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University of Zagreb Balkan Dimension of Researchers Mobility Dr. Neven Duić, Assist. Prof. University University of Zagreb Balkan Dimension of Researchers Mobility Dr. Neven Duić, Assist. Prof. University of Zagreb 1 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Contents • Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Stemming the brain drain while Contents • Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Stemming the brain drain while enabling mobility • Obstacles to incoming mobility • Issue of intraregional mobility • Intersectorial mobility – academia and industry • Interprofessional mobility and multidisciplinarity 2 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans U Zagreb Serbia U Osijek U Rijeka U Novi Sad U Banja Western Balkans U Zagreb Serbia U Osijek U Rijeka U Novi Sad U Banja Luka U Bihac Croatia U Zadar U Sarajevo U E. Sarajevo U Split Bosnia and Herzegovina U Tuzla U Belgrade U A Belgrade U Kragujevac U Mostar U Dz. B. Mostar Dz. B. U Nis U Dubrovnik U Montenegro U Tirana Albania 3 of 25 Kosovo U Skppje UNMIK U Prishtina U Tetovo U SEE Tetovo U Bitola f. YRo Macedonia Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Typical path of researcher before 1990 19 Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Typical path of researcher before 1990 19 26 27 29 37 45 – studying 4 -5 years undergraduate programme in 6 -8 years – military service – two years in industry for technical sciences – assistant at the institution of graduation – studying 1 -2 years Master programme plus MSc thesis in 6 -8 years while doing teaching, research and projects – further 6 -8 years of teaching, research and projects in order to obtain Ph. D – researcher becomes independent researcher 4 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Research before 1990 – inbreeding – from Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Research before 1990 – inbreeding – from cradle to grave – only short term mobility allowed – once out forever out – very slow change – after cut-off age of 30 – generally unemployable – research was more necessary nuisance than necessity – the only way to open new areas was to increase number – increasing the curricula – further slowing down the system 5 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – open Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – open acceptance but hidden resistance to change – all 5 WB ratified Lisbon convention and entered Bologna process – two-cycle degree system • Croatia, Kosovo/UNMIK, f. YRo Macedonia, Montenegro, – experimentation and implementation • Bosnia & Herzegovina – preparation and experimentation • Albania, Serbia – preparation 6 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – University Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – University integration • Montenegro, Kosovo/UNMIK – implementation of fully integrated University • Croatia – implementation of half-baked integrated University • Bosnia & Herzegovina – preparation – fully integrated University • Albania, f. YRo Macedonia, Serbia – preparation 7 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – ECTS Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – ECTS • ECTS implemented or under implementation in Croatia, Kosovo/UNMIK, f. YRo Macedonia, Montenegro – implementation of fully integrated University • Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia – in preparation 8 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – ECTS Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • Bologna process in Western Balkans – ECTS and student mobility • intra-University curricular mobility difficult due to rigid programs – possible but discouraged due to wide in house curricular offer • inter-University (national, regional and international) mobility practically impossible due rigid programs but also due to lack of finance vehicles (Erasmus, etc. ) 9 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • National RTD – Small projects paid to Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • National RTD – Small projects paid to all “independent” researchers • wide priorities • 85% proposals accepted, less on merits and more on status (Croatia) • national review – to small pool of researcher for independent review • not very efficient way of using tax payers funds 10 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • International cooperation – DG RTD – FP Western Balkans in EHEA and ERA • International cooperation – DG RTD – FP 6 • INCO WBC – dedicated for Western Balkans • most of programmes open to WBC • Marie Curie – DG Education • Tempus – DG ENV • LIFE TCY 11 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Stemming the brain drain while enabling mobility • Increased mobility should try to avoid Stemming the brain drain while enabling mobility • Increased mobility should try to avoid draining future members of their talents completely – reintegration – mobility as part of international cooperation – increasing research opportunities in Western Balkans – reintegration plus – returning researcher brings funds to his institution (outsourcing parts of research) – avoiding making one off choices 12 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Obstacles to incoming mobility • Visas and work permits – though visas not necessary Obstacles to incoming mobility • Visas and work permits – though visas not necessary for short visits of EU researchers (up to 3 months) if any payment is involved, work permit is necessary – Visa policy under joint jurisdiction of Ministry of foreign affairs and Ministry of internal affairs • giving priority to security issues • not distinguishing between researchers and economic migrants 13 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Obstacles to incoming mobility • Very low limit to untaxed student fellowships – in Obstacles to incoming mobility • Very low limit to untaxed student fellowships – in Croatia 1000 HRK per month (150 EUR) • High taxes – the total cost is approximately double than the fellowship • High overheads institution take also on funds for fellowships 14 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Obstacles to incoming mobility • No social and health security system foreign researchers developed Obstacles to incoming mobility • No social and health security system foreign researchers developed – undergraduate students may use health security system dedicated to students • Language barriers – obligatory usage of local languages, especially for thesis, all the documents, diplomas, etc. – even when lectures are in foreign language • Accommodation and housing – weak formal rental market – language barriers – price barriers 15 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Issue of intraregional mobility • Research in the region