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Uses of population statistics and census outputs: Academia and the third sector – a partnership approach Lisa Buckner CIRCLE School of Sociology and Social Policy University of Leeds
Contents l l l Background – Carers CIRCLE and Carers UK Census and population statistics – some examples l l l l l Carers with disabled children Carers and employment Older carers Carers and locality Influencing policy In an ideal world … Wish list - data and access Acknowledgements Further information University of Leeds
Background - Carers l l 1965 – National Council for the Single Woman and her Dependants (NCSWD) founded by Rev. Mary Webster - first carers’ organisation 1986 – Disabled Persons Act (required LAs to ‘have regard to the ability of that other person to continue to provide such care on a regular basis’) l 1990 NHS and Community Care Act (carers receive recognition under that name) l 1995 - Carers (Recognition & Services) Act (provides for the assessment of the ability of carers to provide care, introducing the concept of carers’ assessment) l 1997 for first time all 3 major parties’ election manifestos included pledges for carers 1999 – First National Carers Strategy: ‘Caring about Carers’ 2000 - Carers & Disabled Children Act (makes provision about the l 2004 - Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act (places a duty on local authorities to l 2008 – Revised National Carers’ Strategy ‘Carers at the heart of 21 st century families and communities: a caring system on your side, a life of your own’ l l assessment of carers’ needs) inform Carers of their right to a Carers Assessment) l 2006 - Work and Families Act (extends the right to request flexible working to carers in employment)
Background - Carers l Evidence base l l Questions added to GHS 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 1985 GHS - ‘Is there anyone living with you who is sick, handicapped or disabled whom you look after or give special help to? ’ Included questions on: l Co-residency, l Relationship to cared for person, l Age, sex of cared for person l Type of help l Weekly hours of care, length of time caring l Access to breaks from caring Estimate - 6 -7 million carers in Great Britain. However, this was often questioned since it was only based on a ‘survey’.
Background - Census l 2001 Censuses – first to include question on unpaid care l l 'Do you look after or give any help or support to family members, friends or neighbours or others because of: longterm physical or mental ill-health or disability or problems related to old age? ‘ No, Yes: 1 -19 hours, Yes: 20 -49 hours, Yes: 50+ hours Comprehensive coverage so provided the first UK-wide snapshot of carers – data used to support campaign for better recognition of carers Limitations - Doesn’t cover additional questions asked in GHS Benefits - Data available at lower geographical levels
Background - Census l Standard Census Output: l l Available at very low geographic levels – down to OA Limited number of variables available Categories don’t always fit the group of interest e. g. Care by economic activity and sex (for people aged 16 -74) SARs l l Large range of variables Access is free and immediate (except for 2001 Household SAR or 2001 CAM) Limited geography (SAR) or limited variables (SAM) Could commission data from ONS but costly and time consuming and don’t always know what will be interesting
CIRCLE and Carers UK l l CIRCLE's partnership with the national voluntary organisation Carers UK began in 2002 when Sue Yeandle's research team was appointed to evaluate the ACE 1 partnership (Action for Carers and Employment). This continued through ACE 2, when, in 2006, the University of Leeds entered the ACE 2 partnership, also led by Carers UK, and again funded through the EU EQUAL Community Initiative Programme. During 2006 to 2007, CIRCLE's team of research staff conducted a large national study, the CES (Carers, Employment and Services) study. CIRCLE's new partnership with Carers UK, focused on knowledge transfer activities, commenced early in 2008, and supported the organisation of the 5 th International Conference on Carers in Leeds, 8 -11 July 2010.
Census data - Carers of disabled children l l Used 2001 Household SAR l Definition – Census doesn’t include questions on disability so used Limiting long-term illness (LLTI) as a proxy. There are nearly half a million sick or disabled children in England Wales. 34% live in households where there is no adult in paid work, compared with 18% of children who are not sick or disabled. In England Wales, 212, 000 families have a child with a LLTI and at least one co-resident adult who sees him/herself as a carer.
