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Unix GUI Guntis Barzdins Girts Folkmanis Unix GUI Guntis Barzdins Girts Folkmanis

GUI History w In 1962, Douglas Engelbart invented the first “mouse, ” which he GUI History w In 1962, Douglas Engelbart invented the first “mouse, ” which he called an “X-Y Position Indicator. ” w It was a little gizmo housed in a wooden box on wheels that moved around the desktop and took the cursor with it on the display. Source: US Patent Office

GUI History w In 1963 a grad student at MIT, Ivan Sutherland, submitted as GUI History w In 1963 a grad student at MIT, Ivan Sutherland, submitted as his thesis a program called “Sketchpad. ” This was the first GUI (Graphical User Interface) long before the term was coined. " http: //accad. osu. edu/~waynec/history/images/ivan-sutherland. jpg

GUI History w In the 1970 s, at Xerox’s PARC facility, Alan Keys created GUI History w In the 1970 s, at Xerox’s PARC facility, Alan Keys created an objectoriented graphical programming language called “Smalltalk. ” Smalltalk featured a graphical user interface (GUI) that looked suspiciously similar to later iterations from both Apple and Microsoft. http: //www. sra. co. jp/people/aoki/Squeak. Idioms/chapter 01/Xerox 1100 SIP. jpg

GUI History w 1981, Xerox attempted to market the “Star. ” It introduced the GUI History w 1981, Xerox attempted to market the “Star. ” It introduced the idea of what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG). w Commercial failure n cost ($15, 000); l n limited functionality l n 3 rd party vendors could not add applications perceived as slow l n e. g. , no spreadsheet closed architecture, l n IBM had just announced a less expensive machine but really fast! slavish adherence to direct manipulation http: //www. catb. org/~esr/writings/taouu/html/graphics/xerox_star. jpg

Apple gets a GUI w In 1983, the Apple Lisa was first GUI offering. Apple gets a GUI w In 1983, the Apple Lisa was first GUI offering. Apple II, 1980 http: //www. s-line. de/homepages/horber-privat/bilder/apple 2 a. jpg Lisa http: //fp 3. antelecom. net/gcifu/applemuseum/lisa 2. html

Apple gets a GUI http: //computermuseum. 50 megs. com/images/collection/apple-mac-plus. jpg w In 1984, Macintosh Apple gets a GUI http: //computermuseum. 50 megs. com/images/collection/apple-mac-plus. jpg w In 1984, Macintosh was the first computer with a GUI marketed to the masses. n “old ideas” but well done! w Commercial success because: n n aggressive pricing ($2500) did not need to trail blaze l l n n learned from mistakes of Lisa and corrected them; ideas now “mature” market now ready for them developer’s toolkit encouraged 3 rd party non-Apple software interface guidelines encouraged consistency between applications domination in desktop publishing because of affordable laser printer and excellent graphics Full Microsoft Office suite (Apple was the dominant player at this time. ) http: //toastytech. com/guis/bigmac 1. gif

Microsoft Gets a GUI w Microsoft introduced Windows 1. 0 in 1985 n Tiled Microsoft Gets a GUI w Microsoft introduced Windows 1. 0 in 1985 n Tiled Windows, no overlapping w Windows 2. 03 in 1987 n Overlapping windows w Windows 3. 0 in 1990 n Features Program Manager

Windows Timeline w It took roughly 15 years to consolidate its shellbased GUI architecture Windows Timeline w It took roughly 15 years to consolidate its shellbased GUI architecture offerings with its embedded GUI architecture offerings. http: //www. microsoft. com/windows/Win. History. Pro. Graphic. mspx

Unix Gets a GUI w The X Windows System was introduced in the mid-1980 Unix Gets a GUI w The X Windows System was introduced in the mid-1980 s to provide graphical support for unix operating systems. w The implementation was a clientserver approach, where an X window system server ran on the displaying machine, and the client programs communicated with it using a network protocol. w X provides only a communication mechanism, not policy. At least three major user interface look & feel styles are widely used on X MIT's own Athena style, Sun and AT&T's Open. Look, and OSF's Motif (supported primarily by HP and IBM). http: //www. pattosoft. com. au/jason/Articles/History. Of. Computers/X 11. gif

Exceptions: Mac. OS X uses a proprietary Aqua windowing system (more efficient than X Exceptions: Mac. OS X uses a proprietary Aqua windowing system (more efficient than X 11), mobile phone interfaces

Topics w X Windows n n n X Protocol Classic X apps Starting X Topics w X Windows n n n X Protocol Classic X apps Starting X apps Window managers Desktop environments Desktop applications

X Window w The X Window system was developed as part of Project Athena X Window w The X Window system was developed as part of Project Athena at MIT. In 1987, X Version 11 is released. X is now controlled and maintained by the Open Group. w The X Windows System, also referred to as ‘X’ or “X 11”, is the standard graphical engine for Unix and Linux. w It is largely OS and hardware independent, it is network-transparent, and it supports many different desktops.

