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Unit 8 (Chapter 10) Growth and Expansion
I. Inventors and their Inventions Cyrus Mc. Cormick n Mechanical Reaper -1831 Description: Machine used to cut down crops faster Effect: Fewer farmers and more crops n
Eli Whitney Cotton Gin -1794 (Interchangeable Parts) Description: Machine used to Separate seeds from cotton Effect: Cotton now more profitable because it could be processed faster. (Guns now mass produced) n
John Deere Steel Plow-1840 s Description: Plow made of steel n Effect: Could now plow land faster/easier. Lead to more people moving west and more land farmed.
Francis Cabot Lowell Power Loom-1810 s Description-Machine that can turn raw cotton into cloth Effect: Lowell, Mass. Developed into a factory town. Other factories followed and perfected textile industry. n
Samuel F. B. Morse Telegraph (Morse Code) 1830 s Description: Sent messages using “morse code” across the country. Effect: Communication sped up considerably. n
Robert Fulton Steamboat-1803 Description: Built the Claremont in 1807. Was the first steam powered boat. Effect: Revolutionized shipping and inaugurated the age of steam powered vessels. n
Elias Howe Sewing Machine 1846 Description: Machine that could produce 250 stitches a minute. Effect: Sped the production of clothing. Made clothes cheaper to buy. n
Peter Cooper 1 st Steam powered Locamotive-1830 Description: Steam powered train engine that could send goods across land faster. Effect: Lead to one of the greatest Revolutions in transportation in history. n
II. The Industrial Revolution The Growth of Industry In the early 1800 s, where did most people live and work? Ag remained leading economic activity, but industries in New England were developing. The way goods were made began to change because of inventions in what country? Great Britain In your own words, what is the definition of the Industrial Revolution?
Industrial Revolution in New England Revolution began in the US around 1800 Why New England? 1. Regions Geography 2. Farming was difficult in New England poor soil 3. Had rivers/streams to provide water power needed to run machines in new factories.
New Technology What was the spinning jenny? The water frame that spun thread Eli Whitney’s invention, the cotton gin, did what to cotton? Removed the seeds from the cotton fiber What are interchangeable parts? Identical machine parts that could be put together quickly to make a complete product.
Patents and Factories Patent. Gives the sole legal right to the inventor and its profits for a certain period of time. Name two men who began the textile industries. 1. Samuel Slater 2. Francis Cabot Lowell What are textiles?
Free Enterprise Define Capitalism. The economic system of the US Define Capital. Money invested in a business Define Free Enterprise People are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want
Agriculture Expands What crop rose steadily with the rise of the textile industry? Cotton Who did Southerners use to plant, grow and harvest cotton? Enslaved workers from Africa What invention led to this? Cotton Gin What direction were farmers moving? West
Economic Independence What did many shopkeepers, merchants, and farmers do with their money? Invest in new businesses Corporations Develop What is another name for large businesses? Corporations
Cities come of Age The growth of factories and trade led to the growth of? towns and cities What are three of the US’ oldest cities? 1. New York 2. Boston 3. Baltimore What three westward cities grew because they were located along rivers? 1. Pittsburgh 2. Cincinnati 3. Louisville Were cities sanitary? NO
Westward Expansion n The first ever census –count of the population- took place in 1790 (our country does a census every 10 years) Population= 4 million people (most people lived within a few miles of the Atlantic Coast) A Change Occurs= during the 1800’s thousands of settlers began heading west of the Appalachians.
Westward Expansion cont. By 1820 -the population was nearly 10 million- now nearly 2 million lived west of the Appalachians. n 1800= U. S. had 16 states n 1821= U. S. had 24 states (Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, Mississippi, Maine, Missouri, Louisiana, and Ohio) n
Roads, Turnpikes, and Canals Heading West n n n Private companies built turnpikes-toll roads The first nationally funded road west was called National Road. River travel was much easier and people could carry larger loads BUT 1. Most rivers flowed North/South and people wanted to go East to West. 2. Traveling upstream was very difficult
Roads, Turnpikes, and Canals Heading West Cont. n n n The invention of the steam engine helped with the upstream part buy man made canals would need to be built to go East and West. Canals- artificial waterway The Erie Canal was the first of many major canals to be built.
The Era of Good Feelings n n n Times were good (No War, Booming Economy, No Political Fighting) During Monroe’s presidency Although a good period in our history it was very short lived.
Sectionalism n n Regional differences brought an end to the Era of Good Feelings. Most Americans felt very loyal to the region they lived in – sectionalismloyalty to your own region of the country.
Sectionalism Cont. 1. 2. 3. Northerners-Manufacturing, Trading, Abolitionist movement. Southerners-farming cotton, maintaining their state rights to own slaves. Westerners-roads, conflicts with Native Americans, becoming free or slave states.
More Land!!! The U. S. is growing again Florida n General Andrew Jackson sent to Spanish owned Florida to stop Seminole raids on citizens in Georgia. n Currently Florida is owned by Spain but Jackson claims it for the US. n He wasn’t supposed to but the government did nothing to stop him. n Instead of war-U. S. and Spain signed a treaty. Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819 (AKA the Transcontinental Treaty)
The Missouri Compromise n n In 1820 sectional tension exploded in the U. S. The question was “Should new states added to the Union be slave or free? Two new states applied for statehood Missouri (wanted to be a slave state) and Maine wanted to be free.
Missouri Compromise Cont. n 1. 2. 3. 4. Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise Missouri became a slave state Maine became a free state Banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36 30 degree North Parallel 1821 there would be 24 states 12 free and 12 slave –balance even in the U. S. for now!
12/12 Split Slave States 1. Maryland Arkansas Ter. 2. Louisiana Florida Ter. 3. Mississippi 4. Alabama 5. Georgia 6. South Carolina 7. North Carolina 8. Tennessee 9. Kentucky 10. Virginia 11. Delaware 12. Missouri Free States 1. Illinois Michigan Ter. 2. Indiana 3. Ohio 4. Pennsylvania 5. New York 6. Vermont 7. New Hampshire 8. Massachusetts 9. Rhode Island 10. Connecticut 11. New Jersey 12. Maine
The Monroe Doctrine biggest statement as President Stated 1. There will be not new European colonization of America by European powers 2. The U. S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas The United States was starting to become a world power. n