Census data - Carers of disabled children l Compared with parents whose children are not sick or disabled, parent carers in homes where 20 or more hours of unpaid care is given each week are: l l l Older Much more likely to be in poor health (12% compared with 5%), or to have a long-term illness or disability themselves (20% compared with 10%) More likely to be lone parents - especially men (15% compared with 3%) More likely to lack formal qualifications and less likely to be educated to degree level Considerably less likely to be in employment – especially if they are women (35% compared with 63%) When in employment, more likely to work in low-skilled, low -paid jobs and more likely to work locally
Census data - Carers and employment l l l Explored characteristics of working carers using 2001 individual SAR, SAM, as well as standard and commissioned census output 2. 5 million people in England Wales combine unpaid caring with paid work 1. 5 million carers work full-time, and of these: l l l 140, 000 care for 50+ hours per week 58% of these working carers are men 90% of working carers are aged 30 -SPA (Individual SAR) Carers caring for 20+ hours a week are two to three times more likely than workers without caring responsibilities to be in poor health (Individual SAR) Young Bangladeshi and Pakistani men and women are three times more likely than other younger people to combine paid work and caring (Individual SAR)
Census data - Carers and employment People in routine or semi-routine jobs 2001 Census SAM Men and women who care for 20+ hours a week are much less likely to be in higher level jobs (SAR + SAM for local-level data)
Census data - Older carers l SARs allows characteristics of older people to be explored in greater depth. l Amongst men and women aged 45 -SPA: l l l 21% of men who are retired and 28% of women are carers (compared with 16% and 23% of all people) 61% of men who are looking after their home/family and 34% of women are carers Amongst carers aged 45 -SPA providing 50+ hours of care a week: l l 18% of men and 12% of women are permanently sick or disabled (11% of male and 10% of female non-carers) 42% of men and 36% of women are working (compared with 72% and 68% of non-carers)
Census and Carers - Older carers People with a LLTI by amount of care provided (excludes residents in CEs) 2001 Census SAR
Census and Carers - Carers and locality l l SAM used to explore geographic variation in carers characteristics and also to provide LAs with information about carers in their area. Geographic variation in carers and characteristics: l l Carers concentrated in former industrial areas (North East, South Yorkshire, Merseyside, West Midlands, South Wales) not in areas with a high number of older people Carers and poverty - carers of WA in households with no working adult l 33% of carers in Manchester to 7% in Mole Valley in Surrey l For carers providing 20+ hours a week of care – 53% in South Tyneside to 9% in Rutland
Census and Carers - Carers and locality l Geographic variation in carers and labour market engagement: l l l Carers and employment Carers in low-skilled, low-paid jobs Can also use SAM to link local carers characteristics to provision of services to carers locally
Population data and Carers - Future demand for care l Geographic variation in population changes by age-gender: l l Future numbers of carers – assume census prevalence and apply to sub-national population projections Future numbers of older people – population projections of people by age and ethnicity
Influencing carers policy l Carers UK Campaigning leaflets (Buckner and Yeandle): l l l l We care - do you? (2005) Managing more than most - a statistical analysis of families with sick or disabled children (2006) More than a job - Working carers: evidence from the 2001 Census (summary) (2006) Working carers – evidence from the 2001 Census (2006) Older carers in the UK (2006) Valuing carers (2007) Care and caring in EU member states (2007) Project reports l Who Cares Wins: The Social and Business Benefits of Supporting Working Carers (Yeandle, Bennett, Buckner, Shipton, Suokas) l Carers, employment and services (6 national reports and 8 local reports) (Yeandle, Bennett, Buckner, Fry, Price)
Influencing carers policy l House of Commons - Work and Pensions Committee ‘Valuing and Supporting Carers’ Fourth Report of Session 2007– 08, Published Aug 2008 (HC 485 -I) l Quotes Carers Employment and Services statistics on: l l Parent carers of disabled children Carers in employment Carers by ethnic group Revised National Carers Strategy (2008) ‘Carers at the heart of 21 st-century families and communities’ l Carers (20+ hours) in workless households
In an ideal world… l l l 2001 Census access much improved from 1991 but in some respects 2001 was a backward step (e. g 2001 SAR geography). For 2011 need to be able to meet the changing face of research. Often undertake research that: l Requires a fast turn around l May only require a few key figures l Will be policy focused and may have a big impact but won’t necessarily lead to academic output e. g. Carers UK campaigning leaflets, ‘carers save country £ 87 billion’ l Needs instant access to data – SARs ideal with the exception of 2001 Household SAR! To make research relevant to policy makers, data needs to be local (e. g. CSSR) l SAM is good for this but really needs better occupation/ industry data
Wish list … l l l Comprehensive and flexible 2011 Census output 2011 SAR family essential: l To provide complete evidence base for carers (and other groups of interest) in addition to standard census output l To allow comparisons to be made with 2001 l To enable instant access to non-standard analysis (otherwise have to commission data which takes time) l To support policy focused research To support this 2011 SAR family should include: l Either: l l An Individual SAR down to LA level geography or A similar Individual SAR to 2001 and a SAM with improved occupation/ industry data or A system which allows a user to select different geographies and different variables e. g. could have LA based individual SAR with occupation but not ethnicity An easier to access Household SAR
Wish list … l l Census Commissioned tables – could make these available through Nomis Better access to other National statistics data: l Vital statistics (BMD + population estimates/projections) available in Excel from website but structure of spreadsheets not always suitable for analysis/mapping without additional (sometimes extensive) modifications – formatting or area names, presence of blank columns/rows, etc. l l Often difficult to find data on the National Statistics website – things move! Would like to see more data on Nomisweb or similar website (one– stop-shop)
Acknowledgements l The 2001 SARs are provided through the Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research (University of Manchester), with the support of the ESRC and JISC. All tables containing Census data, and the results of analysis, are reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. l 2001 Census Special Licence Household Sample of Anonymised Records. This work is based on the SARs provided through the UK Data Archive at the University of Essex and prepared through support by the Centre for Census and Survey Research at the University of Manchester with the support of ESRC and JISC. These data are Crown Copyright and are reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO. l CIRCLE works in an ongoing research partnership with Carers UK, led at the University of Leeds by Prof. Sue Yeandle. The CIRCLE team gratefully acknowledges Carers UK’s support for its work on carers, provided in 20022007 via the EU-funded Action for Carers and Employment partnership.
Further information l l Lisa Buckner – l. j. [email protected] ac. uk CIRCLE - Centre for International Research on Care, Labour and Equalities l l Directed by Prof Sue Yeandle www. sociology. leeds. ac. uk/research/careemployment/care-labour-equalities/