The Graphic User Interface in X w X Window uses a bit-mapped display where The Graphic User Interface in X w X Window uses a bit-mapped display where each pixel can be manipulated individually. w The entire display is known as the root window, and individual applications are displayed as windows on this root window. w X is started with the startx or xinit commands. n X can also be invoked during system startup

X Protocol The X Protocol provides a client-server architecture at the application level: The X Protocol The X Protocol provides a client-server architecture at the application level: The X client is the processing part of the application and often runs on a remote machine. The X server is the display and interaction system.

X Protocol cont’d The X Protocol is also divided into device dependent and device X Protocol cont’d The X Protocol is also divided into device dependent and device independent layers.

X Server Design w Device Dependent Layer n n It is this layer that X Server Design w Device Dependent Layer n n It is this layer that is responsible for localizing the X server to the native environment, be it MS Windows or Solaris. This layer swaps bytes of data from machines with differing byte ordering. Byte ordering (MSB and LSB) is noted in each X request. This layer hides the architectural differences in hardware and operating systems. Maintains device driver dependencies for keyboard, mouse and video.

Networked Windowing w X Window designed to allow apps to run on remote machines Networked Windowing w X Window designed to allow apps to run on remote machines w Uses client-server model X Server std system software User Network Client app software

X architecture The client-server nature of the X Protocol allows a single X server X architecture The client-server nature of the X Protocol allows a single X server to support many clients (applications) on several hosts.

Client-Server Window System Client Application Programs Application 1 Application 2 Application n Virtual display Client-Server Window System Client Application Programs Application 1 Application 2 Application n Virtual display 1 Virtual display 2 Could be Window Manager Virtual display n Server Resource allocator Device-independent abstraction level Translates abstraction into reality: one per terminal type Devices Keyboard Mouse Device driver Window 1 Window 2 Window n (After Fig 10. 2, Dix, Finlay, Abowd and Beale)

X Protocol messages Requests – client sends requests to the server (e. g. create X Protocol messages Requests – client sends requests to the server (e. g. create window) Replies – server response to client requests Events – server forwards events (such as mouse clicks or keyboard entry) to the client Errors – server reports errors to the client

X Server The X server therefore: w displays drawing requests on the screen. w X Server The X server therefore: w displays drawing requests on the screen. w replies to information requests. w reports an error in a request. w Manages the keyboard, mouse and display device. n Multiplexes keyboard and mouse input onto the network (or via local IPC) to the respective X clients. (X events) w creates, maps and destroys windows. n writes and draws in windows

X Client w sends requests to the server. w receives events from server. w X Client w sends requests to the server. w receives events from server. w receives errors from the server

Protocol Messages Requests w X clients make requests to the X server for a Protocol Messages Requests w X clients make requests to the X server for a certain action to take place. i. e. : Create Window w To enhance performance, the X client normally does not expect nor wait for a response. The request is typically left to the reliable network layer to deliver.

Protocol Messages Replies w The X server will respond to certain X client requests Protocol Messages Replies w The X server will respond to certain X client requests that require a reply. As noted, not all requests require a reply.

Protocol Messages Events w The X server will forward to the X client an Protocol Messages Events w The X server will forward to the X client an event that the application is expecting. This could include keyboard or mouse input. To minimize network traffic, only expected events are sent to X clients. w X events are 32 bytes

Protocol Messages Errors w The X server will report errors in requests to the Protocol Messages Errors w The X server will report errors in requests to the X client. Errors are like an event but are handled differently. w X errors are the same size as events to simplify their handling. They are sent to the error handling routine of the X client.

