquartered in Richmond, VA. n $3. 96 billion in sales n Net Income of $48. 7 million n Gross Margin 10. 6% of sales n Owens & Minor Annual Report 2002

Owens & Minor IT Organization n n The CIO, David Guzman reports to the Owens & Minor IT Organization n n The CIO, David Guzman reports to the CEO, Gil Minor. The IT budget is traditionally 1. 2% of revenue. IT operations outsourced to Perot Systems. 165 people work on Owens & Minor Perot team, 28% involved with new development. Information Week 9/22/2003

Owens & Minor IT Organization David Guzman, CIO n n n Family migrant farm Owens & Minor IT Organization David Guzman, CIO n n n Family migrant farm workers from Puerto Rico who settled in NJ Single mother household Welfare Worked in a textile mill at 12 Yale on academic scholarship Fist Fights with uncle – “pajaritos de ambicion en tu cabeza” – “little birds of ambition in my head” Information Week 9/22/2003

Owens & Minor Core Competency n “We are in the box moving business”, says Owens & Minor Core Competency n “We are in the box moving business”, says CEO Gil Minor. “That is our core competency, that got us to the dance-getting the order there on time everyday, properly billed, the way the customer wants it, it’s fundamental block and tackling. Believe me if you mess around with that you’re really going to fall on your face. ” Virginia Business 11/2001

Owens & Minor Environment Owens & Minor Environment

Owens & Minor Environment For every dollar hospitals spend on supplies they spend another Owens & Minor Environment For every dollar hospitals spend on supplies they spend another 40 cents on supply chain logistics. n Hospitals buy $25 Billion worth of medical and surgical supplies each year. n Very narrow margins-10% or less n Information Week 9/22/2003

Owens & Minor Environment n “Distributors of products don’t have much say in prices, Owens & Minor Environment n “Distributors of products don’t have much say in prices, but they can help facilities manage their costs by focusing away from product costs”, according to Christopher D. Mc. Fadden, VP of global investment research for Goldman Sachs & Co. in New York. Virginia Business 11/2001

Owens & Minor Traditional Distribution Business Model Owens & Minor Traditional Distribution Business Model

Owens & Minor WISDOM n n n Wisdom-Web. Intelligence Supporting Decisions from Owens & Owens & Minor WISDOM n n n Wisdom-Web. Intelligence Supporting Decisions from Owens & Minor Web-based decision support tool that allows buyers a consolidated view of their information because it interfaces with the health care companies ERP, material management and clinical systems. Helps hospitals monitor purchasing data and contract compliance via the internet. Information Week 9/22/2003

Owens & Minor WISDOM Impact n n n Wisdom was key to winning 60 Owens & Minor WISDOM Impact n n n Wisdom was key to winning 60 million in new business and expanding existing business by 100 million in first year. 1999 In 2001 over a third of OM projected 3. 8 Billion in sales will flow through wisdom Sales has grown every year since Wisdom has been instituted growing from 3. 19 billion in 1999 to 3. 96 last year in 2002. Sales in the current year are projected to easily surpass 4 billion Profit has grown from 28 million in 1999 to 48. 7 million last year. This year profit is expected to hit a new record. Revenue increased 10 percent in 2000 to 3. 5 billion, a company record. Overall gains by competitors is about half that rate. Owens & Minor Annual Report 2000, 2001, 2002

Owens & Minor WISDOM Impact n n Received Leadership Award from the Data Warehousing Owens & Minor WISDOM Impact n n Received Leadership Award from the Data Warehousing institute 1999 Ranked #1 Information Week 500 2001 Ranked #11 Information Week 500 2002 Ranked #1 Information Week 500 2003 Information. Week

Owens & Minor WISDOM Impact n Senior Management have come to view the Data Owens & Minor WISDOM Impact n Senior Management have come to view the Data Warehousing initiative as being so strategic that the director of decision services, Don Stoller was moved from the IS department to marketing. Owens & Minor "Wisdom Provides a Competitive Advantage at Owens & Minor" June 2000

Owens & Minor History of Wisdom n 1995 OM purchased Stuart Medical – Doubled Owens & Minor History of Wisdom n 1995 OM purchased Stuart Medical – Doubled the company from $1. 5 to $3 billion – Struggle to manage to dissimilar cultures – First annual loss in 114 years n 1998 Company unexpectedly lost two major contracts worth $400 million in annual sales. Owens & Minor "Wisdom Provides Competitive Advantage at Owens & Minor" June 2000

