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URBAN AMERICA 1865 -1896 Chapter 10 URBAN AMERICA 1865 -1896
Section 1 - Immigration Main Idea: After the Civil War, millions of immigrants from Europe and Asia settled in the United States. I. European Immigration A. Why did they come? 1. US had plenty of jobs 2. Few immigrant restrictions 3. To avoid forced military service at home 4. To avoid religious persecution 5. To escape Europe’s class system
B. The Atlantic Voyage 1. Most traveled in steerage - cheapest. 2. Miserable conditions. C. Ellis Island - New York 1. Processing center 2. Medical exams; often led to quarantine or forced return to Europe.
“Old Immigration” - Before 1860: * Immigrants mostly came from northern & western Europe. * Mostly Protestant & Catholic. “New Immigration” - After 1860: * Immigrants mostly came from southern & eastern Europe. * Many were Jewish; many were Catholic.
• “New” immigrants were often unskilled, poor, Catholic or Jewish, • Settled in cities rather than on farms
ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR
D. Ethnic Cities 1. Immigrants mostly settled in neighborhoods separated into ethnic groups. 2. Spoke native languages 3. Recreated churches, synagogues, clubs, & newspapers of their homelands. 4. Their adjustment depended partly on: a. Learning English & how well they adapted to the American culture. b. Whether they had marketable skills or $$$.
II. Asian Immigration to America A. Why did Asians come to America? 1. Chinese - mid-1800 s; mostly western cities. a. Overpopulation b. Unemployment c. Poverty d. Famine & hunger e. 1848 - discovery of gold in California demand for workers in the mines. f. Rebellion in China (20 million dead) g. Transcontinental railroad demand for workers.
2. Japanese - later 1800 s/early 1900 s. a. Japan was building an industrial economy. b. Building an empire disrupted economy, causing hardships for Japanese people. B. Angel Island - the “Ellis Island of the West Coast” (processing immigrants, etc. ) III. The Resurgence of Nativism- overt favoritism towards native born Americans Wave of immigrants fear & distrust of foreigners. A. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 1. Barred Chinese immigration for 10 yrs. 2. Kept Chinese in US from becoming citizens.
Angel Island “Ellis Island of the West Coast”
ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLAND
Chinese Laundry in San Francisco
Passport for Chin-shee (a young Chinese immigrant)
Nativism …. Ironic?
B. Why did nativists oppose immigration? 1. Afraid that Catholic immigrants might get too much power in US government. 2. Immigrants would take low-paying jobs away from American citizens. 3. Immigrants would accept work as strikebreakers & hurt the unions’ efforts. C. Prejudice against newcomers 1. American Protective Association - wanted to stop immigration. 2. Workingman’s Party of California reaction to racial violence; also to stop immigration.
Sweatshop an urban laundry
“Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. . . The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost, to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” Emma Lazarus
Nativism. . Was the United States becoming a “Melting pot” or a “Dumping ground”?
Section 2 - Urbanization Main Idea: During the thirty years following the Civil War, the U. S. transformed rapidly from a rural nation to a more urban one. I. Americans Migrate to the Cities A. Why? 1. Immigrants lacked $$$ to buy farms or education to get better jobs. 2. Worked long hours in factories 3. Farmers - for better-paying jobs & for the excitement of the “modern” cities.
II. New Urban Environment A. Skyscrapers - lack of space; needed to “build up. ” B. Mass transit - needed to move large numbers of people quickly. Boston Subway San Francisco Cable Car Horsecar Trolley Car
During the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, John Roebling, who designed the bridge, was killed on the job. His son continued directing the work until being injured. The work was then taken over by John’s wife, who completed the project with her son’s direction.
III. Separation by Class A. High Society - Upper Class 1. Rich; usually lived in the center of the city. 2. Ex: Vanderbilt Mansion Vanderbilt liked his mansion so much, he built one just like it next door for his daughter. Vanderbilt Mansion - Fifth Avenue New York City
B. Middle-Class 1. Fast-growing social group. 2. Doctors, lawyers, engineers, social workers, architects, teachers, etc. 3. Not enough salary to keep up with upper class. C. Working Class 1. Majority 2. Often lived in tenements - crowded multi-family dwellings. 3. Many sent their children to work in factories.