X Windows Protocol Overview X Windows is the predominate windowing system on UNIX computers, X Windows Protocol Overview X Windows is the predominate windowing system on UNIX computers, developed by the X Consortium, lead by M. I. T. An X server manages the display on the workstation. Clients can connect to server via TCP/IP and perform graphics operations. This makes X Windows much more network capable than Microsoft Windows, for example, which can only be accessed via a local API. X Windows operates over TCP, typically using server port numbers starting with 6000. The X server for a system's first display listens on port 6000; if the system has a second display, its server listens on port 6001; a third display would listen on 6002; etc. The protocol used over this reliable stream connection is essentially request/reply, and it's reputation is as a fat protocol that consumes a lot of bandwidth. Lightweight X (LWX), introduced in X 11 R 6, attempts to reduces X's bandwidth needs to the point where it can be run over dialup modem connections. The X Protocol, documented in a postscript file, defines dozens of messages that can be exchanged between a client and a server. They can generally be classified into four categories: Requests, Replies, Events, and Errors. Typical requests include Draw Poly. Line, Draw Text, Create Window, Fill. Replies are matched to particular Requests. Events are asynchronous occurances such as keystrokes and mouse clicks. Errors are matched to particular Requests. If a window is partially or fully obscured by another, overlapping window, the server has two options available to it. The server can allocate additional memory, called backing store, to record to contents of the obscured window. This is purely optional, however. The server can simply ignore the obscured part of the window. Later, when that part of the window becomes visible again, the server sends an Expose event to the client, which must then redraw the affected area. The client, therefore, must be prepared to redraw any part of its windows at any time. Applications do not need to access the X Windows protocol directly. X Windows supports several APIs. The most basic of these is Xlib, which interfaces fairly directly to the underlying network protocol. Most X client applications are linked against Xlib, which allows them to operate on either a local or remote X server, simply by adjusting either an environment variable or a command-line argument. Widgets layer on top of Xlib and provide X Windows with an object-oriented programming model. A widget is an X window capable of handling most of its own protocol interaction. The most popular widget sets are Athena Widgets (aw) and Motif. X Window's security model is all-or-nothing. Either an application can perform any operation on an X desktop, or it can perform none. There is no concept of limiting an application to a single top-level window, for example. Although there is power in this model, such as allowing the window manager to be a normal X client, there also serious security implications. A hostile X client could connect to an X server and arrange to capture any screen image, or even to capture keystrokes as a password is being typing in one of the windows. For this reasons, X servers are typically fairly restrictive about which clients they will accept connections from. Two major security models are available. Hostbased security (traditionally controlled by the xhost program), permits or denies connections based on their source IP addresses. Authentication (traditionally controlled by the xauth program), requires the connecting program to possess a secret password typically , stored in a UNIX file and subject to standard UNIX access controls. Kerberos-based authentication is also available.

Starting X Windows On a local PC or workstation, you can usually start the Starting X Windows On a local PC or workstation, you can usually start the X server with the “xinit” (“startx”) command or it may be started automatically by “xdm” (graphical login display). Configuration stored in /etc/XF 86 Config Usually edited with utility /usr/X 11 R 6/bin/xf 86 config or /usr/X 11 R 6/bin/xf 86 cfg

xf 86 cfg xf 86 cfg

Configuring X Windows w mouseconfig n Command used to configure a mouse for use Configuring X Windows w mouseconfig n Command used to configure a mouse for use by X Windows w xconfigurator n n A program that is used to configure video adapter card and monitor information for use by X Windows redhat-config-xfree 86 used in recent Red Hat & in Fedora

Configuring X Windows w Fedora and X Windows configuration n n Fedora has greatly Configuring X Windows w Fedora and X Windows configuration n n Fedora has greatly improved video & monitor detection Not included in Fedora (Red Hat only): Super. Probe l Xf 86 config l Xconfigurator l

Starting X applications To launch an X client from a remote host for display Starting X applications To launch an X client from a remote host for display on the local X server, you need to set two things: 1) Permission for the remote host to display X clients on the local machine. xhost +remotehost 2) The target display for the remote application. setenv DISPLAY=server: display [hostname]: displaynumber[. screennumber] not needed, if same host “ 0” in most cases defaults to “ 0”

/etc/X 11/xinitrc (xinit) or /home/g/. xsession (xdm) #!/bin/sh # $Id: xinitrc, v 1. 2 /etc/X 11/xinitrc (xinit) or /home/g/. xsession (xdm) #!/bin/sh # $Id: xinitrc, v 1. 2 2003/02/27 19: 03: 30 jharper Exp $ xrdb -load $HOME/. Xresources xsetroot -solid gray & xclock -g 50 x 50 -0+0 -bw 0 & xterm & loads resources: default fonts, colours, window sizes # start the window manager exec twm xinit executes this script last line: replaces shell-script with window manager, will terminate all background processes on exit