Owens & Minor History of Wisdom 1996 Don Stoller was brought on board to Owens & Minor History of Wisdom 1996 Don Stoller was brought on board to head up data warehousing and decision support systems. n Initially focused on supporting internal users who accessed data using Business. Objects, a leading clientserver query/reporting tool. n Owens & Minor "Wisdom Provides Competitive Advantage at Owens & Minor" June 2000

Owens & Minor History of Wisdom n Oct. 1997 the warehouse team started to Owens & Minor History of Wisdom n Oct. 1997 the warehouse team started to investigate moving to the web. – Productivity-customers were asking OM’s sales reps for more and more information. 30 reports/month – Greater Flexibility-Many users did not need the full functionality provided by Business. Objects. – Revenue Generator-Could charge for the service and be self sufficient profit center. – Competitive Advantage-OM was the only health care company positioned to offer such a service n n Oct. 1999 WISDOM is formally launched Spring 2000 WISDOM 2 launched Owens & Minor "Wisdom Provides Competitive Advantage at Owens & Minor" June 2000

Owens & Minor Wisdom 2 Decision support data and purchase history for all supplies Owens & Minor Wisdom 2 Decision support data and purchase history for all supplies bought be a health care company. n This includes products the OM does not distribute such as pharmaceuticals, patient food, and linens and scrubs. n Ownes-Minor. com

Owens & Minor WISDOM Benefits for Health Organizations Contract Compliance n Product Standardization n Owens & Minor WISDOM Benefits for Health Organizations Contract Compliance n Product Standardization n Product Utilization n Product Usage n Service Level Tracking n Owens-Minor. com

Owens & Minor WISDOM Benefits for Suppliers Sales and Service Levels n Contract Utilization Owens & Minor WISDOM Benefits for Suppliers Sales and Service Levels n Contract Utilization n Dropship Analysis n Sales penetration Analysis n Inventory Levels n Owens-Minor. com

Owens & Minor WISDOM 3? n Automated replenishment via Web-services Information Week 9/22/2003 Owens & Minor WISDOM 3? n Automated replenishment via Web-services Information Week 9/22/2003

IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE POLITICAL FUND-RAISING IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE POLITICAL FUND-RAISING

Competition to Raise Funds n n n “Company” : each candidate who wants to Competition to Raise Funds n n n “Company” : each candidate who wants to raise money Presidential Election: 2004 Candidates compete to raise funds – – Democratic candidates compete with each other Democratic candidates compete with George W. Bush as the Republican incumbent

Direct Mail Fund-raising Traditional fund-raising: by direct mail n Survey by the Mellman Group Direct Mail Fund-raising Traditional fund-raising: by direct mail n Survey by the Mellman Group in 1999 n Direct-mail reaches 12 million potential donors n Two-thirds of these donors are age 60 or older n Limitations of direct mail: – finite – Aging n n Source: “Small Political Contributions Go a Long Way on the Internet”, The New York Times, October 19, 2003

Internet Challenge to Direct Mail This class reached by direct mail is dwarfed by Internet Challenge to Direct Mail This class reached by direct mail is dwarfed by the potential internet market n 50 million people have access to the internet and report giving time and money to social causes n n Source: “Small Political Contributions Go a Long Way on the Internet”, The New York Times, October 19, 2003

Internet: Advantages n n n Internet has low-cost processing Less expensive than via direct Internet: Advantages n n n Internet has low-cost processing Less expensive than via direct mail “Everybody now is looking for more efficient ways to raise the hard money at the least amount of cost” – Carla Eudy, Finance Director for John Mc. Cain, 2000 Source: The Left’s Mr. Right, Newsweek, August 11, 2003

Internet Fund-raising: History n n n June 1999, Federal Election Commission permitted federal matching Internet Fund-raising: History n n n June 1999, Federal Election Commission permitted federal matching funds for creditcard donations over the Internet Former Democratic Presidential Candidate Bill Bradley lured thousands of younger, first-time givers to donate through his Web site Was yet to utilize full potential of web donations Source: The Left’s Mr. Right, Newsweek, August 11, 2003

Fund-raising: Potential n By 2004, the Internet is expected to generate 25% of all Fund-raising: Potential n By 2004, the Internet is expected to generate 25% of all contributions of $100 or less – Internet enables candidates to broaden their appeal – Internet attracts more “low-dollar” donors Source: The Left’s Mr. Right, Newsweek, August 11, 2003

