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UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries UNIDO’s Perspective UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries UNIDO’s Perspective Ouseph Padickakudi, Programme Manager, UNIDO

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION CURRENT TRADE SCENARIO World trade 1970 – 99 (trillion UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION CURRENT TRADE SCENARIO World trade 1970 – 99 (trillion US$ - constant 1995) 9. 0 world 8. 0 7. 0 high income 6. 0 5. 0 4. 0 3. 0 low & middle income 2. 0 1. 0 0. 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004 1995 2000

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION CURRENT TRADE SCENARIO World trade 1970 – 99 (trillion UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION CURRENT TRADE SCENARIO World trade 1970 – 99 (trillion US$ - constant 1995) 9. 0 world 8. 0 7. 0 high income 6. 0 5. 0 4. 0 3. 0 low & middle income 2. 0 1. 0 low income 0. 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004 1995 LDCs 2000

A CONCERTED INTER-AGENCY STRATEGY FACILITATES MARKET ACCESS SUPPLY ENT VELOPM DE & (Capacity s) A CONCERTED INTER-AGENCY STRATEGY FACILITATES MARKET ACCESS SUPPLY ENT VELOPM DE & (Capacity s) etitivenes Comp UNIDO Compete EXPORT PROMOT ION (& Market Opportun ities) IT C (AGOA + EBA) DS & TANDAR S ITY ONFORM C NT ASSESSM RE TRUCTU INFRAS S) (TBT, SP UNIDO Conform INVESTM ENT FACILITA TION FINANCIA L FLOWS UNCTAD UNIDO S CUSTOM S RE ROCEDU P ATION NSPORT TRA TION UMENTA DOC , IMO UNCTAD Connect INTERNA TIONAL AGREEM ENTS & RULES F OR TRAD E WTO

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION The UNIDO-WTO Framework Concept – The main programme modules UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION The UNIDO-WTO Framework Concept – The main programme modules Module II Prove Conformity with Technical Requirements Remove supply side constraints Introduce supporting legislation, policies and institutional reform Strengthen supply capacity /improve competitiveness Set up accreditation/ certification systems Module III Integrate into the multilateral trading system Support Strengthen compliance with capacity for implementation of international the WTO agreements and trade standards negotiations and regulations UNIDO Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004 WTO

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION WTO ACCESSION REQUIREMENTS Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION WTO ACCESSION REQUIREMENTS Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE • Non acceptance of test UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE • Non acceptance of test results by the national laboratories due to its non accreditation. • Costly re-testing or products in the laboratories of importing countries. • Non acceptance of certification mark of the exporting country. • Imposing special conditions for packaging and labeling Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE Lab Testing • Lack of UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE Lab Testing • Lack of awareness of IC ISO 17025 standards for quality management system in laboratories. • Inadequate facilities for calibration traceable to international standards. . • No proper institution for organizing proficiency testing of accredited laboratories. • Difficulty in obtaining certified reference materials. Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION MARKET COMPLIANCE- Standards, Metrology, Testing, Conformity Management Systems- Becoming UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION MARKET COMPLIANCE- Standards, Metrology, Testing, Conformity Management Systems- Becoming Standards • Quality Management System (ISO 9000) – ISO 9000 does not signify specific quality level – Can apply for company or opt for THIRD Party – Third party certification facilitate trade – Used as a advertising/marketing slogan • Environment Management System (ISO 14000) – Minimum compliance to environment laws and commitment to Continuous improvement – Important for global trade/ Environment protection Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION MARKET COMPLIANCE- Standards, Metrology, Testing, Conformity Management Systems- Becoming UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION MARKET COMPLIANCE- Standards, Metrology, Testing, Conformity Management Systems- Becoming Standards • Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point HACCP – A food safety standard – Becoming mandatory for USA (Also possibly EU) – New ISO 22000 Food Safety Management – Expected Mid 2005 • Social Accountability Standard SA 8000. – Avoid Child labour, exploitation – Union rights, Collective bargaining etc. (controversy) – ISO to develop a new SA standard _June 2004 • Occupational safety standards (OHAS) Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION MARKET COMPLIANCE- Standards, Metrology, Testing, Conformity Management Systems- Becoming UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION MARKET COMPLIANCE- Standards, Metrology, Testing, Conformity Management Systems- Becoming Standards • Traceability EU Directive EC 178/2002 – 2005 – All Edible products, despite of their origin, will have to be accompanied by detailed information on source, production system and processing procedures so as to make consumers, sanitary and inspection institutions able to follow back and forward the distribution stream of the product. – A new Challenge – UNIDO Egypt First project • Terrorism related Safety (Shipping) – Bio terrorism, Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO TCB Metrics Stage 1 Sectors (S) Products in UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO TCB Metrics Stage 1 Sectors (S) Products in respective sectors (P) Markets (M) Requirements (TBT/SPS) Conformity (TCCI) Lab Test 1…n Costs (C) C 1…n Total Conformity Cost Calibration 1…n S 1…n P 1…n M 1…n TBT/SPS 1…n Certification 1…n Inspection 1…n Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004 (TConf. C)