Shells w Unix and DOS operating systems circa 1980 s support text-based user interfaces Shells w Unix and DOS operating systems circa 1980 s support text-based user interfaces via a program called a shell. These shells insert another layer between the user and the operating system. Typical text shells under unix are csh and ksh. The typical text shell under microsoft is command. com. It is still emulated today by cmd. exe. w Original unix and Microsoft GUI support was also implemented as shells. The dominant unix GUI library became an open library called X 11 supported by the X. org foundation. Microsoft introduced Windows 1. 0 as a shell that ran on a layer above MS-DOS. w The original Apple GUI is embedded into its operating system kernel. Windows migrated to embedding GUI support beginning with Windows NT.

Classic X 11 [Guntis-Computer: /usr/X 11 R 6/bin] guntis% ls X luit xbiff Xmark Classic X 11 [Guntis-Computer: /usr/X 11 R 6/bin] guntis% ls X luit xbiff Xmark makedepend xcalc Xnest makeg xclipboard Xprt makepsres xclock Xquartz makestrs xcmsdb Xvfb mergelib xconsole appres mkcfm xcursor-config atobm mkdirhier xcutsel bdftopcf mkfontdir xditview bdftruncate mkfontscale xdm beforelight mkhtmlindex xdpyinfo bitmap oclock xedit bmtoa proxymngr xev ccmakedep pswrap xeyes cleanlinks quartz-wm xfd cxpm resize xfindproxy dpsexec revpath xfontsel dpsinfo rman xfs dumpkeymap rstart xfsinfo editres rstartd xft-config fc-cache sessreg xfwp fc-list setxkbmap xgamma fontconfig-config showfont xgc freetype-config showrgb xhost fslsfonts smproxy xinit fstobdf startx xkbbell gccmakedep sxpm xkbcomp glxgears texteroids xkbevd glxinfo twm xkbprint iceauth ucs 2 any xkbvleds ico uxterm xkbwatch imake viewres xkill lbxproxy x 11 perf xload listres x 11 perfcomp xlogo lndir xauth xlsatoms [Guntis-Computer: /usr/X 11 R 6/bin] guntis% man xwud xlsclients xlsfonts xmag xman xmessage xmh xmkmf xmodmap xon xprop xrandr xrdb xrefresh xsetmode xsetpointer xsetroot xsm xstdcmap xterm xtrapchar xtrapinfo xtrapout xtrapproto xtrapreset xtrapstats xvidtune xvinfo xwd xwininfo xwud

xterm The most important X application is, rather ironically, the terminal program xterm. Old xterm The most important X application is, rather ironically, the terminal program xterm. Old school xterm:

xterm: The Main Client w You can invoke all UNIX commands and X programs xterm: The Main Client w You can invoke all UNIX commands and X programs form the UNIX command line available in an xterm window. w xterm can also be used with a scrollbar (-sb), and the number of lines saved can be specified ( -sl). w You can position and specify the size and position of a window (-geometry) and its foreground and background color (-fg and -bg). w You can start a program as an icon (-icon) and provide a name (-name) or title (-title).

Some classic X apps xclock – pretty self-explanatory Some classic X apps xclock – pretty self-explanatory

Some classic X apps xeyes – ok, this is really the most important Some classic X apps xeyes – ok, this is really the most important

xnest xnest

XFree 86 “In short, XFree 86 is an open source X 11 based desktop XFree 86 “In short, XFree 86 is an open source X 11 based desktop infrastructure. ” – xfree 86. org X. org Foundation – sucessor of XFree 86 Used in most Linux distributions

Window managers, Widget toolkits, Desktop environments, Desktop applications Window managers, Widget toolkits, Desktop environments, Desktop applications

X Architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The kernel gets an event from X Architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The kernel gets an event from an input device and sends it to X. The X server determines which window the event affects and sends it to the clients that have selected for the event in question on that window. The client looks at the event and decides what to do. When the X server receives the rendering request, it sends it to the driver to let it program the hardware to do the rendering. The damage event tells the compositor that something changed in the window and that it has to recomposite the part of the screen where that window is visible. The X server receives the rendering requests from the compositor and either copies the compositor back buffer to the front buffer or does a pageflip.

