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Using Analogies to Teach Thinking, Language & Content to ELLs Prepared by Jeanette Gordon Illinois Resource Center
Similes and Metaphors are commonly taught. Definition: Reasoning or explaining from parallel cases. A simile is an expressed analogy; a metaphor is an implied one. Adjective: analogous http: //grammar. about. com/od/ab/g/analogy. htm Simile “Life is like a ten-speed bicycle. Most of us have gears we never use. ” Charles Schulz Metaphor "This is your brain on drugs. Any questions? “ (The Partnership for a Drug-Free America)
Copyblogger “Metaphor, Simile and Analogy: What’s the Difference? ” by Brian Clark Metaphor • A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses one thing to mean another and makes a comparison between the two. The key words here are “one thing to mean another. ” Simile • A simile compares two different things in order to create a new meaning. In this case, we are made explicitly aware that a comparison is being made due to the use of “like” or “as”
Analogy • An analogy is comparable to metaphor and simile in that it shows how two different things are similar, but it’s a bit more complex. Rather than a figure of speech, an analogy is more of a logical argument. The presenter of an analogy will often demonstrate how two things are alike by pointing out shared characteristics, with the goal of showing that if two things are similar in some ways, they are similar in other ways as well. Source: Copyblogger “Metaphor, Simile and Analogy: What’s the Difference? ” by Brian Clark
Why Use Analogies • Higher-order thinking promotes engagement and retention. • ELLs can understand communicate complex relationships with limited language. • The same concept can be represented in more than one type of relationship which helps refine understanding and promote cognitive flexibility. • New unfamiliar learning can be connected and taught using a familiar context
Teach Analogies by Type Antonyms Synonyms Descriptive Performer to Action Object and Function Object and Location Part to Whole Item to Category Object and Related Object to Group Cause and Effect and Cause Effort and Result and Effort Problem and Solution Degree of a Characteristic Things that Go Together Types of Rhyme Source of types: www. fibonicci. com/verbal-reasoning/word-analogies/examples-types/
Antonyms: words that are opposites Teach concepts independently first. Once the concept is firmly understood. Teach the analogy. Antonyms is a simple type to teach first. Image from You and Me by Giovanni Manna and Stella Blackstone
Teach the concept of the type (in this case opposites) before creating analogies. big small up down Most common error. Avoid teaching the language ___ is to ___ as ___ is to __ “big is to small as up is to down”. It works at this level of analogy, but as analogies get more difficult using that language makes it much harder to identify the relationship. Teach students to describe the relationship, first. Big is the opposite of small. Up is the opposite of down.
Free SAT Prep 1. com What not to do • The biggest mistake we have encountered with analogies are students who want to insist on approaching them by saying "Wallet is to money as. . . " While this may sound official, it is the wrong way to approach the analogies questions. • http: //www. freesat 1 prep. com/sat/verbal/analogies/
“The right way to approach the SAT analogies • Make up a short sentence that includes both words in the analogy. Example: A wallet contains money. (It's supposed to anyway. ) Try to keep this sentence short and use an active verb whenever possible. • If you still have a problem (say because the sentence you created fits most or even all of the answer choices) go back and make the question more specific. ” http: //www. freesat 1 prep. com/sat/verbal/analogies/
Synonyms: words that have the same or similar meanings After students understand the concept of analogy, periodically use the test format rescue: save : : tired: ___ Remember to describe the relationship. “Rescue means the same as save. ” “Tired means the same as _______. ”
Descriptive: one word describes the other word fast airplane slow turtle sloth Use images. Students must understand the vocabulary and the image. If sloth is not known to the students, it won’t be helpful. Clarify vocabulary, and use multiple examples. fast slow
More Descriptive • Point out to students that the descriptive analogy must describe a permanent characteristic. • Sad boy won’t work because the boy can also be happy. tall skyscraper fast race car cheetah Students can all be correct with a different answer.
Performer and Action Teacher: teaches : : Cook: cooks Farmer: farms: : Carpenter: builds houses Scientist: does research OR conducts experiments: : Firefighter: puts out fires OR saves people
Performer to Action Also called Function Farming is the function of a farmer. teacher Teaching is the function of a _______
Object and Function The function of a saw is to saw. The function of a fishing pole is to ____ fish
Object and Location hive bird: nest: bee: ______ desert fir tree: forest: cactus: ______
Part to whole: one word is a part of the other eraser tail pencil dog wheel is part of a _____? covered wagon Illinois is part of __? The United States of America
Item to Category: one word is an item in the category named by the other carrot vegetables hammer tools Remember to explain the relationship of the first example. “Carrot belongs to the category vegetable. tools Hammer belongs to the category _____. ”
“Violin is a kind of musical instrument. occupation A cook is a kind of ______. ” Or “belongs in the classification of ____” More Item to Category
Object and Related Object kitten: cat : : puppy: dog kitten: cat : : chrysalis: butterfly A kitten grows into a cat. A puppy grows into a dog. A kitten matures into a cat. A chrysalis matures into a butterfly.