Expose written by Jacob Riis to show the desperate situation of the working poor
IV. Urban Problems A. Crime, violence, fire, disease, & pollution. B. Native-born Americans blamed immigrants. C. Alcohol - contributed to violent crime. V. Urban Politics A. Political machine (new political system) informal political group designed to gain & keep political power. --City dwellers needed jobs, housing, food, heat, & police protection. B. Party boss - ran political machine; provided services to city dwellers in exchange for votes.
C. Corruption in political machine/boss system: 1. Graft - getting $$$ through dishonest or questionable means. 2. Fraud - bosses accepted bribes from contractors, etc. , who in exchange got prized contracts for doing city work (ex: roads, garbage collection, etc. ) or for city permits. D. Tammany Hall 1. NYC Democratic machine. 2. Boss - Wm. Marcy Tweed - corrupt!!!! 3. Had control of NYC gov’t. **In spite of all of the corruption, the machines did provide valuable services to city-dwellers.
Political cartoon portraying the corruption which surrounded Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall. William Marcy Tweed
Section 3 - The Gilded Age (Late 1800 s) Main Idea: Industrialism & urbanization changed American society’s ideas and culture. I. Changing Culture A. The Gilded Age - term coined by Mark Twain about the era from approx. 1870 - 1900. 1. Looked “golden” on outside, but problems inside! 2. Corruption, poverty, crime, big gap between rich & poor.
B. Individualism - whatever his beginnings, in America a person could rise in society. C. Horatio Alger - wrote “rags to riches” stories which inspired people to believe that success was possible. II. Social Darwinism A. Herbert Spencer’s idea. B. Taken from Darwin’s Origin of Species (evolutionary theory). C. “Human society also evolved through competition & natural selection. ” Idea of “survival of the fittest” in society.
D. Gospel of Wealth 1. Rich must help the poor - philanthropy. 2. Andrew Carnegie’s theory. a. Donated million$$ of his fortune. b. Libraries, scholarships, etc… III. Realism - portrayed people realistically instead of idealizing them as in the Romantic era. A. Art **Thomas Eakins paintings of regular people in day-to-day activities.
Example of realistic art from the group of painters known as the “Ashcan” school of artists. What is this painter saying about life in American cities during this time?
B. Literature 1. Wm. Dean Howells 2. Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) a. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn b. Wrote in local dialect c. Wrote about very American subjects. Samuel Clemens “Mark Twain” Howells’s Rise of Silas Lapham
3. Henry James - wrote about the inner lives of the upper class. 4. Edith Wharton Henry James a. Upper class subjects. b. Ex: Age of Innocence. Edith Wharton
IV. Popular Culture A. Improved standard of living led to entertainment & recreation. B. Saloon 1. Major role in life of male workers in 1800 s. 2. Served as social and political center. C. Amusement parks & sports 1. Coney Island a. Catered to workingclass families & singles. b. Rides usually cost 5 or 10 cents.
2. Watching professional boxing or baseball. a. Cincinnati Red Stockings - first salaried professional baseball team. b. 1903 - first modern World Series played. Cincinnati Red Stockings (later the Red Sox)
3. Football became a popular spectator sport during the Gilded Age, with college games proving to be the biggest draw. Rutgers and Princeton played in the first collegiate contest in 1869. Throughout the late 1800 s, three Eastern universities–Harvard, Yale, and Princeton– dominated the sport. University of Michigan Football Team - 1885
4. Other leisure activities: Lawn Tennis Golf Lawn Tennnis Croquet
D. Vaudeville 1. Similar to stage show/ concert. 2. Different kinds of acts. E. Ragtime 1. African American music. 2. Scott Joplin
Section 4 - The Rebirth of Reform Main Idea: The pressing problems of the urban poor in the late 1800 s and early 1900 s eventually stimulated attempts to reform industrial society. I. Social Criticism A. Debate between individualism/Social Darwinism and government help. B. Should we redistribute wealth from the rich to the poor? C. Should gov’t regulate the economy, or should it be left to competition/supply and demand?