X and the GUI w X itself provides the back end needed for a X and the GUI w X itself provides the back end needed for a GUI. It doesn’t, however, provide an interface itself. w Window management functions – e. g. moving or resizing windows – are performed by a window manager, which is itself an X client. These range from the spartan (twm) to the complex and graphically intensive (Enlightenment). w There are various different toolkits for creating graphical applications, providing libraries of widgets such as buttons etc. These range from the old and ugly (Motif) to the new and shiny (GTK+, Qt) w No two users can be assumed to have the same window manager and different applications can use different toolkits (or even write their own). Therefore, there’s a lack of consistency about the average X desktop – this makes things ugly and can be hard to use.

Why not only a basic X 11 environment? w Most X 11 applications have Why not only a basic X 11 environment? w Most X 11 applications have important shortcomings: n Application Interoperability is too hard n User Interface is inconsistent and of unequality w Modern desktop environment brings the "glue" n Drag & Drop, Session Management, etc. . . n Consistent "look and feel" n Unified Help System n Easy dialog based desktop configuration n Common application development framework (-> MFC) n Compound document framework (-> OLE) w New exciting possibilities: n Hundreds of new applications (including Office) n Powerful application development environment

Window managers One can use X 11 without a window manager. n Typically, one Window managers One can use X 11 without a window manager. n Typically, one writes a session script which starts an "xterm" at a "geometry" location. One then starts other X 11 clients by giving their "geometry" explicitly, because there is no window manager The window manager is a special X client that controls the placement and movement of applications, provides title bars and control buttons, menus and taskbars. Some support virtual desktops and very fancy graphics. n When a window manager is running, some of interaction between the X server and its clients is redirected through the window manager. Classic window managers include: n n TWM MWM - Motif Window Manager Nowadays, KDE (kwm) and GNOME (sawfish) are two widely used

The Tab Window Manager (TWM) The Tab Window Manager (TWM)

Linux GUI Components Graphical Programs (X clients) Desktop Environment Window Manager X Windows Video Linux GUI Components Graphical Programs (X clients) Desktop Environment Window Manager X Windows Video Adapter Card Hardware

Motif Window manager and Widgets Motif Window manager and Widgets

KDE w KDE is the traditional desktop environment used on Linux systems w K KDE w KDE is the traditional desktop environment used on Linux systems w K Windows Manager (kwm) n The window manager that works under the KDE Desktop Environment w Qt toolkit n Software toolkit used with the KDE Desktop environment

Linux Developement w Qt Class Library n n C++ Cross Platform l l l Linux Developement w Qt Class Library n n C++ Cross Platform l l l n n Qt/Windows Qt/X 11 (Linux, Solaris, HPUX, AIX, etc) Qt/Mac GPL – Free for non-commercial apps Qt was used to build KDE from Trolltech in Norway www. trolltech. com

Gnome w GNOME Desktop Environment n n Default desktop environment in Red Hat Linux Gnome w GNOME Desktop Environment n n Default desktop environment in Red Hat Linux Typically uses the Sawfish Window Manager and the GTK+ toolkit for the C programming language l The GTK+ toolkit was originally developed for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) l Ported also to MS Win, Mac. OS X planned

Bluecurve w Bluecurve n n n Both a visual theme and a set of Bluecurve w Bluecurve n n n Both a visual theme and a set of modifications to the KDE and GNOME environments Gives both a common “look & feel” Smooths out inconsistent behaviors between the different WMs

The KDE Desktop Environment The KDE Desktop Environment

The Bluecurve + KDE in Fedora The Bluecurve + KDE in Fedora

The GNOME Desktop Environment The GNOME Desktop Environment

The Bluecurve + GNOME in Fedora The Bluecurve + GNOME in Fedora

KDE and Gnome architectures KDE and Gnome architectures

What is a desktop? w It is the top of a desk w It What is a desktop? w It is the top of a desk w It is a pc cabinet for the desktop w It is the graphical user interface (GUI) on a pc w It is the graphical enviroment for the

KDE and GNOME w K Desktop Environment n n KDE is a KDE and GNOME w K Desktop Environment n n KDE is a "complete desktop environment that try to make linux accessible to everybody" At present KDE 3. 5 w GNU Network Object Model Environment n n AIM: "GNOME Intends to build a complete, user-friendly desktop, similar to CDE or KDE, but based entirely on free software" At present GNOME 2. 14

KDE http: //www. kde. org/ KDE http: //www. kde. org/

KDE KDE

GNOME http: //www. gnome. org/ GNOME http: //www. gnome. org/

Render Extension - Shadows Render Extension - Shadows

Render Extension Translucency Render Extension Translucency

Render Extension – anti-alias font Render Extension – anti-alias font

Super. Karamba dynamic background info Super. Karamba dynamic background info

More GUI on Linux w X Window server w Window Managers n n n More GUI on Linux w X Window server w Window Managers n n n n KDE GNOME Window. Maker FVWM Enlightenment Ice. WM Corel. Linux