Object and Group One cow and a herd of cows. One seagull and a ____of seagulls. flock
More Object and Group ant: colony of ants: : wolf: _____ pack See animal groups: www. npwrc. usgs. gov/about/faqs/animals/names. htm
Even More Object and Group tree: forest : : player: ______ team
Cause Effect Relationship goal: celebrate : : push : move Goal causes people to celebrate. Push causes something to move.
Effect Cause Relationship Happy earth is the result of conservation. sunlight and rain. A growing plant is the result of _______.
Effort and Result A painting is the result of the effort to paint. write A letter is the result of the effort to ____
Result and Effort Good grades are the result of the effort to study. exercise Strong muscles are the result of the effort to _______. do physical work.
Problem and Solution If a person is tired, the solution is to sleep. If a person is thirsty, the solution is to_____ drink.
More Problem and Solution unemployment: job application : : bad grades: ______ study
Degree of a Characteristic Most often used with adjectives sad happy: ecstatic : : ______: distraught
More Degree of a Characteristic pain hot: boiling : : ache: ______
Things That Go Together salt: pepper: : knife: _______ fork Some things are usually spoken of together. Other examples: thunder and lightning, nuts and bolts, cup and saucer, shoes and socks
Types of Rhymes Perfect Rhyme type: people bed: red: : house: Choose the correct answer. bedroom mouse color For additional rhyme types, go to http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rhyme
Rick Wormeli Resource Rick Wormeli’s book provides an excellent orientation to the use of metaphors and analogies. One chapter is devoted to ELLs Note: The example used for the following TWA strategy is adapted from Elma Torres, a winner of a metaphor content by Rick Wormeli. Read other winner submissions and his comments on the site. http: //www. stenhouse. com/html/news_167. htm
TWA Strategy “Teaching with Analogies (TWA) strategy introduced by Glynn, Duit, & Thiele. This strategy models what expert teachers and authors employ when using analogies. In the TWA strategy, shared attributes between the analogue and target are known as mappings. The goal is to transfer ideas from a familiar concept (the analogue) to an unfamiliar one (the target) by mapping their relationship” Source: “Teaching with Analogies: www. csun. edu/science/books/sourcebook/chapters/10 analogies/teaching-analogies. html
6 Operations in the TWA Model 1. Introduce target concept. 2. Review analogue concept. 3. Identify relevant features of target and analogue 4. Map similarities. 5. Indicate the limitations of the analogy. 6. Draw a conclusion. See example in following slides.
Example of the TWA Strategy Analogy: Learning any new skill is similar to learning to ride a bike. (Skill of reading. ) 1. Introduce target concept: Learning to read takes a lot of practice. 2. Review analogue concept: Riding a bicycle. This should be a familiar concept. Remember ELLs may still need visuals of the analogue concept. What is a recognizable analogue for many students may not be familiar to ELLs.
3. Identify relevant features of target and analogue – Modeling, – Try with support from others. – Try on your own. – Practice in more difficult situations. – Use the skill throughout life 4. Map similarities Specify how each relevant feature is similar.
Modeling Both skills need to be modeled. Someone reads to you. Someone takes you for a ride.
Try with support from others. Children learn both skills with help from others. Read with support, less support when more skillful. Ride with support, less support when more skillful.
Try on your own. For both skills, learners who are ready practice by themselves. Read on your own Ride the bicycle by yourself
Practice in more difficult situations. To learn both skills, it takes hard work and practice to get better. Practice to read harder books. Practice to ride really well.
Use the skill throughout life. Both reading and riding can benefit our lives in many ways. Read for work and pleasure. Ride for work and pleasure.
5. Indicate the limitations of the analogy. – – – Some students may have no experience with learning to ride a bike. The skill of reading is more complex, with modeling, support and practice for each new reading skill being taught. Reading is a needed skill, not a skill of choice. 6. Draw a conclusion. The students develop a basic understanding of the process of learning to read with the analogy of learning to ride a bike. Original source for TWA: Glynn, S. M. , R. Duit, & R. B. Thiele (1995). Teaching science with analogies: A strategy for constructing knowledge. In S. M. Glynn and R. Duit (Eds. ). Learning science in the schools: Research reforming practice (pp. 247 -273). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Teaching Teachers to Use Analogies • Site to promote use of analogies in science. • Teaching Materials • Resources to teach using analogies in Educational Methods courses • Analogy aptitude pre/post survey • Free videos with examples of analogies • Power. Point Presentations • http: //www. physics. nau. edu/~james/Teachin g. Teachers. Analogies. htm