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UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1540 (2004) The Implementation Challenge Committee on Hemispheric Security Organization of American States 20 March 2014 Terence Taylor Coordinator GROUP OF EXPERTS SUPPORTING THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL 1540 COMMITTEE
Results of Proliferation of WMD to non-State actors Model of what a nuclear suitcase bomb might look like Tokyo Subway Sarin Gas Attack in March 1995 2001 Anthrax Attacks
UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1540 (2004) • Unanimously adopted on 28 April 2004 under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, and reaffirmed by four follow-up resolutions (1673 (2006), 1810 (2008), 1977 (2011) and 2055 (2012)). • Proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery, constitutes a threat to international peace and security. • Legally binding instrument countering the threat posed by non-state actors, including terrorists, of acquiring such weapons or related materials. • Complements relevant multilateral treaties and arrangements.
UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1540 (2004) • Basic obligations – Refrain from providing any form of support to non-state actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, posses, transport, transfer or use WMD & their means of delivery – Adopt and enforce appropriate and effective laws that prohibit any non-state actor engaging in such activities, including acting as an accomplice, or to assist or to finance • – Establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of these weapons, i. e. controls over related materials, measures in the areas of accounting / securing, physical protection, border and law enforcement, export and trade-related controls. The resolution specifies the obligations – that is what States have to do, but not how to do it
Resolution 1977 (2011) Extension of the Mandate of the 1540 Committee to 2021
WHAT IS THE 1540 COMMITTEE? • Subsidiary body of the Security Council, composed of the fifteen current members of the Council, assisted in its work by a group of nine experts; • Current Chair: Ambassador Oh Joon, Republic of Korea; Not a Sanctions Committee. Does not investigate or prosecute alleged violations of non-proliferation obligations; Mandate and scope of activities of the 1540 Committee are derived from UNSCR 1540 and its follow-up resolutions; • • • Four Committee Working Groups, covering the four key areas of work: (I) Monitoring and National Implementation; (II) Assistance; (III) Cooperation with International Organisations; (IV) Transparency and Media Outreach.
Key 1540 Committee Documents • Programme of Work (endorsed by the Security Council) • Annual Review (latest 2013 N. B. Future Steps)
1540 IMPLEMENTATION National Report Sharing of experiences Dialogue with States The 1540 Matrix National Action Plan
UNSCR 1540 (2004) AND ASSISTANCE Assistance • The Security Council recognizes that some States may require assistance in implementing UNSCR 1540 (2004), and invites those in a position to do so to offer assistance; • The implementation of 1540 is a continuous and cooperative process: All States have something to learn from others, all States have something to offer to others; • The 1540 Committee‘s primary role is as a clearing house and a match maker to facilitate assistance by others for implementation of the resolution.
VOLUNTARY NATIONAL REPORTING • States are called upon to submit a report on the implementation of the resolution • States that have submitted such reports are encouraged to provide additional information, including, voluntarily, on effective practices • Continuous task • All but 22 UN Member States have submitted at least a first national report • Objective: universal reporting: 10 th anniversary in 2014
NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION ACTION PLANS • States are encouraged to prepare, on a voluntary basis, National Implementation Action Plans (NAP) mapping out their priorities and plans for implementing UNSCR 1540 • NAP has to fit national circumstances: scope, content and form vary • Valuable to enhance inter-agency coordination for, inter alia, gap analysis, prioritisation, identification of assistance needs • Relationship to Integrated National Nuclear Security Plan (INNSP) • Argentina, Canada and United States have submitted NAPs
VISITS TO STATES • The 1540 Committee actively engages with States, including through visits to States, at their invitation. • Planned by inviting State in coordination with the 1540 Committee: Visits can be used to discuss any matter related to the implementation of UNSCR 1540, such as national implementation efforts, assistance needs, first report / additional information, national action plans, effective practices etc. • Visits to Albania, Burkina Faso, Grenada, Madagascar, Niger, Republic of Congo, Republic of Korea, Trinidad and Tobago and U. S. A: more are in the pipeline.
Cooperation between States • Collaborative event organised by Spain and Mexico in Madrid in January 2014 Colombia, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago participated • Sub-Regional Events e. g. BWC event in Mexico in November 2013 organised with the support of the EU and UNODA • Antigua and Barbuda; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Haiti; Jamaica; Mexico, Panama; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Trinidad and Tobago • Example from another region – Peer Review with the support of UNODA in 2013 • Croatia and Poland
Cooperation with International Organisations (1) Within the United Nations • UN Office of Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) • UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) • Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) • Joint country visits to Guyana and Suriname • Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) • UNSCR 1267 (1999) Al Qaida/Taliban • Sanctions Committees • 1718 (2006) DPRK • 1737 (2006) Iran
Cooperation with International Organisations (2) • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), INTERPOL. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), World Customs Organisation (WCO), World Health Organisation (WHO) OPCW ORGANISATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS
Cooperation with International Organisations (3) Regional Organisations (Illustrative list only) – – – African Union (AU) ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Central American Integration System (SICA) Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) European Union (EU) Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Organisation of American States (OAS) Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
Transparency and Outreach • Academia • Outreach to Industry • Parliamentarians • Public events • Publications (1540 Compass) • Web Site (www. un. org/sc/1540)
CONTACT DETAILS Chair of the 1540 Committee Attention: Chair, 1540 Committee: H. E. Ambassador Oh, Joon, Permanent Representative of The Republic of Korea to the United Nations 730 Third Avenue, TB-08040 E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017 Fax: +1 (212) 963 -1300, Email: sc-1540 [email protected] org 1540 Committee Group of Experts 300 East, 42 nd Street, Third Floor, New York, NY 10017 Fax: +1 (917) 367 9358, Email: 1540 [email protected] org Terence Taylor [email protected] org 1540 Committee Website: www. un. org/sc/1540