Window. Maker http: //www. windowmaker. org/ Window. Maker http: //www. windowmaker. org/

FVWM http: //www. fvwm. org/ FVWM http: //www. fvwm. org/

Enlightment http: //www. enlightenment. org/ Enlightment http: //www. enlightenment. org/

Ice. WM http: //iceorg. sourceforge. net/ Ice. WM http: //iceorg. sourceforge. net/

Corel Linux http: //linux. corel. com/ Corel Linux http: //linux. corel. com/

Office suites for Linux w Word. Perfect Office w Applix. Ware w Star. Office Office suites for Linux w Word. Perfect Office w Applix. Ware w Star. Office w GNOME Office w KOffice

Star. Office / Open. Office / Libre. Office w SUN Microsystems n n n Star. Office / Open. Office / Libre. Office w SUN Microsystems n n n Writer Calc Impress Draw Base w Danish in june w Free, not Open Source

KOffice w KDE project n KWord n KSpread n n n Kpresent er Killustrato KOffice w KDE project n KWord n KSpread n n n Kpresent er Killustrato r KChart

GNOME Office w GNOME project n n n Abi. Word Gnumeric GIMP Dia GNOME-DB GNOME Office w GNOME project n n n Abi. Word Gnumeric GIMP Dia GNOME-DB w Open Source

Other desktop applications w GIMP n n n Image editor á la Adobe Photoshop Other desktop applications w GIMP n n n Image editor á la Adobe Photoshop Free and open Thousands of plug-ins w Mozilla n n Webbrowser (Firefox) Mailclient (Thunderbird)

Office Suites Office Suites

Using X windows remotely on a MS-Windows machine. w You need to get a Using X windows remotely on a MS-Windows machine. w You need to get a program called an “Xserver”. Exceed works well and is free for academic use. Cygwin is another option. w You must allow X-forwarding through your ssh client. Putty is good for this.

X server security configuration xhost simply allows you to specify which machines are, or X server security configuration xhost simply allows you to specify which machines are, or aren't allowed to connect to the X server, this is a very simplistic security mechanism and is not really suitable in any modern environment, however used in conjunction with other mechanisms it can help. The command is quite simple: 'xhost +example. org' adds example. org, 'xhost example. org' removes example. org from the list, you must also specify 'xhost -' to turn on the access control list, or else everyone is let in by default. mkxauth is definitely a step up from xhost. mkxauth helps create ~/. Xauthority files, and merge them, which are used to specify hostnames and the related magic cookies (basically a token used to gain access). These cookies can then be used to gain access to a remote X host (you essentially have a copy of the cookie on each end) and are transferred either plain text (insecure) or DES encrypted (quite secure). Using this method you can be relatively safe and secure. Xauthority files can also be used in conjunction with Kerberos, removing the necessity to copy Xauthority files around and keep them in synchronization. Hosts authenticate to each other through a central Kerberos key server(s) in an encrypted fashion, this method is most appropriate for large installations/etc. mkxauth has an excellent man page 'man mkxauth' and more generalized details are available in the Xsecurity man page (not sure how common this name page is) 'man Xsecurity'. SSH tunnel SSH or Open. SSH can be used to create a tunnel between hosts (or more specifically between two X servers), thus encrypting the channel, providing authentication, and generally making things safer. The following web page explains it http: //csociety. ecn. purdue. edu/~sigos/projects/ssh/forwarding/.

Mac OS X Mac OS X

Mac OS X Architecture Apple’s Boiled Sweets diagram http: //developer. apple. com/macosx/architecture/ Mac OS X Architecture Apple’s Boiled Sweets diagram http: //developer. apple. com/macosx/architecture/

The Smartphone Platform w With the i. Phone being the first to the marketplace The Smartphone Platform w With the i. Phone being the first to the marketplace it sets the configuration of the Smartphone Platform n n n n 3 G/4 G connectivity Wi. Fi connectivity Bluetooth connectivity accelerometer w/compass ambient light sensor proximity sensor GPS gyroscope

What is i. OS w Apple’s mobile OS for phones (i. Phone), tablets (i. What is i. OS w Apple’s mobile OS for phones (i. Phone), tablets (i. Pad), handhelds (i. Pod), w based on BSD Unix w Application programming done in Objective C w Supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and 3 G and 4 G networking