Competition n Dick Cheney went to South Carolina, raising $300, 000 at a $2, Competition n Dick Cheney went to South Carolina, raising $300, 000 at a $2, 000 -aplate lunch Source: The Left’s Mr. Right, Newsweek, August 11, 2003

n Howard Dean’s Web site ran this photo of him eating a turkey sandwich; n Howard Dean’s Web site ran this photo of him eating a turkey sandwich; he raised $500, 000 Source: The Left’s Mr. Right, Newsweek, August 11, 2003

Success of Howard Dean’s Internet Site n n n Howard Dean raised three times Success of Howard Dean’s Internet Site n n n Howard Dean raised three times as much money in the last three months as his Democratic competitors Dean’s fund-raising in the last three months: – fed by thousands of small Internet contributions – financial front-runner in the nine-way race – The fund-raising of some of his rivals declined in recent months. Dean raised at least $14. 8 million in the last three months, closing the quarter with at least $12. 4 million in the bank. He has raised $25. 4 million this year Source: “Dean Outpaces Competitors in Fund-Raising and Spending”, New York Times, Oct. 16, 2003

Success of Howard Dean’s Internet Site n n n He compiled tens of thousands Success of Howard Dean’s Internet Site n n n He compiled tens of thousands of small donors, many of whom gave over the Internet contributions accounted for about half what was brought in this quarter Fewer than 1 percent of the campaign's contributors had reached the maximum $2, 000 that an individual can give to a presidential candidate The campaign may be able to continue to draw money from its base of donors Though the campaign fell slightly short of its $15 million goal, it set a single-quarter record for a Democrat in a presidential race. Source: “Dean Outpaces Competitors in Fund-Raising and Spending”, New York Times, Oct. 16, 2003

Result of Fund-raising Success n n n If the Service Employees International Union decide Result of Fund-raising Success n n n If the Service Employees International Union decide to endorse, Howard Dean could get the backing of the largest union of the AFL-CIO Huge blow to Dick Gephardt’s campaign Unions initially overlooked Dean as a marginal candidate. That changed when he surged in fund-raising Source: www. cnn. com/2003/ALLPOLITICS

Contribution Plans Source: www. deanforamerica. com Contribution Plans Source: www. deanforamerica. com

Monthly Contribution Plans n n n Democratic Party effort to build a base of Monthly Contribution Plans n n n Democratic Party effort to build a base of small regular donors Same marketing used in infomercials: – people can have donations automatically charged to their credit cards each month Match the base accumulated over the years by the Republicans Push within the Democratic Party to fill that void Source: “Small Political Contributions Go a Long Way on the Internet”, The New York Times, October 19, 2003

Monthly Contribution Plans n n The plans appeal to constituents on more modest incomes Monthly Contribution Plans n n The plans appeal to constituents on more modest incomes who have to work within monthly budgets. In the Gephardt campaign, the average donation is $17. 08. ''A hundred dollars is a lot for someone who makes $300 a week, '' ''But I don't miss $5 a week. '' Source: “Small Political Contributions Go a Long Way on the Internet”, The New York Times, October 19, 2003

Role of New Campaign Finance Regulations Monthly contribution plans also act in response to Role of New Campaign Finance Regulations Monthly contribution plans also act in response to these new regulations n Individual contributions are capped at $2, 000 n Source: “Small Political Contributions Go a Long Way on the Internet”, The New York Times, October 19, 2003

Effects of Regulations on Competition n ''The reason that the Democrats are now having Effects of Regulations on Competition n ''The reason that the Democrats are now having to play catch-up is because the new campaign finance laws prevent them from being funded by a small universe of very wealthy people. They are forced to find new contributors. '‘ – Christine Iverson, a spokeswoman for the Republican National Committee Source: “Bush’s $70 Million War Chest Dwarfs That of Democrats”, The New York Times, October 15, 2003

Democrats Compete with Republicans n During the last election cycle: – Two-thirds of the Democrats Compete with Republicans n During the last election cycle: – Two-thirds of the money from small donations ( less than $200) went to Republicans – The Democrats received 92 percent of unregulated contributions over $1 million. Source: “Bush’s $70 Million War Chest Dwarfs That of Democrats”, The New York Times, October 15, 2003