D. Edward Bellamy - Looking Backward; form of socialism theory; gov’t owns all industry & shares the wealth w/ everyone (communism and/or socialism? ) II. Naturalism in Literature A. Response to Social Darwinism; “sometimes people fail to succeed through no fault of their own. We need gov’t regulation. ” 1. Stephen Crane- Maggie, Girl of the Streets 2. Jack London - his writings show power of natural environment over civilization.
III. Helping the Urban Poor A. Social Gospel - biblical ideas of charity & justice. B. Salvation Army William 1. William Booth, founder. Booth 2. Practical aid & religious counseling to the urban poor. C. YMCA D. Revival meetings
E. Settlement House movement 1. Ex: Jane Addams - Hull House in Chicago. Jane Addams Hull House 2. Provided services to poor - medical care, recreation, English classes. 3. New career field - social worker.
IV. Public Education A. Need for better educated & trained workers. B. Improvement in public education C. In education, cities were ahead of rural areas. D. African Americans did not have equal opportunities. 1. Some started their own schools. 2. Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee Institute. E. Morrill Land Grant - gov’t $$$ to states to start agricultural & mechanic colleges. (Ex: Texas A&M; Texas Tech)
F. Public libraries 1. Free “education” opportunity. 2. Andrew Carnegie donated million$ to build libraries all over the nation.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. providing money to support G humanitarian or social goals A. steerage __ 2. hostility toward immigrants B B. nativism C. tenement D. graft E. political machine F. party boss G. philanthropy H. vaudeville I. ragtime J. Americanization __ 3. causing someone to acquire J American traits and characteristics __ 4. an organization linked to a E political party that often controlled local government __ 5. multi-family apartments, C usually dark, crowded, and barely meeting living standards
Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. a type of music with a strong I rhythm and a lively melody with accented notes __ 7. stage entertainment made up H of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows __ 8. cramped quarters on a ship’s A lower decks for passengers paying the lowest fares __ 9. the acquisition of money on D dishonest ways, as in bribing a politician __ 10. the person in control of a F political machine A. steerage B. nativism C. tenement D. graft E. political machine F. party boss G. philanthropy H. vaudeville I. ragtime J. Americanization
POLITICS AND REFORM 1877 -1896 Chapter 11
Main Ideas of this chapter……. • During this period, political parties often focused on party competition rather than on important issues. Rural Americans (farmers) were suffering economically, and they began to organize politically in order to obtain relief. * Many states passed laws segregating African Americans and limiting their voting rights.
Section 1 - Stalemate in Washington Main Idea: From 1877 to 1896 the Republicans and Democrats were so evenly matched that only a few reforms were possible at the national level. I. Campaign to Clean up Politics A. Stalwarts - GOPs who supported political machines & the spoils system (patronage). B. Halfbreeds - GOPs who wanted to reform the spoils system.
C. Pendleton Act 1. President Garfield’s assassination a. He was killed by disgruntled supporter who was angry because he couldn’t get a government job. b. Highlighted problems with the spoils system 2. Pendleton Act created the Civil Service Commission - jobs on merit, not patronage. 3. Jobs were obtained through civil service examinations.
II. Two Parties, Neck & Neck - 1870 s & 1880 s. A. Stalemate 1. House of Representatives - usually a Democrat majority. 2. Senate - usually a GOP majority. 3. President - narrow margins in most elections of the period. a. In two elections, candidate winning the popular vote lost in Electoral College. b. GOP won 4 of 6 pres. elections…BUT they had to try to govern w/ a split Congress nearly even division of power = political deadlock = not much chance for reform.
III. Democrats Reclaim the White House y A. 1884 election ’s m te e her Whi 1. Grover Cleveland vs. a, Ma…wo the a…. ” t “M Gone , ha, h a James G. Blaine Pa? se…. h Hou 2. Dirty campaign Grover Cleveland Democrat a. Blaine tainted by Credit Mobilier scandal b. GOPs split over reforms; those wanting reforms - mugwumps c. Cleveland - bachelor; had fathered a child out of wedlock James G. Blaine Republican ten years earlier. 3. Cleveland won election by 1, 000 votes in NY
IV. President Cleveland with Problems A. Labor unrest - strikes & violence B. Powerful corporations (ex: RRs) * Small businesses & farmers angry at RRs. a. Large corporations could get rebates (partial refunds) & lower shipping rates because of their volume of business. b. Farmers & small business owners felt they paid unfair rates.