Apple i. OS Apple i. OS

What is Android w Android is an open source operating system, created by Google What is Android w Android is an open source operating system, created by Google specifically for use on mobile devices (cell phones and tablets) w Linux based (2. 6 kernel) w Can be programmed in C/C++ but most app development is done in Java (Java access to C Libraries via JNI (Java Native Interface)) w Supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and 3 G and 4 G

The Android Software Stack The Android Software Stack

Main GUI parts Status Bar Home Screen App Screen Favourites Tray Navigation bar (Android Main GUI parts Status Bar Home Screen App Screen Favourites Tray Navigation bar (Android 3. 0+)

Commonly Used Packages w w User interface controls and widgets User interface layout Secure Commonly Used Packages w w User interface controls and widgets User interface layout Secure networking and web browsing Structured storage and relational databases (SQLite RDBMS) w 2 D and 3 D Graphics SGL and Open. GL w Audio and visual media support w Access to optional hardware (GPS)

Security Semantic Security Semantic

Android Application Development Eclipse IDE Android SDK Android Emulato r Android Mobile Device Android Application Development Eclipse IDE Android SDK Android Emulato r Android Mobile Device

i. OS Application Development XCODE IDE i. OS SDK i. OS Simulat or i. i. OS Application Development XCODE IDE i. OS SDK i. OS Simulat or i. OS Mobile Device

Android development Android Manifest Resourc e XML Java Source Generat ed Class Android Libraries Android development Android Manifest Resourc e XML Java Source Generat ed Class Android Libraries Java Compiler . dex File Dalvik VM

i. OS development Xcode Interface Builder Objectiv e. C Source. xib file Foundation Framework i. OS development Xcode Interface Builder Objectiv e. C Source. xib file Foundation Framework Cocoa Libraries Objective C Compiler . Simulato r or Device

Sams Teach Yourself Android™Application Development in 24 Hours (0321673352) FIGURE 5. 6 Simplified Android Sams Teach Yourself Android™Application Development in 24 Hours (0321673352) FIGURE 5. 6 Simplified Android platform architecture from a security perspective. Copyright © 2010 Lauren Darcey and Shane Conder

UI With GUI Builder UI With GUI Builder

Android Basics • • Open source OS • Uses Linux kernel • Optimized for Android Basics • • Open source OS • Uses Linux kernel • Optimized for limited-resource environment Apps typically written in Java Apps run on the Dalvik Virtual Machine • Not a JVM, but works similarly from developer’s point of view • Usually one app per DVM • Each DVM runs under Linux as a separate user • App permissions set at install time Possible to use C or C++ compiled to machine code, but still

X 11, X 12, What next… X 11, X 12, What next…

X 12 w X 11 was defined in the middle of the 1980's. Since X 12 w X 11 was defined in the middle of the 1980's. Since then, computers have changed almost beyond recognition; the simple framebuffer model used by computers at the time has been replaced programmable graphics hardware that is both complex and powerful. Not only has graphics hardware changed, but the basic processing model has and continues to change; parallelism in core system design is becoming the norm, rather than a special case for 'large' systems. w And that's just talking about desktop systems; now there are smart phones, netbooks, tablets, and probably will shortly be other device types that this author can't imagine (else I'd be working on them. . . ). w In short, X 11 was designed for a different era of computing. w This is not to say that there's an X 12 project. There isn't. But if one day there is. . . w …You can read the full story at http: //www. x. org/wiki/Development/X 12/

Wayland architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. The kernel gets an event and sends it Wayland architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. The kernel gets an event and sends it to the compositor. This is similar to the X case. The compositor looks through its scenegraph to determine which window should receive the event. As in the X case, when the client receives the event, it updates the UI in response. The compositor collects damage requests from its clients and then recomposites the screen. XWayland was written to enable running X 11 applications through an X server, optionally rootless, running as a Wayland client. This is similar to the way X applications run in OS X’s native graphics environment

Wayland uses direct rendering over EGL Wayland compositors Display servers that implement the Wayland Wayland uses direct rendering over EGL Wayland compositors Display servers that implement the Wayland display server protocol are also called Wayland compositors because they additionally perform the task of a compositing window manager. w Weston – the reference implementation of a Wayland compositor; Weston implements client-side decoration w Lipstick – mobile user experience (UX) framework which implements Wayland compositor. It is used in Sailfish OS and Nemo Mobile. w Enlightenment 0. 19 (E 19) is expected to have full Wayland support. w KWin had incomplete Wayland support in April 2013. w Mutter maintains a separate branch for the integration of Wayland for GNOME 3. 9 (in September 2013). w Clayland is a simple example Wayland compositor using Clutter.