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO The case of shrimps exports SHRIMPS/The Netherlands Requirements: UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO The case of shrimps exports SHRIMPS/The Netherlands Requirements: Product specific: Maximum Residue levels (Aldrin, DDT, Chlordane, Endrin, HCH, HCB) Cadmium, lead, mercury levels Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB), Terphenyles (TCB) Pathogenic micro-organisms Irradiation of Food Packaging Requirements applicable in the Netherlands Market specific: (from consumers) HACCP, ISO 14000, ISO 9000, SA 8000 International label for fish from -Marine Stewardship Council Environmentally Sound Production (ESP) Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO TCB for Shrimp Exports to the Netherlands SECTOR UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO TCB for Shrimp Exports to the Netherlands SECTOR S PRODUCT MARKET P M REQUIREMENTS TBT/SPS Type of Test Cost Nr. of / Certificate per tests ($C) (Xn) Total cost of testing ($C*Xn) Additives and Flavorings in Food Chemical 25 20, 000 500, 000 Cadmium, lead and mercury Chemical 90 20, 000 1, 800, 000 Polychlorinated Biphenyles (PCBs) and Terphenyles (PCTs) Chemical 120 20, 000 2, 400, 000 Contaminants in Food Chemical 60 20, 000 1, 200, 000 Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) Chemical 120 20, 000 2, 400, 000 Packaging: Good Manufacturing Practice, Minimization of packaging ISO 14000 8, 000 50 2, 450, 000 Social market requirements SA 8000 3, 000 50 500, 000 Annual exports of shrimps: 100, 000 tonnes Quality related market requirements ISO 9000 4, 000 50 2, 050, 000 Consignment rate/year: 100, 000 Environmentally sound production HACCP (food) 4, 000 50 2, 050, 000 EU / The Netherlands Shrimps Fisheries Hypothetical Country X Consignment inspection rate : 20% per consignment Total annual cost for 50 companies to export 100 thousand tonnes of shrimps to The Netherlands in 100, 000 consignments. Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004 15, 350, 000