of Western Balkans is too Issue of intraregional mobility • Research in the region of Western Balkans is too similarly structured and too much in need of reform • The need to integrate WB research into ERA, not to reintegrate WB research on wrong model • Certain level of regional mobility for political reasons 16 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Intersectorial mobility – academia and industry • Economy is low added value – little Intersectorial mobility – academia and industry • Economy is low added value – little knowledge based economy in WB – FDI is the most significant issue • FDI into R&D – outsourcing R&D to WB • general FDI with R&D component – Local companies • prefer to cry for protection than to invest in R&D • negative attitude towards “science” • Large potential – Well educated workforce – Reasonably priced graduates 17 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Interprofessional mobility and multidisciplinarity • Rigid curricular system • Forced loyalty to cradle to Interprofessional mobility and multidisciplinarity • Rigid curricular system • Forced loyalty to cradle to grave system of research • Nonintegrated Universities 18 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Case Croatia: Information portals • Croatian Information Documentation Referral Agency – HIDRA is a Case Croatia: Information portals • Croatian Information Documentation Referral Agency – HIDRA is a professional service of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, established to perform information, documentation and referral work. (in English): http: //www. hidra. hr/hidrae/hidra. htm • Directory of State Institutions of the Republic of Croatia (in English): http: //www. hidra. hr/rhe/INSTA. htm • Ministry of science, education and sports (Croatian&English): http: //www. mzos. hr/ • Ministry of science, education and sports database of scientific and high educational institutions (in Croatian) http: //www. mzos. hr/ustanove/pregled. aspx? offset=0 19 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Case Croatia: Information portals • Ministry of science, education and sports web pages about Case Croatia: Information portals • Ministry of science, education and sports web pages about international cooperation with EU (in Croatian): http: //www. mzos. hr/default. asp? ru=213&jezik=1 • Ministry of science, education and sports web pages about bilateral cooperation (in Croatian): http: //www. mzos. hr/default. asp? ru=202&akcija= • Ministry of science, education and sports web pages about multilateral cooperation (in Croatian): http: //www. mzos. hr/default. asp? ru=203&akcija= • Croatian open government database of institution links (in Croatian): http: //www. vlada. hr/otvorena/ • Croatian research bibliography: http: //bib. irb. hr/index. html? lang=EN • List of all research projects and their bibliography and coordinators (in Croatian): http: //bib. irb. hr/lista-svihprojekata? &chset=ASCII&lang=EN 20 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Case Croatia: Higher Education In Croatia there are 85 public institutions of higher education Case Croatia: Higher Education In Croatia there are 85 public institutions of higher education – In Zagreb there are 41 institutions of higher education (28 faculties, 3 academies, Polytechnic in Zagreb with 7 departments, Polytechnic in Karlovac, teacher education academy, etc. ) – In Split there are 16 institutions of higher education (University of Split with 9 faculties, 1 academy, College of Maritime Studies, etc. ) – In Rijeka there are 14 institutions of higher education (University of Rijeka with 10 faculties, 3 primary school teacher training colleges, Polytechnic in Rijeka with 6 departments) – In Osijek there are 12 institutions of higher education (University of Osijek with 9 faculties, Polytechnic in Pozega with 3 departments) – University of Zadar with 15 university departments – University of Dubrovnik – 14 accredited private schools of professional higher education 21 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Case Croatia: University of Zagreb International Student Guide 2004/2005 http: //www-old. unizg. hr/guide/ • Case Croatia: University of Zagreb International Student Guide 2004/2005 http: //www-old. unizg. hr/guide/ • Organisational units of the University of Zagreb and other supporting institutions • Types of programmes offered (tuition fees, European credit transfer system-ECTS, first-year enrolment, application procedure foreign students, application procedure for exchange students, language at the University of Zagreb) • Programmes offered at the University of Zagreb • Useful information (international relations office, visas and residence permits, health insurance, housing, student residence halls, hostels in Zagreb, student identity card, subsidised meals, academic calendar, national holidays, employment) 22 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Case Croatia: International Postgraduate Study • Graduate School of Economics and Business MBA International Case Croatia: International Postgraduate Study • Graduate School of Economics and Business MBA International tourism in national economy • Faculty of Economics in Rijeka & Faculty of Economics in Ljubljana M. Sc. in Economics - Scientific Degree in International Economics • Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing in Zagreb Most of postgraduate programmes are also offered in English • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in Zagreb International MSc Programme Sustainable Energy Engineering 23 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Case Croatia: Other useful links NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR THE INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF Case Croatia: Other useful links NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR THE INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION – 2004 http: //www. mei. hr/Download/2004/04/09/NPPEU-ENG-2004 -master. pdf – On free movement of persons, chapter 3. 2, pgs 149 -154 – On science and research, chapter 3. 17, pgs 329 -331 – On education and training, chapter 3. 18, pgs 332 -349 Implementation plan for SAP (in Croatian): http: //www. mei. hr/Download/2003/05/29/PPSSP_azurirani_(27 -05 -03). pdf National research strategy (in Croatian): http: //www. hrvatska 21. hr/znanost%2030_6_2003. pdf (Improve mobility of high educated young people, especially in relation academia-industry) 24 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19

Balkan Dimension of Researchers Mobility Thank you for your attention! neven. duic@fsb. hr 25 Balkan Dimension of Researchers Mobility Thank you for your attention! neven. [email protected] hr 25 of 25 Knowledge Based Society and Researchers Mobility in the Age of Globalization – Thessalonica, Oct 18 -19