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UNITING THE NATION’S ELECTRIC POWER GRID THE TRES AMIGAS SUPERSTATION IIEA - Dublin October UNITING THE NATION’S ELECTRIC POWER GRID THE TRES AMIGAS SUPERSTATION IIEA - Dublin October 8, 2010

20 th Century Electric Transmission Grid Utility Controlled 1 20 th Century Electric Transmission Grid Utility Controlled 1

21 st Century Electric Transmission Grid Customer Desires & Configurations 2 21 st Century Electric Transmission Grid Customer Desires & Configurations 2

LARGE INTERCONNECTED AC TRANSMISSON SYSTEMS 3 LARGE INTERCONNECTED AC TRANSMISSON SYSTEMS 3

Common Interconnected AC System Problems Diminishing Returns with large interconnected AC Systems Long Distance Common Interconnected AC System Problems Diminishing Returns with large interconnected AC Systems Long Distance Transmission • Line losses Interconnections • Steady state • Uncontrolled Load flow problems and bottlenecks – Congestion Issues – Inter Area loop flow – Cascading Blackouts • Transient Stability • Oscillation Stability • Subsynchronous Oscillations • Frequency control • Latency issues (ie Spinning Reserves) • Voltage Stability • Inductive and Capacitive limitation factors • Physical interactions between power systems • System Voltage Stability/Levels • Reactive Power Loading 4

Common Interconnected AC System Problems High Cost of Interconnections – Reliability Costs: NERC, Relaying Common Interconnected AC System Problems High Cost of Interconnections – Reliability Costs: NERC, Relaying – N-1 criteria often creates underutilization of transmission lines – Complex coordinating arrangements (RTOs, IA, JOAs, etc. ) – Need for sophisticated and costly system impact studies – Participation agreement complications with multiple impacted entities – Regional/Subregional perturbations/phenomena difficult and costly to analyze and manage – Deterministic planning practices do not capture the true economic value of transmission additions/upgrades

Next Step – The Evolution to Fast Acting HVDC • The only way to Next Step – The Evolution to Fast Acting HVDC • The only way to interconnect large AC power grids with different phases is via HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) facilities – – AC/DC/AC Stations Hybrid Transmission systems (AC/DC…DC/AC) Multipoint nodes Long distance DC Transmission lines • HVDC has the ability to control the direction and magnitude of the power flow at each node of a multipoint configuration thereby facilitating the precise needs of the interconnection points without adverse impacts to the interconnecting grid • HVDC has the flexibility not only to adapt to grids with different AC system real time characteristics but to also facilitate optional ancillary services to each interconnection node

From USDOE Office of Electric Delivery and Energy Reliability “PRESENTLY, ONLY 30% OF ALL From USDOE Office of Electric Delivery and Energy Reliability “PRESENTLY, ONLY 30% OF ALL POWER GENERATED USES POWER ELECTRONICS SOMEWHERE BETWEEN THE POINT OF GENERATION AND END USE. BY 2030, 80%OF ALL ELECTRIC POWER WILL FLOW THROUGH POWER ELECTRONICS. ” Power electronics moves beyond devices that simply provide increased awareness, such as Phasor measurement systems. These devices will respond to, interface with and control real time power flows. 7

Benefits of Power electronics • Increased power system reliability and security • Increased efficiency Benefits of Power electronics • Increased power system reliability and security • Increased efficiency and loading of existing transmission and distribution infrastructure • Huge gains in real time power flow control • Improved voltage and frequency regulation • Improved power system transient and dynamic stability • More flexibility in siting transmission and generation facilities • The distinction between consumer devices and utility devices will largely be eliminated electrically

21 st century smart grid technologies compared with those in use today. Source: IBM 21 st century smart grid technologies compared with those in use today. Source: IBM Institute for Business Value 9

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Data to Information 11 Data to Information 11

China: Current HVDC National Grid Plan 12 China: Current HVDC National Grid Plan 12

Europe: Extended Grid Plan • From Iceland (Northwest) to Israel (Southeast) = 3, 200 Europe: Extended Grid Plan • From Iceland (Northwest) to Israel (Southeast) = 3, 200 mi • Concept of grid is 25, 000 miles of line Solar Power Wind Power Geothermal Hydro Biomass Connections already in place or planned Vision of ABB and DLR The new high-voltage network would range from the Sahara to the polar cap. The concept calls for main lines that are 40, 000 kilometers long. And parts of it already exist. 13

U. S. : National Grid Concept • Concept of DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory U. S. : National Grid Concept • Concept of DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory and American Electric Power Company • D. C and 765 KV AC lines 14

Hierarchical View of the Issues facing the European Transmission System Operators (TSOs) Single European Hierarchical View of the Issues facing the European Transmission System Operators (TSOs) Single European Electricity Market • Pan-European Transmission Grid • Load-Generation Balance • Congestion management • Ancillary services • Settlement • Balancing Mechanisms • Variable Renewable energy Generation • Storage • Demand Side Management Source: ENTSO-E: The pathway towards common European network operation 15

The Location Tres Amigas Is Ideally Situated in Eastern New Mexico Near the Borders The Location Tres Amigas Is Ideally Situated in Eastern New Mexico Near the Borders of CO, OK and TX Serving as a Three-Way Interconnection of WECC, Eastern and ERCOT 16

The Location: Regional Renewable Resource Potential Significant Regional Wind & Solar Capacity Factors in The Location: Regional Renewable Resource Potential Significant Regional Wind & Solar Capacity Factors in Excess of 35% Source: NREL 17

The Tres Amigas Super. Station The Tres Amigas Super. Station

Tres Amigas Super. Station…. Uniting the Electric Gri 19 Tres Amigas Super. Station…. Uniting the Electric Gri 19