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT TCB for Shrimp Exports to the Netherlands ORGANIZATION COSTS FOR UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT TCB for Shrimp Exports to the Netherlands ORGANIZATION COSTS FOR SETTING-UP DOMESTIC TESTING FACILITIES Costs include only TA not local requirements, such as buildings, etc. Cost will be compared to costs of out-sourcing the tests and Accreditati Training calibration on Laborator y Seafood/Fish Expertise Chemical SECTOR (S): Equipmen t $550, 000 $ 60, 000 $20, 000 Microbiology $ 300, 000 $ 40, 000 $ 15, 000 Total cost micro-biological and chemical labs: $ 1, 085, 000 PRODUCT (P): Shrimps 100, 000 tons/year @ $ 4. 00/kg = $ 400 million Metrology Laborator y Mass Equipmen t Expertise Training Accreditati on $200, 000 $ 30, 000 $20, 000 Total Number of Exporting Enterprises: 50 Minimum Number of Test Samples: Dimension $ 250, 000 $ 20, 000 $ 15, 000 Temparatu re $ 70, 000 $15, 000 $ 10, 000 Pressure $ 90, 000 $ 15, 000 $ 10, 000 MARKET (M): The Netherlands MARKET REQUIREMENTS (TCCI): TESTING • Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) in fishery products • Cadmium, lead and mercury in food • Polychlorinated Biphenyles (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Terphenyles (PCTs) in fishery products • Pathogenic micro-organisms in food and drink products (Details, see attached) Total cost metrology/calibration labs: $ 1, 030, 000 Environmental conditioning of a laboratories @ $ 100, 000: $ 200, 000 Cost for standards services, ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 advisory capabilities: $ 300, 000 Cost for HACCP and SA 8000 advisory capabilities: $ 300, 000 Cost for calibration per enterprise @ $ 3, 000/annually: $ 150, 000 Cost for setting up required systems @ $ 50, 000/annually: $ 2, 500, 000 GRAND TOTAL TCB INVESTMENT: Total $ 5, 415, 000 GRAND TOTAL TCB INVESTMENT MAINTENANCE (10 %) : annual $ Challenges in Conformity Assessment for 542, 000 developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO Summary Findings from the Shrimps Case Import of UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION UNIDO Summary Findings from the Shrimps Case Import of 100, 000 Tonnes to Netherlands: • Annual Total Conformity Cost (TConf. C): $15 Mn • Conformity Cost: 3. 8% of total market value • Setting-up of Conformity Infrastructure: $ 5, 4 Mn • TConf. C can be reduced by xxx % • Maintaining of Conformity infrastructure: 0. 5 Mn Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION SAARC BACKGROUND • Significant economic growth in the Region UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION SAARC BACKGROUND • Significant economic growth in the Region – China, India, Bangladesh 6% to 8% per anum – Opportunity for mutually beneficial regional trade • January 2002 SAARC summit declaration – Draft SAARC free trade treaty by end 2002 • Recent Bi-lateral trade agreements – India with Nepal and Sri Lanka • Standards /testing related problems in Trade – Example Nepal-India Free trade agreement Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION India –Nepal- Bi lateral trade treaty • Signed 1996 UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION India –Nepal- Bi lateral trade treaty • Signed 1996 -Automatic extension • Benefits – Nepali exports to India grew 40% yoy in 1999/2000 – Nepal balancing 50% of imports from India through exports – Nepali exports to India declined 15% yoy 2000/2001 • India sought New Negotiations • Rules of Origin questioned • Nepal accused of importing from Thailand/Korea & re-exporting • India insisting on minimum local value addition • Nepal Accusing India • Imposing SPS (Plant Quarantine laws) • India requiring compliance to Indian standards • Indian State Government imposing taxes • New agreement 6 th March 2002 for 5 years with 4 new clauses – Minimum 25 % value addition – Tariff rate quotas imposed for (acrylic yarn, copper products, zinc oxide, vegetable fat) – Demonstrate product origin (“acceptable certificate of origin) – In case of “unusual surge in imports” India can take remedial measures Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED • ACCREDITATION – – – UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED • ACCREDITATION – – – Beneficial to rely on regional capacities ? Could NABL be the accreditor for the region? Politically acceptable? Should there be a SAARC accreditation Board? Sponsorship SAARC-UNIDO-PTB-EU • CALIBRATION - Traceability – – – Could NPL India be used (support from Pakistan, SRL) Politically acceptable? SAARC Calibration Service? SARC/PTB/ UNIDO • IMMEDIATE ACTION POSSIBLE – India NPL, Pakistan NPSL launch inter-comparison scheme – India NABL – Launch inter laboratory testing scheme Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION CONCLUSIONS • Tremendous SAFTA Trade Potential • Harmonisation of UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION CONCLUSIONS • Tremendous SAFTA Trade Potential • Harmonisation of standards- lessons from EU • Lessons from Bi-lateral agreements – Nepal- India, Sri Lanka- India • Need for Recognised Testing & Conformity – Recognised Calibration • NPL India, NPSL Pakistan, ITI Sri Lanka – Recognised Accreditation • India NABL • Sri Lanka accredited (SWEDAC path) • Pakistan PNAC Challenges in Conformity Assessment for developing countries, December 2004

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT THANK YOU Ouseph Padickakudi, Programme Manager, UNIDO E-mail: O. Padickakudi@unido. UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT THANK YOU Ouseph Padickakudi, Programme Manager, UNIDO E-mail: O. [email protected] org Web: www. unido. org ORGANIZATION