C. Interstate Commerce Commission 1887 designed to regulate interstate trade & to create “reasonable & just” rates. * Problem: ICC couldn’t enforce rulings, had to rely on courts to do so. Courts often unwilling to interfere with corporations (property rights). D. Tariffs 1. Dems. in House passed tariff reduction bill (to lower prices on manufactured goods) 2. GOP-controlled Senate would not pass the tariff reduction bill. 3. Became the major issue in election of 1888.
V. GOPs Regain Power A. Election of 1888 1. GOP- Benjamin Harrison - for high tariffs. 2. Dems - Grover Cleveland - against tariffs. 3. Harrison lost popular vote, but won electoral vote. 4. GOP won control of both houses of Congress. B. Mc. Kinley Tariff - compromise bill Benjamin Harrison 1. Lowered tariff on some goods; raised it on others (ex: textiles) 2. Hurt federal revenue because tariffs hurt American trade.
3. Budget surplus became a deficit. C. Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) 1. Meant to control huge trusts which created monopolies & hurt consumers. 2. Wording vague - hard to enforce. 3. Not much impact on business. * Although ICC & Sherman Antitrust Act were weak & hard to enforce, they established an important precedent: The federal government could regulate private corporations to protect American citizens/ consumers.
* By 1890 elections -- some Americans, especially farmers, believed that the two-party political system was incapable of solving the nation’s problems. What would those voters do? Where do they go to see that their interests are being protected?
Section 2 - Populism Main idea: In the 1890 s, an independent political movement called populism emerged to challenge the two major political parties. I. Unrest in Rural America - Why were they angry? A. Improved technology farmers produced more greater supply = lower prices for crops & cattle. At the same time…. B. High tariffs higher cost of manufacturing goods that farmers had to buy. Also….
C. High tariffs on foreign imports to America other countries retaliated by raising their tariffs on American exports to them farmers had trouble selling their goods overseas. D. Farmers thought eastern bankers were unfair to them (foreclosures, etc. ) E. Farmers thought RRs were unfair to them (charged them higher rates than manufacturers) Farmers vs. Railroad Companies
II. The Money Supply A. Greenbacks (paper currency) issued during Civil War caused inflation (decline in value of $$) B. After Civil War 1. Three types of currency in circulation: a. Greenbacks b. Gold & silver coin c. Bank notes (government bonds) 2. Feds stopped printing greenbacks; stopped minting silver coins; paid off bonds not enough $$ in circulation deflation decrease in price of goods.
C. Deflation hurt farmers Had to borrow $$ for seed, supplies Money supply scarce = higher interest rates Farmers owe more $ for mortgages/other loans Falling prices = less income on crops Couldn’t pay mortgages Wanted more greenbacks printed and/or silver Blamed Congress & eastern bankers.
Farmers decided they needed to organize politically!! D. Grange Takes Action 1. Patrons of Husbandry, aka Grange first nat’l. farm organization * At first, it was a social & educational org. 2. Grange’s response to farmers’ problems: a. Pressured state legislatures to regulate RRs. b. Joined Greenback Party wanted govt to print more $$.
c. Cooperatives - pooled their resources to create businesses to benefit farmers. Ex: Pooled their crops & held them off the market to force up prices. Could also negotiate better RR rates due to high volume. E. Grange fails 1. “Granger laws” setting RR rates were fought in courts. RRs usually won. 2. Greenback Party failed; too many people were afraid of paper $$. 3. Co-ops failed - not strong enough and farmers had too little business experience.
III. Farmers’ Alliance A. Replaced Grange as farmers’ “union. ” B. People’s Party, aka Populist Party, formed to address farmers’ issues.