Democrats Compete with Republicans n Social conservative groups have helped the Republicans strengthen a Democrats Compete with Republicans n Social conservative groups have helped the Republicans strengthen a small regular donor base using direct mail to tap into single-issue constituencies – gun control – abortion – Religion Source: “Bush’s $70 Million War Chest Dwarfs That of Democrats”, The New York Times, October 15, 2003

Howard Dean’s Internet Plea in Response n If 2 million Americans each contribute $100, Howard Dean’s Internet Plea in Response n If 2 million Americans each contribute $100, we will defeat this president -- and we will change America. The formula is simple: n 2 million Americans x $100 = George W. Bush out of office

IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ONSTAR IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ONSTAR

What is On. Star? n On. Star is a unique, hands-free offering of services What is On. Star? n On. Star is a unique, hands-free offering of services that enhance safety, security, entertainment, and productivity.

History of On. Star n 1994 – A GM engineering group proposed Project Beacon History of On. Star n 1994 – A GM engineering group proposed Project Beacon n 1995 – GM created On. Star through an alliance of 3 GM units n GM’s North American Operations, Electronic Data Systems, and its Hughes Electric Corporation – Launched at GM’s North American Operations n 1996 – GM made On. Star available in some Cadillac Source: Strategy & Leadership. Slywotzky, models Adrian. Demand Innovation: GM's On. Star Case. 2003

On. Star’s Strategy Project Simulation Model Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for On. Star’s Strategy Project Simulation Model Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors On. Star

Customer Acquisition and Retention Deals with the inflow and outflow of subscribers n Positive Customer Acquisition and Retention Deals with the inflow and outflow of subscribers n Positive feedback n The probability of a buyer choosing On. Star depends on their demand for it relative to the demand of all the uses of money n Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors On. Star

Customer Acquisition and Retention n Subscription Volume for On. Star – 1996: 1, 100 Customer Acquisition and Retention n Subscription Volume for On. Star – 1996: 1, 100 subscriptions – 1997: 20, 000 subscriptions – 1998: 44, 000 subscriptions – 1999: 50, 000 subscriptions – 2000: 500, 000 subscriptions – 2001: 1. 8 million subscriptions – 2002: over 2 million subscriptions Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors On. Star

Customer Choice and Alliances n Customer Choice – Dependent on the subscription fees, initial Customer Choice and Alliances n Customer Choice – Dependent on the subscription fees, initial costs, and the cost for a combination of features n Alliances – Vehicle Manufacturer Alliances n Toyota, Honda, VWAudi, Subaru – Partners n Fidelity, ABC, Wall Street, ESPN, Disney Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors On. Star

Customer Service n They must be able to match customerservice capacity to the demand Customer Service n They must be able to match customerservice capacity to the demand for On. Star – If not they: n n Reduce the attractiveness of the service Lower acquisition of new subscribers Generate word of mouth 86% of existing customers have a better peace of mind due to On. Star, 85% feel safer at night, and 60% believe it is important for their next car to have On. Star Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors On. Star

Customer Service n On average, each month On. Star responds to: – 626 air Customer Service n On average, each month On. Star responds to: – 626 air bag notifications – 655 stolen vehicle locations – 13000 roadside assistance calls – 14000 remote vehicle diagnostics – 26000 remote door unlocks – 260000 routing calls Source: www. onstar. com

Dealer Behavior n n Until 1998 On. Star had been installed by a dealer Dealer Behavior n n Until 1998 On. Star had been installed by a dealer Since 1998 On. Star has been factory installed – Eliminates a need for dealers to convince buyers to purchase On. Star as an option – Eliminates the cost of dealer installation – Increases the number of cars with On. Star available leading to more subscribers Source: Interfaces. Huber, Chet. A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors On. Star

Finances n Sales n 80% share of the telematics market in 2001 Valued between Finances n Sales n 80% share of the telematics market in 2001 Valued between $4 to $12 billion if it were spun off as an independent business 70% of a cost improvement in acquiring new customers with factory installation n n – GM 2002: $180 billion in revenue – On. Star 2002: approaching $1 billion in annual revenue Source: Strategy & Innovation. Slywotzky, Adrain. Demand Innovation: GM's On. Star Case. 2003

On. Star’s Guiding Principles n n Minimize eyes-off-the-road, hand-off-thewheel time Minimize the number of On. Star’s Guiding Principles n n Minimize eyes-off-the-road, hand-off-thewheel time Minimize the number of steps required to perform a task Create a common interface in how consumers interact with the system Utilize a lockout protocol to prevent the use of systems that create unnecessary and excessive attention demands on the driver Source: www. onstar. com