Wayland: Planned adoption w w w w Enlightenment: The Enlightenment project declared full support Wayland: Planned adoption w w w w Enlightenment: The Enlightenment project declared full support for Wayland with their Enlightenment Foundation Libraries and window manager. Fedora: Fedora ships Wayland since release 17. Fedora developer Matthias Clasen released a tentative roadmap in March 2013, targeting to use Wayland as default by Fedora 21. Fedora 20 ships with a technology preview of a Wayland-enabled Gnome 3. 10 session. GNOME: In March 2013 GNOME developers announced plans for a complete Wayland port within a year. GNOME 3. 10 includes initial support that "will enable the project to fully adopt the next generation display and input technology in the future". The current roadmap targets GNOME 3. 12 as the first version to be fully ported to Wayland. KWin, the KDE's window manager, added support for Open. GL ES output in version 4. 7. In January 2013 KWin’s main developer Martin Grässlin started working for Blue Systems with one of the goals being a complete Wayland port. Experimental Wayland support is now working in current KWin 4. 11. KDE’s Calligra Suite already has an unofficial but working port to Wayland. Mate desktop: Wayland support is on Mate’s roadmap. The targeted Mate version is 1. 10. Raspberry Pi: The Raspberry Pi Foundation are working in collaboration with Collabora to improve performance and memory consumption, but do not expect to be able to replace X 11 as the default display server until later in 2013. Intelligent Input Bus is working on Wayland support, it could be ready for Fedora 22

Mir is a computer display server for Linux in development by Canonical Ltd. It Mir is a computer display server for Linux in development by Canonical Ltd. It is planned to replace the currently used X Window System for Ubuntu. Mir, like Wayland, is built on EGL and uses some of the infrastructure originally developed for Wayland such as Mesa’s EGL implementation and Jolla’s libhybris. The compatibility layer for X, XMir, is based on XWayland.

Mir: Adoption As of May 2014 the only announced desktop environment with native support Mir: Adoption As of May 2014 the only announced desktop environment with native support for Mir is Canonical's Unity 8. No other Linux distribution has announced plans to adopt Mir as default display manager. On 23 July 2013, Compiz developer Sam Spilsbury announced a proof-of-concept port of XBMC to Mir, based on the previous proof-of-concept port of XBMC to Wayland. On the same day Canonical developer Oliver Ries confirmed that "this is the first native Mir client out in the wild". Among Ubuntu derivatives using a non-Unity environment, Xubuntu developers announced in early August 2013 that they would evaluate running Xfce via XMir, but three weeks later decided to refrain from adopting it. Ubuntu: w In June 2013 Canonical's publicly announced milestones for Mir development were to ship Unity 7 with XMir by default and a pure X 11 fallback mode with Ubuntu 13. 10, remove the X 11 fallback with Ubuntu 14. 04 LTS, and Unity 8 running natively on Mir by Ubuntu 14. 10. w Later, on 1 October 2013, Canonical announced a postponement of their Mir plans for desktop use and not use XMir as default in Ubuntu 13. 10. Ubuntu Touch, however is targeted to ship with Mir and a smartphone version of Unity 8. w In March 2014 Mark Shuttleworth confirmed that Mir development had been delayed and that it was now forecast to be default for desktop use in Ubuntu 16. 04 LTS, expected to be released in April 2016.

ROOT GUI w X 11 Will (sooner or later) disappear, and a compatibility layer ROOT GUI w X 11 Will (sooner or later) disappear, and a compatibility layer will probably stay for a while, but be prepared for the change w Adding another incarnation of TVirtual. X to support yet another backend could be a solution, but using which architecture/technology? w A complete rewrite of the GUI, without having a “X 11 like” approach would be nice, but the cross-platform layer is still an issue: implementing the platformdependent layers would be a killer w Possible solution: Use existing GUI toolkit

GUI Toolkits § Many cross-platform C++ GUI toolkits already exist: • • Qt GTK+ GUI Toolkits § Many cross-platform C++ GUI toolkits already exist: • • Qt GTK+ FLTK Fox (based on Xclass 95, like ROOT) Tn. FOX wx. Widgets (Wx. Windows license) CEGUI (MIT license) Juce (GPL, commercial)