IV. Rise of Populism A. Populist party platform: 1. Subtreasury plan (store crops to raise prices) 2. “Free silver” unlimited coinage of silver 3. End protective tariffs & national banks. 4. Tighter regulation of RRs 5. Direct election of senators by voters instead of by state legislatures. 17 th Amendment
B. Populist for President 1892 1. James Weaver - Populist candidate 2. Platform: a. Included all of populist platform…. plus… b. Federal government ownership of RRs c. Graduated income tax - you make more, you pay at a higher rate. d. 8 -hour workday To try appeal to e. Immigration restriction the labor vote. C. Grover Cleveland (Dem) defeated Pres. Benjamin Harrison (GOP) & Weaver (Populist)
D. Panic of 1893 1. Businesses went bankrupt. 2. Stock market crashed. 3. Banks closed. 4. 15 -20% unemployment…. . Depression!! E. Panic caused Amer. & Eur. investors to cash in bonds for gold reserves became dangerously low! 1. Cleveland wanted gold as basis for currency 2. Congress would not allow silver to be exchanged for gold. 3. Dems split: Goldbugs favored gold currency; Silverites wanted unlimited coinage of silver.
For a time, there was fear among many Democrats that the Populist Party would consume them.
V. Election of 1896 A. Dems & Populists nominated William Jennings Bryan for Pres. - electrifying campaigner, but didn’t appeal to NE labor. B. GOP - William Mc. Kinley 1. “Front-Porch” campaign. 2. Blamed Cleveland & Dems for depression. 3. Had support of business & urban workers C. Populism declines 1. Depression over 2. New gold strikes led to increased $$ supply. 3. Congress adopted gold-based $$ standard. 4. Too radical (Ex: govt-owned RR)
William Jennings Bryan William Mc. Kinley Even though Populist Party failed, some of its reforms will be adopted in the 20 th century. (Ex: Income tax)
Section 3 - Rise of Segregation Main idea: In the late 1800 s, southern states passed laws denying African-Americans the right to vote and imposed segregation on them. I. Resistance and Repression A. Post-Reconstruction: African Americans not much better off than under slavery. 1. Technically free, but stuck in poverty! 2. Most were sharecroppers
B. African-Americans flee the South 1. Mass migration to Kansas 2. Called Exodusters C. Colored Farmers’ National Alliance 1. Set up co-ops 2. Many joined Populist Party D. Dems resorted to racism to crush Populist Party.
II. Democrats Disenfranchise African-Americans Fifteenth Amendment The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. * To get past the 15 th Amendment: 1. Poll tax - blacks couldn’t afford it. 2. Literacy tests - most had no education. 3. Intimidation at the polls.
III. Segregation in the South A. Democrats passed laws forcing segregation Jim Crow Laws. B. Supreme Court, 1883, said 14 th Amendment meant only state laws (not private organizations or businesses) were Fourteenth Amendment prohibited from All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the practicing racial jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein discrimination. they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
C. Plessy v. Ferguson upheld segregation, using “separate but equal” justification. D. Lynchings (illegal executions) increased. 70% of them were African-American.
IV. African-American Response A. Ida B. Wells - African American; writings were a crusade against lynchings. B. Booker T. Washington 1. Stressed economic goals, rather than legal or political actions. 2. Atlanta Compromise - he called on blacks to concentrate on education & vocational training to empower themselves.
C. W. E. B. Du. Bois 1. Urged African-Americans to demand full civil rights, especially the right to vote. 2. Advised them to use the courts and the political system to force equal rights under the law.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. person who believes that E American currency should be based on a gold standard A. rebate B. greenback C. inflation D. cooperative __ 3. store where farmers bought D products from each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its services E. goldbug F. silverite G. poll tax H. segregation __ 4. the loss of value of money C I. __ 5. an execution performed J without lawful approval Jim Crow laws J. lynching __ 2. the separation or isolation of H a race, class, or group
Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. person who believes that F coining silver currency in unlimited quantities will eliminate economic crisis A. rebate B. greenback C. inflation __ 7. statutes or laws created to I enforce segregation D. cooperative __ 8. a partial refund to lower the A rate of a good or commodity E. goldbug F. silverite G. poll tax H. segregation I. Jim Crow laws J. lynching __ 9. a tax of a fixed amount per G person that had to be paid before the person could vote __ 10. a piece of U. S. paper money B first issued by the North during the Civil War