Critical Difference for GM Vehicles n One-touch onboard system – Roadside assistance, with location Critical Difference for GM Vehicles n One-touch onboard system – Roadside assistance, with location – Emergency services – Routing and location assistance – Automatic notification of air bag deployment – Remote door unlock – Stolen vehicle tracking – Voice-activated cell phone – Convenience Services Source: www. onstar. com

Critical Difference for GM Vehicles n Convenience Services Explained – Audio version of Wall Critical Difference for GM Vehicles n Convenience Services Explained – Audio version of Wall Street Journal – CNN news broadcast – Stock trading – Hotel and dinner reservations – Flower delivery – Weather. com Source: www. onstar. com

Makes and Models Makes and Models

Distribution Agreement n River. Park Inc. – American Coach – Fleetwood – Monaco – Distribution Agreement n River. Park Inc. – American Coach – Fleetwood – Monaco – Newmar

Distribution Agreement n “On. Star will excel in the motor home market not only Distribution Agreement n “On. Star will excel in the motor home market not only with navigation assistance and travel information, but especially valuable to our customers is their emergency services. ” – Mike Cloninger, Head of Fleetwood Product Development

How On. Star is used n Subscribe to one of 3 plans – Safe How On. Star is used n Subscribe to one of 3 plans – Safe & Sound – Directions & Connections – Luxury & Leisure Source: www. onstar. com

How On. Star is used n Safe & Sound – Accident Assist – Air How On. Star is used n Safe & Sound – Accident Assist – Air bag deployment notification – Emergency services – Roadside assistance – Remote door unlock – Remote diagnostics – Stolen vehicle tracking – Remote horn and lights Source: www. onstar. com

How On. Star is used n Directions & Connections – Safe & Sound – How On. Star is used n Directions & Connections – Safe & Sound – Information/Convenience – Ride. Assist – Driving directions Source: www. onstar. com

How On. Star is used n Luxury & Leisure – Safe & Sound – How On. Star is used n Luxury & Leisure – Safe & Sound – Directions & Connections – Personal Concierge Source: www. onstar. com

How On. Star is used n Price (Free for 1 st year, then priced How On. Star is used n Price (Free for 1 st year, then priced by month) – Safe & Sound = $ 16. 95 – Directions & Connections = $ 34. 95 – Luxury & Leisure = $ 69. 95 n Special pricing and packages for fleets Source: www. onstar. com

How On. Star is used n Additional services purchased by the minute – Personal How On. Star is used n Additional services purchased by the minute – Personal Calling – Virtual Advisor Source: www. onstar. com

Future Services n Traffic reports – Will be part of Virtual Advisor. Source: www. Future Services n Traffic reports – Will be part of Virtual Advisor. Source: www. onstar. com

How Technology Works How Technology Works

How Technology Works n GPS and cellular reach map – http: //www. onstar. com/us_english/down How Technology Works n GPS and cellular reach map – http: //www. onstar. com/us_english/down loadable/gl_coverage_map_us. pdf

How Technology Works n Three Button System – http: //www. onstar. com/us_english/jsp/w hatisonstar/idont_whatisonstar. jsp How Technology Works n Three Button System – http: //www. onstar. com/us_english/jsp/w hatisonstar/idont_whatisonstar. jsp

How Technology Works How Technology Works

How Technology Works How Technology Works

Sustainable Factors First to market n License to other companies n Ford to launch Sustainable Factors First to market n License to other companies n Ford to launch similar product in 2005 n

Strategies for Survival License more companies before Ford jumps into market n Focus on Strategies for Survival License more companies before Ford jumps into market n Focus on the creation of critical differentiators n

Conclusion n First to market n Spawn a new business n Spawned a new Conclusion n First to market n Spawn a new business n Spawned a new way of doing business n Changed Industry Business must drive IT innovation Large expenditure is not always required n n – Owens & Minor, On. Star, Political Fund-raising – On. Star – Political Fund-raising, Owens & Minor – Owens & Minor Window of opportunity OODA Loop

Conclusion CONTRIBUTION COMMODITY DIFFERENTIATOR CRITICAL Critical Commodities *** Critical USEFUL Useful Commodities Differentiators *** Conclusion CONTRIBUTION COMMODITY DIFFERENTIATOR CRITICAL Critical Commodities *** Critical USEFUL Useful Commodities Differentiators *** Eliminate/Migrate