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United States Citizenship and Economics Debra Spielmaker Utah Agriculture in the Classroom Utah State United States Citizenship and Economics Debra Spielmaker Utah Agriculture in the Classroom Utah State University www. agclassroom. org/ut

United States Citizenship and Economics Standard 5 & 6 • Students will understand basic United States Citizenship and Economics Standard 5 & 6 • Students will understand basic • economic principles and how they influence everyday life. Students will understand the relationship between the United States and the international system.

United States Citizenship and Economics • Why is the U. S • • Government United States Citizenship and Economics • Why is the U. S • • Government so involved with the agricultural industry? How important are agricultural exports and imports? If China can afford to buy more, and we have surpluses, why don’t we sell more to them?

How are you connected to agriculture? • • Food Clothing Shelter More…agriculture effects your How are you connected to agriculture? • • Food Clothing Shelter More…agriculture effects your quality of life!

An Acre is About the Size of a… Football Field An Acre is About the Size of a… Football Field

What does an acre of land produce? • • 819 pounds of Cotton 2, What does an acre of land produce? • • 819 pounds of Cotton 2, 340 pounds of Wheat 11, 400 pounds of Sweet Corn 39, 000 pounds of Potatoes 26, 000 pounds of Oranges 35, 000 pounds of Lettuce 44, 500 pounds of Strawberries

Who pays the least for food? Of the 10 percent of disposable income Americans Who pays the least for food? Of the 10 percent of disposable income Americans spend on food, an average of 5. 8 percent is spent on food eaten at home and 4. 1 percent is spent on food eaten away from home.

What’s on America’s dinner table? Fresh Fruits 127. 1 pounds Flour & Cereal Products What’s on America’s dinner table? Fresh Fruits 127. 1 pounds Flour & Cereal Products 191. 5 pounds Milk Eggs 21 gallons 252 Red Meats 118. 4 pounds Fats & Oils 89. 4 pounds Rice 20. 7 pounds Poultry 84. 5 pounds Cheese 31. 25 pounds

How many days do we work to pay for food? Recreation, Clothing & Accessories How many days do we work to pay for food? Recreation, Clothing & Accessories

Number of people fed annually by one farmer “Achilles heel of current green revolution Number of people fed annually by one farmer “Achilles heel of current green revolution methods: dependence on fossil fuels” Michael Pollan

98% of American farms are still family farms! Non-family corporations 2% Individual or familyowned 98% of American farms are still family farms! Non-family corporations 2% Individual or familyowned farms, family partnerships or familyowned corporations 98%

86% of U. S. farm products sold are from family farms! Non-family corporations 14% 86% of U. S. farm products sold are from family farms! Non-family corporations 14% Individual or family-owned farms, family partnerships or family-owned corporations 86%

How many farms and farmers? How many farms and farmers?

Are farmers reducing cropland erosion? 4. 0 3. 6 3. 1 2. 8 1982 Are farmers reducing cropland erosion? 4. 0 3. 6 3. 1 2. 8 1982 1987 1992 1997 2. 7 2002 2. 6 Today

What is USDA’s budget? Food Safety and Marketing & Inspection $2. 5 Food And What is USDA’s budget? Food Safety and Marketing & Inspection $2. 5 Food And Nutrition Programs $51. 4 Conservation Programs $5. 1 Research, Education & Economics $2. 6 Risk Management $4. 0 Forest Service $5. 4 Foreign Ag Service $2. 4 (in billions) Rural Development $3. 0 Farm Programs $12. 4 In 2007: $88. 8 billion

Fiscal Year 2008 Fiscal Year 2008

The Federal Budget 1960 - $92 billion 1970 - $196 billion 1980 - $591 The Federal Budget 1960 - $92 billion 1970 - $196 billion 1980 - $591 billion 1990 - $1, 253 billion 2000 - $1, 789 billion Today - $2, 900 billion (2. 9 trillion)

What is a billion? If you had 1 million dollars and had to spend What is a billion? If you had 1 million dollars and had to spend $1, 000 dollars every day, your money would run out in 1000 days. If you had 1 billion dollars and had to spend $1, 000 every day, your money would run out for 2, 740 years.

Where does your food dollar go? 3. 5¢ Depreciation 4¢ Advertising 4. 5¢ Rent Where does your food dollar go? 3. 5¢ Depreciation 4¢ Advertising 4. 5¢ Rent 4. 5¢ Profits 2. 5¢ Interest 3. 5¢ Energy 1. 5¢ Repairs 4¢ Transportation 3. 5¢ Business Taxes 8¢ Packaging 3¢ Other Costs 38. 5¢ Off Farm Labor

What are the farmer’s expenses? Off-Farm 81¢ What are the farmer’s expenses? Off-Farm 81¢

Who imports U. S. farm products? Who imports U. S. farm products?

What is the U. S. share of world production? What is the U. S. share of world production?

What do we trade on the world market? U. S. Ag Exports = $69 What do we trade on the world market? U. S. Ag Exports = $69 billion

What do we trade on the world market? U. S. Ag Imports = $64 What do we trade on the world market? U. S. Ag Imports = $64 billion

Global Grocery Bags • Supply and Demand • Needs vs. Wants • What’s fair…is Global Grocery Bags • Supply and Demand • Needs vs. Wants • What’s fair…is it always equal? – Good Additional Resources • National Geographic – Earth • • Pulse http: //www. nationalgeographic. com/earthpulse/ PBS Biotechnology – Science and Economics: Should We Grow GM Crops? http: //www. pbs. org/wgbh/harvest/ Grain Embargo of 1980 http: //www. time. com/time/magazine/0, 9263, 7601 800121, 00. html

National Geographic • Growing Fuel (October • • 2007) Where Food Begins (September 2008) National Geographic • Growing Fuel (October • • 2007) Where Food Begins (September 2008) The End of Plenty (June 2009) – http: //ngm. nationalgeographic. com/2009/06/cheapfood/bourne-text/1

The polarizing of agricultural issues: On one side you have apathy (food is abundant, The polarizing of agricultural issues: On one side you have apathy (food is abundant, safe, and cheap so why care? ). On the other side, conventional/industrial agricultural practices are being called into question through best sellers like, “Animal, Vegetable, Mineral” “Omnivores Dilemma” and in “Defense of Food. ” People who aren’t apathetic are VERY concerned about our environment and would like to see more sustainable agriculture that closes the loop of energy on the farm and reduces or minimizes petroleum based inputs. Oh, and people don’t like to change, see starving people, and economies destroyed…

So what’s the solution? Sound science, not just production science but environmental science, and So what’s the solution? Sound science, not just production science but environmental science, and then educate people. Changes? Economic Change?

United States Citizenship and Economics Standard 5 & 6 • Students will understand basic United States Citizenship and Economics Standard 5 & 6 • Students will understand basic • economic principles and how they influence everyday life. Students will understand the relationship between the United States and the international system.

United States Citizenship and Economics • Why is the U. S • • Government United States Citizenship and Economics • Why is the U. S • • Government so involved with the agricultural industry? How important are agricultural exports and imports? If China can afford to buy more, and we have surpluses, why don’t we sell more to them?